|Publication number||US7154546 B1|
|Application number||US 09/922,507|
|Publication date||Dec 26, 2006|
|Filing date||Aug 3, 2001|
|Priority date||Aug 7, 2000|
|Also published as||US8266818, US20070052825|
|Publication number||09922507, 922507, US 7154546 B1, US 7154546B1, US-B1-7154546, US7154546 B1, US7154546B1|
|Original Assignee||Micron Technology, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (18), Classifications (7), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of the filing date of U.S. provisional application No. 60/223,396 filed Aug. 7, 2000, the content of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
The present invention relates generally to image sensors and in particular, to complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color image sensors.
Conventional imaging circuits typically use active pixel sensor cells to convert light energy into electrical signals. Each of the active pixel sensor cells generally includes a photoreceptor with several associated transistors that provide several pixel functions including signal formation, reset, and amplification. In a color imager, separate pixels are used for receiving each band of light, such as those corresponding to the primary colors, red, green, and blue. The responsivity of a pixel varies with the specific color of light that is being captured. For example, in a system employing red, green, and blue color pixels, having a uniform integration time for each pixel and a typical scene being imaged; the output signal of a pixel for an amount of light received will vary as a function of the responsivity of the pixel to the imaged color. Correspondingly, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the pixels will vary as a function of the responsivity to the imaged color. Typically, blue pixels are less responsive than red and green pixels, causing the S/N of the blue pixels to be less than the S/N of red and green pixels. In addition to differences in S/N, there are differences in saturation of the pixels. Specifically, when capturing an image with equal amounts of red, green, and blue light, the storage capacitance associated with the pixels having the greater sensitivity (the red and green pixels) will reach a maximum capacity of stored photoelectrons first, saturating the pixel.
Separate gain elements for corresponding spectral band channels can be used to equalize the output signals of the different color sensors to compensate for differences in responsivity. However, the gain elements increase the cost of the imager, require increased space, and have no effect on the differences in S/N for the different color pixels.
A macro pixel is provided. The macro pixel includes at least two color pixel elements. Each color pixel element includes a photoreceptor that in response to receiving light, generates an output signal that is indicative of the quantity of light photons received. A first of the color pixel elements is configured to receive a first color. The photoreceptor of the first of the color pixel elements has a first geometry and a responsivity to light that is a function of the first geometry of the photoreceptor such that the responsivity of the output signal of the photoreceptor to the first color is controllable by changing the first geometry. A second of the color pixel elements is configured to receive a second color. The photoreceptor of the second of the color pixel elements has a second geometry and a responsivity to light that is a function of the second geometry such that the responsivity of the output signal of the photoreceptor to the second color is controllable by changing the second geometry.
The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.
An embodiment of a color imaging system 10 in accordance with the teachings of the invention is shown in
The output signal of each color pixel is described by the following equation:
where n=1, 2, 3 . . . is the spectral band (e.g., 3 bands in the case of RGB), phin is the flux per unit area of each pixel, Tn is the transmission of each spectral band filter, An is the collection area of each pixel, etan is the quantum efficiency of each pixel, and Gn is the conversion gain of each pixel.
The invention may compensate for differences in responsivity between different color pixels (e.g. red versus green), to control the relative sensitivity of the signal outputs, Vn, to phin, while maintaining relatively equal pixel area for each color pixel. To compensate for differences in responsivity, the shape of the photoreceptor, e.g. the shape of the photodiode, for each type of color pixel, is adjusted. The photodiode shapes are selected so that the relative sensitivity of Vn to phin for the signal outputs is a predetermined ratio such as 1:1:1 for a CMOS RGB color image system.
Other photoreceptors such as n+ diffusion photodiodes, standard n-well photodiodes, and n-well photodiodes with a covering insulating field oxide as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,040,592, p+ diffusion photodiodes, p-well photodiodes, and p-well photodiodes with a covering insulating field oxide, photogates, and other devices may be used. The generation of photocurrent in both the diffusion and well type photodiodes is similar. In each, a depletion region is formed across and near the p-n junction formed by the substrate and the diffusion area/well. Incident photons pass through an open portion of the photodiode surface area and impinge on the depletion area, generating photoelectrons. The generated photoelectrons are accumulated on the capacitance formed by the depletion area of the photodiode. The photoelectrons are swept out as a photocurrent when a reverse voltage is applied across the p-n junction.
A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. It is expressly intended that the foregoing description and accompanying drawings are illustrative of preferred embodiments only, not limiting, and that the true spirit and scope of the present invention will be determined by reference to the appended claims and their legal equivalent. It will be equally apparent and is contemplated that various modifications and/or changes may be made in the illustrated embodiments without departure from the spirit and scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5119181 *||Apr 8, 1991||Jun 2, 1992||Xerox Corporation||Color array for use in fabricating full width arrays|
|US5949483 *||Jan 22, 1997||Sep 7, 1999||California Institute Of Technology||Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout|
|US6040592 *||Jun 12, 1997||Mar 21, 2000||Intel Corporation||Well to substrate photodiode for use in a CMOS sensor on a salicide process|
|US6137100 *||Jun 8, 1998||Oct 24, 2000||Photobit Corporation||CMOS image sensor with different pixel sizes for different colors|
|US6252218 *||Feb 2, 1999||Jun 26, 2001||Agilent Technologies, Inc||Amorphous silicon active pixel sensor with rectangular readout layer in a hexagonal grid layout|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7489352 *||Nov 15, 2002||Feb 10, 2009||Micron Technology, Inc.||Wide dynamic range pinned photodiode active pixel sensor (APS)|
|US7719591 *||Apr 17, 2007||May 18, 2010||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Solid-state imaging device|
|US7760253 *||Jul 20, 2010||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Imaging device analysis methods, imaging device analysis systems, and articles of manufacture|
|US7965444||Jun 21, 2011||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus to improve filter characteristics of optical filters|
|US8587849||Oct 27, 2005||Nov 19, 2013||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Imaging systems, imaging device analysis systems, imaging device analysis methods, and light beam emission methods|
|US8634014||Feb 8, 2005||Jan 21, 2014||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Imaging device analysis systems and imaging device analysis methods|
|US8705151||Apr 5, 2004||Apr 22, 2014||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Imaging device calibration methods, imaging device calibration instruments, imaging devices, and articles of manufacture|
|US8854707||Feb 8, 2005||Oct 7, 2014||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Imaging device analysis systems and imaging device analysis methods|
|US20040096124 *||Nov 15, 2002||May 20, 2004||Junichi Nakamura||Wide dynamic range pinned photodiode active pixel sensor (aps)|
|US20050219363 *||Feb 8, 2005||Oct 6, 2005||Kohler Timothy L||Imaging device analysis systems and imaging device analysis methods|
|US20050219364 *||Apr 5, 2004||Oct 6, 2005||Dicarlo Jeffrey M||Imaging device calibration methods, imaging device calibration instruments, imaging devices, and articles of manufacture|
|US20050219365 *||Feb 8, 2005||Oct 6, 2005||Dicarlo Jeffrey M||Imaging device analysis systems and imaging device analysis methods|
|US20060098096 *||Oct 27, 2005||May 11, 2006||Anurag Gupta||Imaging systems, imaging device analysis systems, imaging device analysis methods, and light beam emission methods|
|US20060175531 *||Feb 8, 2005||Aug 10, 2006||Dicarlo Jeffrey M||Imaging device analysis methods, imaging device analysis systems, and articles of manufacture|
|US20070247537 *||Apr 17, 2007||Oct 25, 2007||Junji Naruse||Solid-state imaging device|
|US20070285547 *||May 30, 2006||Dec 13, 2007||Milligan Edward S||CMOS image sensor array optimization for both bright and low light conditions|
|US20080121781 *||Aug 31, 2006||May 29, 2008||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus to improve filter characteristics of optical filters|
|US20090180015 *||Dec 31, 2008||Jul 16, 2009||Junichi Nakamura||Wide dynamic range pinned photodiode active pixel sensor (aps)|
|U.S. Classification||348/272, 348/E09.01, 348/273|
|Cooperative Classification||H04N2209/045, H04N9/045|
|Aug 3, 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PHOTOBIT CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CHO, KWANG-BO;REEL/FRAME:012060/0204
Effective date: 20010803
|Mar 29, 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICRON TECHNOLOGY, INC., IDAHO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PHOTOBIT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:012745/0385
Effective date: 20011121
Owner name: MICRON TECHNOLOGY, INC., IDAHO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PHOTOBIT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:014007/0590
Effective date: 20011121
|May 27, 2010||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 28, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|May 12, 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, AS COLLATERAL AGEN
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICRON TECHNOLOGY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:038669/0001
Effective date: 20160426
|Jun 2, 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC., AS COLLATERAL
Free format text: PATENT SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:MICRON TECHNOLOGY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:038954/0001
Effective date: 20160426