US 7162069 B2
The invention relates to the objectification of surface test methods through image processing. Information z(x, y) is measured and recorded for each image point (x, y) of the measuring field of an examined specimen surface, and resultant magnitudes are calculated therefrom. An objective correlation of these resultant magnitudes occurs with a scale of so far subjectively measured quality characteristic numbers of a characteristic of the examined specimen. A method for an objective evaluation of a bending edge of metal bands and for a wear test on metal bands is described in detail.
1. A method for an objective evaluation of a flexible bending edge of metal bands made of Cu or Cu alloys, in which the three-dimensional topography of the bending edge is measured by strip-projection methods, and a height information h(x,y) is thereby measured for each image point (x,y) of a measuring field, and calculated as resultant magnitudes from the height information of average roughness values, wherein for calculating individual roughness values, a mathematically described specimen form is subtracted from the height information h(x,y), wherein a classification of the bending edge is carried out with the resultant magnitudes.
2. The method according to
3. The method according to
4. A method for objective evaluation of a flexible bending edge of a metal band by processing image data from an optical image-detecting unit with a digital evaluating unit including software algorithms, comprising the steps of:
measuring a three-dimensional topography of a surface of the bending edge, including measuring height information h(x,y) for each image point (x,y) of a measured field;
mathematically describing a specimen form created during bending as a polynomial surface;
calculating average roughness values Rx, Ry along the bending edge and across the bending edge by using the height information h(x,y);
calculating a resultant magnitude from the average roughness values Rx, Ry; and
classifying the bending edge based on the resultant magnitude.
5. The method of
calculating a measuring field width from a band radius r and specimen thickness s; and
displaying test results on an image screen of a controller.
6. The method of
The invention relates to the application of a method for the image processing for the objective evaluation of characteristics of an examined specimen surface.
When examining the surface of metal bands, in particular metal bands consisting of Cu or Cu-alloys, it is often the case that indeed directives exist for the manufacture of the specimens to be examined, however, the result of the test is determined through a subjective comparison by the observer with a preset standard series so that the result of the test depends among others on the skill and the experience of the tester.
This is, for example, the case when evaluating the bending edge of metal bands.
Specimens for the bend test are manufactured corresponding to EN 7438:2000 using suitable bending punches and matrixes. The bend specimens are characterized by thickness s, width b, bend radius r, bend angle and bend direction relative to the rolling direction (see
The ASTM Designation B 820-98 discloses directives for carrying out the testing. The bend samples are at present examined under the stereomicroscope (enlargement usually 10 times). A division into six classes takes place:
The occurrence of incipient cracks in the bending edge counts as error criterion.
The results are documented by indicating the bend radius at which a crack does not quite yet occur, together with the bend angle and bend direction. Since this method is not quantitative, the exactness of this test method with regard to the bending ability of the examined material cannot be indicated. The result of the method depends furthermore on the tester.
Starting out from this special case, the basic purpose of the invention is therefore to provide a quantitative method, independent of the tester carrying out the test, for evaluating the specimen surface, which method in addition also operates essentially automatically and logs and documents the results.
The purpose is attained according to the invention by a method of image processing.
According to a particular embodiment of the invention, a method of strip projection, which determines the three-dimensional surface topography, is applied to the test surface for an objective evaluation of the bending edge of metal bands.
Several known picture half-tone patterns (strips) are in the mentioned method pictured on an unknown surface topography and are photographed by a camera. The device calculates from the pictures of the strip images with known algorithms for each image point (x, y) the height information h(x, y). From this it is possible to calculate, analogous to the contact stylus method, optically detected surface roughness values. This method as such is indeed known (compare, for example, DE-OS 4 217 768), however, a transition to the evaluation of the bending edge has up to now not been done.
A further preferred embodiment of the invention is the application of the half-tone picture processing to an objective working of the wear test on metal bands.
The invention is discussed in connection with
1) The measuring system for testing of the bending edge is schematically illustrated in
The specimen 1 is fixed on a suitable mounting 2 (90° bent specimen on rhombus, 180° bent specimen, open leg on edge, 180° bent specimen, closed leg clamped). The specimen surface is illustrated as a camera picture on a monitor in the control and evaluating computer 3. The operator carries out a focus adjustment by changing the distance between specimen 1 and projector 4/camera unit 5. The measuring field length corresponds according to standard to the width of the maximum viewable measuring field (in this case 3.40 mm), however, it can be adjusted optionally smaller. The measuring field width is calculated from the bend radius r and specimen thickness s (
For the calculation of Rx and Ry the following steps are performed:
A resultant magnitude is calculated from the magnitudes (here: resultant magnitude=0.5*(Rx+Ry)). The surface class is calculated from the resultant magnitude through a clear, functional interrelationship. The surface class is calculated from the resultant magnitude by an equation of the form
2) The wear test is a testing method for the qualitative evaluation of the punching quality (tool life) of sheet metal and bands. The up to now visual evaluation of the spherical surface carried out by the operator is objectified by the hereinafter described method.
According to the present state of the art, a test ball eccentrically clamped in a holder is pressed with a constant force onto the specimen surface (in particular bands made of Cu or Cu-alloys). While the holder rotates with the ball (material: chromium steel), the specimen is pulled beneath the ball. Thus the ball slides spiral-like on the specimen surface. The contact surface of the ball with the band is subsequently viewed and evaluated in the stereomicroscope. The ball is polished when the band surface is hard. Polished, thus worn ball surfaces do not reflect any light in the dark field into the microscope lens, thus appear black. The tester evaluates subjectively the portion of the surface appearing in black and then carries out a classification using a standard series in 8 classes (
According to the invention, the portion of the worn ball surface is to be determined by measuring methods.
The microscope for viewing the ball surface is in addition supplemented with a CCD camera with a tubular barrel adapter for taking pictures. The image section of the CCD camera corresponds approximately to the section which the observer sees in the ocular of the microscope. The image detection occurs in an evaluating unit, which is equipped with suitable image-detecting hardware and image-processing software. The image is loaded through the camera into the store of the evaluating unit and is present there as a matrix of image points (x, y). Each image point carries as information a picture half-tone between 0 (=black) and 255 (=white). The number of the image points (pixels) is given by the CCD-matrix-camera and is, in this case, 730 columns and 580 rows.
The method determines based on the medium picture half-tone and the picture half-tone control of the not worn ball surface a threshold value. The threshold value is especially given by an equation of the form
A calibrating measurement of a not worn area of the ball surface is carried out prior to the test. After application of the wear stress, the surface is again viewed at the same area. The image viewed by the microscope is shown on the picture screen. The focused image is fixed by pushing a button. The tester selects the portion of the contact surface of the ball to be evaluated using the scrollable frame on the picture screen.
The evaluation is triggered by pushing a button on the control panel. The result is indicated as a grade number of 0.5 to 8.5 with a following decimal place.