|Publication number||US7167960 B2|
|Application number||US 10/688,277|
|Publication date||Jan 23, 2007|
|Filing date||Oct 17, 2003|
|Priority date||Apr 9, 2001|
|Also published as||US6779063, US6944690, US7016991, US7035950, US7174399, US7404053, US7788459, US20020152339, US20040133718, US20040177174, US20040177181, US20040243732, US20060149868, US20070088880, US20080270688|
|Publication number||10688277, 688277, US 7167960 B2, US 7167960B2, US-B2-7167960, US7167960 B2, US7167960B2|
|Inventors||Shoji Kodama, Akira Yamamoto|
|Original Assignee||Hitachi, Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (23), Referenced by (25), Classifications (37), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/829,470, filed Apr. 9, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,779,063 and is herein incorporated in its entirety by reference for all purposes.
The present invention relates generally to data processing systems, and particularly to a direct access storage system with a combined block interface and file interface access.
Interconnecting the various elements of a processing system (e.g., processor units and peripheral equipment such as direct access storage devices) permits the resources of the system to be distributed so that they are available to all elements of the system. For example, multiple processor units may be connected to a storage system for sharing not only the afforded storage space, but the files that are stored there. Typically, a network architecture of one type or another will be used to implement the interconnection, which may dictate the particular of interface structure between the elements of a system, e.g., a processor unit and a data storage system. For example, it has been popular to connect stand-alone processor units to a direct access storage devices using a small computer standard interface (SCSI). SCSI connections use block transfer protocols in which a logical unit number (LUN) identifies the logical volume for access.
Network protocols, on the other hand, are different. Protocols of choice for networked and distributed processing systems included Network File System (“NFS;” an open operating system developed by Sun Microsystems), a Common Internet File System protocol (“CIFS;” a remote file access protocol), or a HyperText Transport Protocol, more popularly known as “HTTP.” These protocols use what is known as a “file system interface,” and while the file interface structures used to implement the different file system interface protocols, they use a common file system structure. Thus, data stored on a storage system using a file system interface of two or more types are available to all host systems. For example, a storage system capable of handling input/output requests of both NFS and CIFS protocols, i.e., an NFS protocol interface and a CIFS protocol interface, can store data files that are accessible to host processors having either of the NFS interfaces. That is, a host system with only an NFS interface can access and open files stored by a host system with a CIFS interface, and the host system with a CIFS interface can access and open files stored by the system via the NFS interface—provided the storage system has both interfaces.
Storage systems having one or more of the file system interfaces of the types described above provide access through an I/O read or write request that includes a file name, and an lock request that seeks a right to access the particular file of the I/O request.
Most direct access storage systems have either a block interface or a file interface, and host systems using a block interface protocol cannot access storage systems employing file interface protocols. Further, because of the differences between block and file interface structures and the way data is stored and accessed, a storage system is structured for a block system or a file system, but not both.
Remote replication is a backup technique that is used for data recovery scenarios such as disaster recovery. As a typical example, considers a RAID based storage configuration. A primary data side will have a first RAID controller for data access in a first RAID storage component. A second RAID controller at a secondary data site is provided for data backup in a second RAID storage component. The two RAID controllers are typically connected to each other via a communication network. Data in a primary volume in the first RAID storage component presented by the RAID controller at primary site can be replicated to a secondary volume in the second RAID storage component presented by the RAID controller at secondary site. When a write request to the primary volume is received by the first RAID controller, it sends the data update directly to the second RAID controller with no server involvement. This replication functionality is also referred to as “remote copy.” e.g., Hitachi TrueCopy™. Conventional RAID controllers have block system interfaces such as Fibre Channel and so are connectable to a storage area network (SAN). However, such controllers cannot connect to a network attached storage (NAS) device since they do not support file system I/O. Hereinafter, a storage system that is attachable to a SAN and which does not have a file system is referred to a SAN device.
Some NAS devices also provide replication capability for disaster recovery or other purpose. For instance, Network Appliance™ SnapMirror™ software replicates data on one or more network filers over a LAN or WAN and continuously updates the replicated data.
The present invention provides a storage system with direct access to physical storage devices that can be shared between a block interface and a file interface. An aspect of the invention provides for a volume accessed by block-level I/O requests (block volume) and a volume accessed by file-level I/O requests (file volume) to be maintained in a consistency group. Another aspect of the invention mirroring is performed on the block volume and the file volume. In still another aspect of the invention, mirrored volumes can be provided by accessing another storage subsystem.
Turning now to the figures, and first to
Although not specifically shown, the host system 12 most likely will comprise a plurality of processor units, although it could also comprise a single processor unit with multiple I/O interfaces, including a block system interface and at least one file system interface. It should be understood, therefore, that the host system however implemented will include at least one SCSI protocol type interface (for block system file transfers with the storage controller 14) and at least one file system interface, such as an interface or interfaces that operation according to NFS, CIFS, and/or HTTP protocols. Accordingly, the host system may comprise multiple processor units, one having an SCSI interface, another with an NFS interface, still another with a CIFS interface, and so on. Alternatively, the host system may be implemented by a single processor unit having all four (SCSI, NFS, CIFS, and HTTP) type interfaces.
The host system 12 is coupled to the storage controller 14 by a bus structure 16. For reasons that will become clearer below, the bus system 16 may be multiple bus structures to connect the host system to corresponding ones of four interface adaptors 26–32 of the storage controller 14.
The storage system 14 may have any number of any type of the interface adapters 28–32. For example, a storage controller 14 configuration may include two (2) SCSI interface adaptors 26, one (1) NFS interface adaptor 28, three (3) CIFS interface adaptors 30, and two (2) HTTP interface adaptors 32. Alternatively, another storage controller 14 configuration may have just four interface adapters, one of each type, with the capability of having more adapters of any type added. As can be seen, a variety of other alternative storage controller configurations are possible. By providing the storage controller 14 with such a flexible architecture, high scalable performance and high availability is achieved. This, in turn, provides a storage system controller 14 with the capability of increasing, for example, the number of NFS interface type adapters according to performance demands placed upon the storage system by the host system 12. Moreover, by providing the storage controller 14 with multiple interface adapters of the same type (e.g., NFS interface adapters) a failure of one still leaves the other or others of that same type to execute the requested processing from the host system.
The storage controller 14 also includes a terminal interface adaptor 43 to provide a system administrator with access to the storage controller for configuration purposes, as will be discussed more fully below.
Referring now to
As will be seen, the storage controller 14 employs a logical volume management in order to share the resources of the physical disk units 20 between block system and file system interfaces. Accordingly, the SCSI interface adaptor includes a logical disk access block function 64 that is configured to convert the LUN of a I/O read or write request to a logical volume access. Also included in the SCSI interface adapter 26 is a drive interface adaptor (DIA) interface function 66 to handle the communication colloquy with the drive interface adaptors 46 in response to information provided by the logical disk access block 64. A conventional cache manager function 68 manages data access of the SCSI interface adapter 26 to the cache memory 42 by the SCSI interface adaptor 26.
The NFS interface adaptor 28 is functionally illustrated in
As did the SCSI interface adaptor 26, the NFS interface adaptor 28 includes a cache manager function 84 for managing accesses to the cache memory 42 (
A cache manager function 106 of the drive interface adaptor 46 manages data accesses with the cache memory 42. A Read/Write control function 104 handles the actual data flow, pursuant to a read or a write request, between the drive interface adaptor 46 and the associated physical disk unit 20.
Operation of the system of
If, on the other hand, the I/O request received from the host system 12 is a write request, the logical volume access function 64 will send the data block received with the request to the cache memory 42. Then, the logical volume access function 64 will, through the DIA interface function 66, send a write request to appropriate the drive interface adaptor 46, identifying the location in the cache memory 42 at which the data block to be written resides. The drive interface 46 will then access the cache memory 42 for the data block, and write it to physical storage 20.
File system requests are received by one of the file system interfaces: either the NFS, the CIFS, or the HTTP interface adapter, depending upon whether the source is a NFS, CIFS, or HTTP interface of the host system 12 and, therefore, one of the three protocols file system protocols: that is, NFS, CIFS, or HTTP. File system I/O requests may be accompanied by lock/unlock requests. A lock request seeks access to a specific data block within a specific file, or the file itself. An unlock request releases access to the block/file previously obtained. As is conventional, an lock or unlock request will include either the file name of the file sought to be accessed, or a block number in the specified file, and a block length. Alternatively, the request may include a file name and additional information identifying the right to access the file.
Control information for lock/unlock processing is stored in the cache memory 42 for the each of the protocols used by the file system interface adaptors 28, 30, 32, although other shared memory can be used if available.
File system I/O requests issued by the host system 12 are received by the TCP/IP interface function of the file system interface adaptor to which the request is directed. (That is, if an NFS host interface issues the request, the request will be received by the NFS interface adaptor 28. Similarly, for CIFS or HTTP host interfaces, the requests will be received by the CIFS or HTTP interface adaptors 30, 32. The requests will all, thereafter be handled in basically the same way as described hereinafter.) The TCP/IP interface function 70 will receive the request and pass it to the appropriate process function block 72 for further processing.
The process function block 72 will convert the received request to one for a common file system, and pass the converted request to the common file system function block 73 where it is received by a command process function 74 and transferred to a logical volume address converter function 76.
If the request is a lock request, it will also be passed to the lock manager function 78, which checks to determine whether or not access to the requested file is available. If access is available, the lock manager function 78 will initiate a reply (“access granted”) to the process function block 72. The process function block 72 will then notify the host system 12 of the access grant via the TCP/IP interface function 70. Generally, the locking protocol is specified in NFS, CIFS, or HTTP level. If, on the other hand, access is not available, for example being locked by another request, the lock manager function 78 will so notify the process function 72, which will send a request to host system 12 to pend the lock request. When the lock request is subsequently made available by release of the lock by the other request, the lock manager 78 will notify the host system 12 that access is granted.
I/O read or write requests from a file system interface of the host system 12 will include a file name, a block number in the specified file, and a block link. Read and write requests travel through the TCP/IP interface function 70, the process function block 72 and the command process function 74, to the logical volume address converter 76. There, the information in the request is converted to a logical volume unit number, a block number in the logical volume, and a logical block length. The logical address converter 76 will then pass this information to the logical volume access function block 64 which, as did the logical volume access function block 64 of the SCSI interface adaptor 26, will handle the data transfer in the same way; that is, if it is a read request, the logical volume access function block 82 will check to see if the requested information resides in the cache memory 42 and if so, retrieve the information and return it to the host system 12 in response to the request. If the requested information is not reside in the cache memory 42, the logical volume access function block 82 will issue a request to the appropriate drive interface adaptor 46, requesting that the information be retrieved from the physical storage 20. Write requests are also handled in the same manner as described above respecting the logical volume access block 64 of the SCSI interface adapter.
The drive interface adapters 46 will operated in the same manner when responding to read or write requests, regardless of the interface adapter issuing the request. It will execute read/write operations to and from the physical storage 20 in response to requests received from the interface adapters 26, . . . , 32. The drive interface adapters 46 preferably have the capability of performing write after processing from cache memory 42. (Write after processing is typically used, for example, in connection with mirrored storage. A write request will be processed by writing the data of the request to a specific physical storage unit 20. Subsequently, the same data, which may be stored in the cache memory 42, can be written to whatever disk storage unit (or units) 20 used for mirroring the data.)
The configuration of logical volumes may be established by a system administrator through a work station (not shown) connected to the storage controller 14 (
Logical volumes allow the physical storage 20 to be allocated between a block system and a file system as needed. For example, a first portion of the physical storage 20, say, one-third of the storage, may be allocated to block system data storage. Then, the remaining physical storage may be allocated to storing data for file system protocols. Later, it may be determined that less block system storage is actually needed so that the allocation could be changed, for example, something less than originally allocated, say one-fourth of the physical storage 20. The remaining physical storage 20 dedicated to file system storage is concomitantly increased.
Typically, logical volumes for a file system interface (e.g., the NFS or CIFS interface adapters 28, 30) will include file management information required by the common file system function block 73. This file management information provides the basis for the logical volume address conversion performed by the logical volume address converter 76 of the common file system block 73. Logical volume information for block system interface, i.e. the SCSI interface adapter 26, typically do not have such information, making it very difficult to access a logical volume for a block interface from a file interface. Therefore, in order to preclude unnecessary errors, status information can be included in each entry 122 for the logical volume, identifying whether that volume is a file system or a block system logical volume. Thus, as
There is, however, a way, according to the present invention, of accessing a logical volume for a file system from a block system interface, such as the SCSI interface adaptor 26. According to this aspect of the invention, that portion of the host system 12 having a SCSI interface is provided with a backup utility 12 a (
In order to provide at least a modicum protection against inadvertent or other access of file system data from a block system interface or adapter, the logical volume table information could include information respecting whether or not the particular logical volume is accessible to certain types of access. For example, a file system logical volume would include information that it was or was not accessible from a block system access. Thus, as indicated in
Turning now to
Turning now to
As discussed above in connection with
For purposes of discussion, a volume that is accessed via a block system interface will be referred to as a SAN volume. Likewise, a volume that is accessed via a file system interface will be referred to as a NAS volume. Accordingly then, storage controller 14 can be said to present both a SAN volume and a NAS volume to a host device.
Turning now to
The primary site and the secondary site each have a host system 170. A typical host system will run a number of applications, some requiring a block-level I/O and others requiring file-level I/O. The host, therefore is likely to be equipped with an interface 180 for block I/O and an interface 181 for file I/O. The block I/O interface is connectable to SAN 177, while the file I/O interface is connectable to LAN 178 (local area network). A Fibre Channel is typically used top connect to SAN 177. Typically, an Ethernet connection is used to connect to LAN 178. It can be appreciated that other suitable communication protocols can be used to connect to SAN 177 and to LAN 178.
SAN device 171 has an interface 173 for block I/O and presents a logical volume for block system interface; that is, the interface provides access to a SAN volume 175 defined in the SAN device. NAS device 172 has an interface 174 for file I/O and presents a logical volume for file system interface; that is the interface provides access to a NAS volume 176 defined in the NAS device.
As can be seen in
What may become a problem with the system shown in
In a given situation, it may be important to maintain time consistency of the data that is written to the SAN device 171-1 and NAS device 172-1 when the data is mirrored to the respective devices, namely, SAN device 171-2 and NAS device 172-2. For example, in terms of the write operations shown in
A storage controller 14-1 according to the invention includes an interface 173-1 configured for block-level I/O and an interface 174-1 configured for file-level I/O. The storage controller is discussed in further detail above. In this particular embodiment, the interface 173-1 is further configured for connection to the SAN 177-1, and can be a Fibre Channel interface or SCSI. The interface 173-1 is configured to receive I/O requests directed to a SAN device. The interface 174-1 is further configured for connection to the LAN 178-1, and can implement a file I/O protocol such as NFS or CIFS. The interface 174-1 is configured to receive I/O requests directed to a NAS device. The controller 14-1 of the present invention as shown in
A storage controller 14-2 according to the invention includes an interface 173-2 configured for block-level I/O and an interface 174-2 configured for file-level I/O. As with storage controller 14-1, the interface 173-2 of the storage controller 14-2 is further configured for connection to the SAN 177-2, and can be a Fibre Channel interface or SCSI. The interface 174-2 is further configured for connection to the LAN 178-2, and can implement a file I/O protocol such as NFS or CIFS. The controller 14-2 serves as a SAN device to service block-level I/O requests from host 179-2 via SAN 177-2, and at the same time to serve as a NAS device to service file I/O requests from the host via LAN 178-2.
As can be seen in
In accordance with the particular embodiment of the invention shown in
The storage controller 14-1 can define a consistency group 191 comprising the SAN volume 175-1 and the NAS volume 176-1. In the context of data replication such as remote copy, a “consistency group” comprises normally separate storage elements that are treated in an atomic fashion. Thus, if one storage element fails to be replicated then the group will fail to be replicated. A consistency group can be treated as a single entity for data replication (e.g., remote copy) purposes. The idea of “time consistency” refers to the order in time in which data is written to the storage elements in a consistency group. Thus, data replication is “time consistent” if the data is replicated to the secondary in the order in which it was originally received by the primary.
The embodiment shown in
There is another way to maintain the write order of the data W1′ and W2′ according to an alternate embodiment of this aspect of the invention. When the storage controller 14-1 receives data write requests directed to the SAN volume and data write requests directed to the NAS volumes, the storage controller 14-1 can associate time stamps with these write requests. The time that is associated with the write requests is the time when the storage controller 14-1 receives the request. The storage controller can communicate the data W1′ and W2′, along with their associated time stamps, to the storage controller 14-2 in any order. Then, the storage controller 14-2 writes the received data W1′ and W2′ to the SAN volume 175-2 and the NAS volume 176-2 in the order based on the time stamps associated with the data.
The storage system 14-1 and the storage system 14-2 can have multiple different types of communication paths. For example, the write requests for a SAN volume are sent via a Fibre Channel network and the write requests for a NAS volume are sent via a Ethernet network. Thus, even for this configuration, the write order is ensured by using the above described embodiments of the present invention.
A volume pair can be “split” (also referred to as “breaking a pair”). This in effect takes the secondary volume offline. When the volume pair is split, the effect is that the secondary volume is frozen (i.e., data from the primary volume is no longer mirrored to the secondary volume). This make the secondary volume available for offline processing such as backup, data analysis, and so on. At some point, the secondary volume needs to be re-paired with its primary volume. Thus, at some point in time a Re-SYNC command may be received. In response, the volume pair is resynchronized. This conventional technique basically involves copying data from the primary volume to the secondary volume in a manner that results in the secondary volume once again mirroring the primary volume. After resynchronization is complete, then data replication between the primary volume and the secondary volume can resume once again.
The storage controller 14 defines and manages one or more logical volumes. In the particular embodiment shown in
In accordance with this aspect of the invention, the storage controller 14 provides local replication functionality. SAN volumes 201-1 and 201-2 are configured as a volume pair 204, where logical volume 201-2 serves as a primary SAN volume (P-SAN) and logical volume 201-2 serves as a secondary SAN volume (S-SAN). NAS volumes 202-1 and 202-2 are likewise configured as a volume pair 205, where logical volume 202-1 serves as a primary NAS volume (P-NAS) and logical volume 202-2 serves as a secondary NAS volume (S-NAS).
A re-sync command can be sent to the storage controller 14 to re-establish the volume pairs. Volume pairs in a consistency group are re-established at the same time. Thus, volume pair 204 and volume pair 205 would be re-established upon receiving a re-sync command directed to the consistency group 203.
In a further aspect of the embodiment shown in
Thus, at some initial time, the storage controller 14 defines one or more volume pairs and one or more consistency groups, step 1211. During normal processing of I/O requests, write requests to a primary volume (e.g., P-SAN or P-NAS) will cause a mirror operation to be performed to the corresponding secondary volume (e.g., S-SAN or S-NAS), step 1212. At some later time, a split command is received at step 1213. In response to the split command, the local cache in the interface 174 is flushed (Step 1214) to the cache memory 42. It is noted that if interface 173 is configured with a local cache, it too would be flushed to cache memory 42. The storage controller 14 will then reconfigure itself to cease mirroring operations for subsequent write requests, step 1215. It is understood that this includes flushing the cache memory 42 to ensure that any data cached therein is written to the physical storage devices.
The storage controller 14 defines and manages one or more logical volumes. In the particular embodiment shown in
The storage controller 14 shown in
The storage subsystem 215 presents one or more logical units (LUs) 217-1 to 217-6 to the outside. In accordance with this aspect of the invention, the storage controller 14 can access one or more of the logical units in the storage subsystem 215 to define one or more logical volumes in the storage controller. In the embodiment shown in
In accordance with this aspect of the invention, the storage controller 14 provides local replication functionality. SAN volumes 211-1 and 211-2 are configured as a volume pair, where logical volume 211-2 serves as a primary SAN volume (P-SAN) and logical volume 211-2 serves as a secondary SAN volume (S-SAN). NAS volumes 212-1 and 212-2 are likewise configured as a volume pair, where logical volume 212-1 serves as a primary NAS volume (P-NAS) and logical volume 212-2 serves as a secondary NAS volume (S-NAS). When the storage controller 14 mirrors a write operation directed to P-SAN 211-1, it will communicate over the communication link provided between the interface 214 and the interface 216 to mirror the data in the appropriate LUN 217-2, 217-4.
A backup server 218 can be connected to the storage subsystem to perform backups of the secondary volumes 211-2, 212-2. For example, a split command can be directed to the NAS volume pair, 212-1, 212-2. When the pair is split, the backup server 218 can perform a backup or other offline processing on the LU associated with the secondary NAS volume 212-2. Similarly, a split command can be directed to the SAN volume pair, 211-1, 211-2. When the pair is split, the backup server 218 can perform a backup or other offline processing on the LU associated with the secondary SAN volume 211-2.
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|U.S. Classification||711/162, 710/74, 707/999.001|
|International Classification||G06F13/12, G06F13/10, G06F3/06, G06F12/16, G06F12/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S707/99931, G06F3/0665, G06F3/0643, G06F3/067, G06F3/064, G06F3/0689, G06F3/061, G06F11/2056, G06F3/0617, G06F3/0619, G06F3/0661, G06F3/0626, G06F3/065, G06F17/30197, G06F3/0605, H04L67/1095, H04L67/1097|
|European Classification||G06F3/06A4F4, G06F3/06A2P, G06F3/06A6L4R, G06F3/06A2R4, G06F3/06A4F2, G06F3/06A4V4, G06F3/06A6D, G06F3/06A4T8, G06F3/06A4H4, G06F3/06A2R6, G06F3/06A2A2, G06F17/30F8D1|
|Mar 16, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HITACHI, LTD., JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KODAMA, SHOJI;YAMAMOTO, AKIRA;REEL/FRAME:015101/0094
Effective date: 20040310
|May 29, 2007||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Jul 7, 2010||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 25, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8