|Publication number||US7177441 B2|
|Application number||US 10/314,668|
|Publication date||Feb 13, 2007|
|Filing date||Dec 9, 2002|
|Priority date||Dec 9, 2002|
|Also published as||US20040109583|
|Publication number||10314668, 314668, US 7177441 B2, US 7177441B2, US-B2-7177441, US7177441 B2, US7177441B2|
|Inventors||John B. Condon, Joan LaVerne Mitchell, Nenad Rijavec, Timothy James Trenary|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (3), Classifications (9), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a system and a method for conducting secret communication through a preexisting digital communication channel (network).
2. Description of the Related Art
Privacy and encrypted communications over the Internet are gaining more and more prominence. Some governments (Great Britain and Russia are current examples) either forbid private citizens from using encryption or require that the keys to the encrypted messages be handed on demand to government agencies.
Steganography is the practice of disguising the existence of a particular message. In modern usage, this generally implies that some information of interest (auxiliary data) will be hidden in, what is known to those skilled in the art, as cover data. Commonly used cover data includes images, audio files and e-mail. Although the term “steganography” is most often used to describe the class of schemes by which auxiliary data is hidden in cover data, it has a broader connotation by which it also envelopes systems which enable secret communication to take place.
When secret communication between two or more individuals occurs, there is inevitably an encryption which takes place. This encryption can be as simple as an agreed upon hand signal for secret communication in public, or as complex as the most sophisticated digital steganographic techniques. However, no system of encryption is unbreakable, and once detected it can compromise not only the particular message that was detected, but the identities of the parties involved in the secret communication. As personal privacy on the Internet and in digital communication continues to be challenged, there is a need in the art to provide an improved system and method of secret communication in a digital network.
1Several broad-based disclosures, i.e., “Digital Steganography” by Donovan Artz and “Invisible Communication” by Tuomas Aura have addressed aspects the field of steganography. These treatises cover the field in general terms and have no impact on the novelty and non-obviousness of the present invention.
For example, the “Digital Steganography” article by Artz is a survey of commonly used data hiding techniques. It mentions in general terms that unused header segments of a data file would seem to be excellent places to hide data. Thus, based upon this disclosure, the skilled artisan would deduce techniques for hiding data in data header structures, such as comment fields and unused segments. Artz also discloses a number of techniques which involve hiding data in structures by permuting particular table entries or header segments using a predetermined mapping of the possible permutations to a pre established code alphabet.
Artz seems to imply the concept of “trickling” the data out in small pieces into a high-volume stream of cover data sets in an attempt to avoid the suspicion that a large amount of hidden data in a single cover set might cause.
The article by Aura also discusses using the header of a data file as the carrier of hiding data.
Another disclosure relating to this field is entitled “A Scheme of Secret Communication Using Internet Control Message Protocol” by Masataka Suzuki and Tsutomu Matsumoto, found in IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, Vol. E85A, No. 1, January 2002. This article details a method by which an existing network can be used to conduct secret communication by forcing errors into network traffic in such a way that the returned error message effectively contains the secret communication.
The Suzuki/Matsumoto method noted above is substantially different from the very special scheme of interception embodied in the present invention which allows for normal, error-free operations to continue while secret communication goes on. Contrary to the method disclosed above, by which an existing network can be used to conduct secret communication by forcing errors into network traffic in such a way that the returned error message effectively contains the secret communication, the present invention, as is explained in greater detail hereinafter, utilizes direct interception of network traffic as a main communication method which can be augmented by additional steganographic techniques, for example a Huffman table hiding method.
It is hereby emphasized the method of the present invention explicitly involves exploitation of “unused” Huffman codes in any way deemed appropriate. There is no explicit mention in any of the prior art articles cited above of any structure remotely similar to unused Huffman codes.
The present invention relates to a communication system which enables two or more parties to secretly communicate through an existing digital channel. The digital channel noted has a primary function other than the aforementioned secret communication.
In accordance with the present invention, a first party receives a series of cover data sets. This first party then hides a certain amount of auxiliary data in the cover data sets, and then relays these cover data sets, containing hidden data, to a second party, who is aware of the hidden data. This second party recipient may then extract the hidden data and either restore the hidden data to its original state (the state it was in before the first party received it) and send it along to its original intended destination, or may just simply extract the hidden auxiliary data.
The present invention relates to a method for hiding data, a system of implementing the transmission between sender and recipient, and a program for secret communication between two parties using an existing network channel.
As noted above, digital cover data is received and said data is hidden in the cover data by a first party interceptor using at least one hiding scheme. This first interceptor allows the cover data containing said hidden data to continue in its original route whereby a second party receives the digital cover with hidden data and extracts said hidden data. The second party allows the cover data to continue on in its original route.
In a further aspect of the invention, the cover data mentioned above consists of JPEG images; and the hiding scheme embodied in the system consists of modifying the custom Huffman tables of the JPEG images.
There exists a plethora of techniques for hiding auxiliary data in cover data, and any of these can be used for the hiding phase of the system. For example, as noted above, in a JPEG cover data set, a custom Huffman table may be modified in such a way as to have no impact on the observable nature of the image, and several such schemes are presented as a part of this invention.
Since there are so many ways in which to exploit a particular cover data set for secret communication, it is necessary that the first and second parties have pre-established a set of rules by which they will communicate. There must be agreement on the hiding technique, cover data type and location of the hidden data within the cover.
With respect to the operation of the system of the present invention, anytime the encoder describes a particular custom Huffman table to the receiver, the Huffman code words of equal length can be swapped to provide secret information without changing the coded file size. If the convention is to normally order the codes of a given length, it is easy for the receiver to restore the original custom Huffman table order and restore the compressed data to its original state. Alternatively, some of the secret information can consist of how to restore the table.
The present invention will be more fully understood by reference to the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention when read in conjunction with the accompnaying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the views and in which:
In the following description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings which form a part hereof and which illustrate several embodiments of the present invention. It is understood that other embodiments may be utilized and structural and operational changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention.
By way of illustration, as an example of this system, consider two network administrators in cooperating companies who wish to conduct secret communication unbeknownst to their respective employers. Assuming that one network administrator (Interceptor A) in this example has hidden some data in the cover of selected outgoing network transmissions, the other administrator (Interceptor B) could have a private sniffer set up on incoming network traffic which looks for a pre-agreed upon flag, be it a particular image type or e-mail from or to some particular individual. Being aware of the hiding scheme, the receiving administrator subsequently extracts the hidden data from the cover data.
There are times when the system ends at this stage. If, for example, the cover data has been chosen to be outgoing spam, then Interceptor B can most likely extract whatever hidden content there is and discard the cover. However, there may be times when it is wiser to allow the cover data to continue on its original route after the extraction of hidden data by Interceptor B.
This situation is demonstrated in
The instant invention also embodies several specific hiding scheme implementations aimed at utilizing the Huffman tables of JPEG compressed data. Many other implementations are possible and the instant invention is directed only to those that implement hiding data in the Huffman table of a compressed image. The JPEG standard is described in JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard by Pennebaker and Mitchell, published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, the contents of which are hereby fully incorporated by reference herein. The various specific implementations detailed below refer to the compression methods used to produce JPEG data.
The following implementations of hiding methods exploit the Huffman table information in a compressed image which is compressed with a data compression scheme that allows custom Huffman tables.
Such methods of hiding data in a Huffman table as described above, will almost always require that a decode/re-encode sequence be performed, which in large volume processing can hinder performance.
The present invention provides a method by which data can be hidden in the Huffman table of a JPEG image. It is assumed for the sake of exposition of this invention, that the image is simply a grayscale baseline JPEG image, but that same scheme could easily be extended and implemented in for example, a color JPEG image. Furthermore, this scheme can be implemented in any compression format which utilizes quantization and Huffman tables in a way similar to that of the JPEG standard.
It is understood with respect to the discussion of the figures, that the “image” referred to is in fact a “compressed image,” since images by themselves do not have custom Huffman tables, but compressed images do.
Thus while there have been shown and described and pointed out fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to currently preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes in the form and details as to the communication system of the present invention and methods encompassed therewith, may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. In addition, it is to be understood that the drawings are provided for informational purposes. It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the claims appended herewith.
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|U.S. Classification||382/100, 382/246, 382/232|
|International Classification||H04L9/00, G06K9/00, G06K9/36|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L9/08, H04L2209/16|
|Mar 24, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CONDON, JOHN B.;MITCHELL, JOAN LAVERNE;RIJAVEC, NENAD;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:013509/0073
Effective date: 20021220
|Sep 20, 2010||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Feb 13, 2011||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Apr 5, 2011||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20110213