US 71872 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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IMPROVEMENT IN THE MODE OPPREVENTING EXPLOSION 0F LAMPS.
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TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Be it known that I, Grnns PITT Gnosvnnon, of McGrawville, in the countyot Cortland, in the State of New York, have invented anew and improved Mode of Preventing Explosion of Lamps, and other apparatus used for obtaining light and heat from coal-oils, -alcohol, and other explosive substances, and at the same time of eii'ecting other important objects, such as the production of better light, more heat,-less smell, and more cleanliness, thus securing safety, economy, and comfort, and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof, reference being to the accompanying drawings,.an d to the letters of reference marked thereon. V
The nature of my inventionconsists insupplying the vacuum made in the reservoir by combustion with nitrogen gas, known to science as the flame-extinguishing or antiphlogistic gas, and in so constructing a burner as to accomplish this end, and the -other objects mentioned. The burner, including the top of the lamp, Imakc close, so as to prevent the ingress of atmospheric air into the reservoir.
' Construction. That others may be enabled to make and use my invention, I describeits construction and operation as follows, reference being had to the drawings, 1 v I I V I I apply my invention to any form of lamps, heaters, burners, and other appendages susceptible of it.- I construct a burner, Figure 2, of brass or other suitable material, differing from other burners in having no hole for admission of atmospheric air into the reservoir during the processof combustion. In order to this,
I make the bottom plate h h, fig. 2, of the burner, with no other orifice than the one for inserting the burningtube 2' i, and make the joint of this insertion air-tight by brazing or soldering, as I do all of the joints of the box containing the wheels of the wick-elevator.
To prevent the ingress of air at the places of insertion of the axis e a, (fig. 2 ofdrawinga) through which air might pass into the wheelbox o o o o, and descend through the tube into thereservolir supplying the vacuum, I support the end e within the wheel-box by inserting it into theclose socket instead of carrying it through the side, as is done in other burners. I secure against the admission of air through'the hole at or: by applying a packed box, c c d, used in machinery where air-tight insertions are required, but first used by me for the purpose here indicated. This packed box is furnished with a thumb-piece, g, and screw,l1, for compressing the packing c'c around the axis, and against that end of the box, completing the close construction.
In the use of this close-jointed construction of the burner, the vacuum madein the reservoir by combustion cannot be supplied with atmospheric air, but must, necessarily, be supplied with nitrogen gas, resulting from combustion.
' The two gases, oxygen and nitrogen,'composing atmospheric air, are always scpurated by combustion. The oxygen, the flame-making element, being about one-fifth, (-2 is consumed, while nitrogen, the flame-extinguishing element, being about four-fifths, is liberated; and in the simple process of combustion carried on at the top of the tube or wick, no other coritrivance being needed for this purpose, the liberated nitrogen descends, necessarily by force of atmospheric pressure, through the interstices of the wick, in sufficient quantity to supply the gradually-extending vacuum below, even to the entire exhaustion of the fuel, when it is found that the res ervoir is completely filled with this gas. 'Thus the continuous presence and supply of this descending gas during combustion precludes the possibility of ignition within the reservoir, and consequent explosionfrom the heated metals of the-burner, even though their heat were to become extreme. Of the protective nature of this gas, upon which I rely as the'only mcans of securing lamps 'and other burners from explosion, where explosive substances are used, I may refer to the authority of Sir H. Davy, who says, Sulphur may be melted, evensublimcd in it, [nitrogen gas,] and phosphorus may be liquefied in it, without undergoing combustion.
By this invention, a larger amount of oxygen is forced into the flame, increasing its brightness, and diminishing the necessary consumption of fuel. "Proof of this is afforded by the fact that the flameproduced-by my nitrogen safety burner is more gas-like in whiteness and intensity than from open burners. i r i 'As I allow no orifice for ventilation, evaporation from within is precluded, except through the tube to the flame, where it is profitably disposed of; consequently, no coating of oil, formed by vapor condensed on the outside of the burner and lamp, can take place, exposing it to external ignition and explosion by way of any erifiee.i
What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is v The application to lamps or heaters, using coal-oils, elcohol, orother explosive substanees,of such a burn-er as will supply the vacuum made in the reservoir by the combustion with nitrogen gas, the burner being com structed as herein described. or in any other form substantially the same, and which will produce 'the intended efl'ect.
' CYRUS P.v GROSVENOR. Witnesses:
WM. J. 'MANTANYE JAMES, VJAMES M. SMI'gH.