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Publication numberUS718896 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 20, 1903
Filing dateJun 14, 1902
Priority dateJun 14, 1902
Publication numberUS 718896 A, US 718896A, US-A-718896, US718896 A, US718896A
InventorsEdward E Clement
Original AssigneeWilliam H Ames
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrotherapeutic apparatus.
US 718896 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

No. 718,896. PATENTED JAN. 20, 1903.









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I I IF) I No. 718,896. PATENTED JAN. 20, 1903.


AIfPLIOATION FILED mm 14, 1902. no MODEL. e SHLEBTS- sum 6.

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ELECTROTHERAPEUTIC APPARATUS- SPEGZZFICATIQN forming part of Letters Patent No. 718,896, dated January 20, 1903.

Application filed June 14, 1902.

To CbZZ whom it may concern.-

Be it known that we, WILLIAM H. AMES, a resident of the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, and EDWARD E. CLEMENT, a resident of the city of \Vashington, District of Columbia, citizens of the United States, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electrotherapeutic Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.

Our invention relates, first, to elect-rotherapeutic apparatus, and particularly to apparatus for controlling and modifying the currents to be used whatever the purpose for which they are intended, and, second, to certain heating apparatus adapted to be used in connection with the controlling apparatus referred to, together with novel controlling apparatus for said heating apparatus, forming part of the controller system referred to.

To put the matter in specific language, our invention relates in its aspect assumed for descriptive purposes herein to electric sweatrobes for man and beast and the controlling means associated therewith, whereby any ordinary source of current-supply may be resorted to and suitable conditions of potential and flow secured. WVe do not wish to be understood as limiting ourselves, however, to such specific application, as various possible modified uses and, in fact, modified forms of the apparatus will at once suggest themselves to those who are skilled in this art, and all such modified forms or uses we consider within the scope and purview of our invention.

\Vith this understanding we will proceed to set forth our invention in its specific form and point out the broad novelty which We conceive to lie therein in the appended claims.

IIeretofore in the art of electric heating apparatus has been in use for supplying heat externally to the body, consisting of some form of pad or blanket in which resistancewires are embedded or interwoven. With such devices it has been usual to provide controlling means, such as a rheostat, in series with the resistance-Wires to modify the electromotive force available in the heatingcircuit and to insure safety in case of an ac- Serial No. 111,646. (No model.)

cidental short circuit. The usual source of current resorted to has been a central-station supply-circuit at the house-mains, where a normal potential of not more than one hundred and ten volts exists between the terminals, and it is a requisite feature of any system to be successful that either alternating or direct current may be employed without change in the apparatus. Some of the systems heretofore in use have failed by rea sons of the absence of this adaptability.

It is the object of our invention to do away as far as possible with the necessity for extra resistance in the circuit, and this for several,

reasons which will appear; also, to give more flexible control of the heating system and to enable either faradic or galvanic currents to be supplied to patients through suitable eleetrodes and under conditions of flow and voltage that shall be absolutely free from danger and easily controllable; also, to modify and improve the blanket or robe containing the heating-circuit, so that it may be used in whole or in part with convenience and economy greater than at present possible, and to render the same also suitable for use with animals.

We attain our objects, first, by subdividing the resistance-circuit and grouping the separate portions in various relations to each other and the source of supply; second, by subdividing the blanket or robe and arranging the sections so that they can be used separately or together; third, to enable the operator to control the heating by subdivision and groupingas above'and causing the heatingcircuit to act in its various groupings'as its own resistance to limit the current-flow, so as to give several heats; also, by arranging parts in detail, as will more particularly appear from the specification.

Our invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein like characters of reference point out like parts in all the figures.

In the drawings, Figure 1 is a diagram of our system laid out without regard to the mechanical construction of the parts. a similar diagram of a modified system. Fig.

Fig. 2 is 3 is a diagram illustrating the different combinations of the resistancecircuits made by the series-parallel controller. Fig. 4. is a partial diagram showing only one section of the robe in service. Fig. 5 is a side view of one of the compensating coils. Fig. 6 shows the application of our invention to the treatment of animals. Fig. 7 shows one section of our heating-robe. Fig. 8 shows several sections fastened together. Fig. 9 is a top plan view, and Fig. 10 is a side view with the side removed, of the controlling-box. Fig. 11 is another top plan view of the controller-box, somewhat modified. Figs. 12, 12, and 13 are respectively a top and side view and a crosssection of the controller. Fig. 14. shows the application of our invention to the treatment of horses legs.

Referring first to Figs. 9 and 10, we will describe the box mechanism. Here M is a marble or other non-conducting slab to which the operative mechanism is secured and fitting as a cover to the box, being fastened thereto by the screws shown at the corners. Of course other fastening means may be employed, and preferably we use a seal, so that the box cannot be opened without the knowledge of the owner. Mounted on the top of the slab M is a switch or rheostat set having a switch-arm r and a circular series of contacts 1", connected by suitable wiring, as hereinafter described, to the resistance-coil r, which we shall refer to as the shunt-coil. Upon each side of the rheostat are lamp-sockets, with lamps L and L and two knife-switches s and 3. At the other end of the box from the lamps we locate our controllerswitch E, which controls the circuits to our heatingrobe, so as to give several heats desired. This switch has a handle 6 on the top of the box set on a spindle e, which passes down through the marble and through the top bar e of frame 6 in which it is free to turn. The handle is rigidly secured to the spindle by means of the set-screw 6 which takes into a groove 6 so that the handle is always on in the proper position relatively to the drum below. The greater part of the length of the spindle is squared, as shown at 6 so as to furnish an easy means of preventing the drum from turning on it. The drum, as shown in Figs. 12, 12, and 13, has an upper and a lower head-plate e provided with a squared central orifice c ,through.

which the squared part of the spindle passes, fitting snugly. At thelower end the spindle is turned to form a shouldered bearing 6 in the frame, and above this bearing a pin 6 is passed through the spindle to take the weight of the drum. The drum is a cylindrical body of wood or other hard insulating material, bearing on its surface the contact-pieces e e e e 6, e e 6, 6 and e, secured by screws 6" in slightly-countersunk depressions in the surface. This drum is slipped down on the spindle until it rests on the pin a, and then a washer e is slipped on, and a nut and locknut e are screwed on the threaded portion of the spindle shown, thus binding the drum firmly in place. The top bar 6. of the frame is then slipped on, and the whole frame, with the drum on it, is secured to the under side of the marble slab by the screws on, extending through from the top and being prevented from loosening by the lock-nuts under the turned-over parts 6 of the frame. The headplates are fastened to the drum by screws 6 as shown. The controller E has nine springs conveniently made of No. 30 spring German silver (.030 inches thick and one-fourth inch in width) with spaces of three-sixteenths of an inch between the individual springs. These are mounted on the side of the frame in the following manner: Along the side of the frame is laid a strip of hard-rubber or compressedmica insulation having nine depressions, one for each spring, and in these depressions the springs are laid, being held from slipping by pins driven down in the mica or rubber. Another strip of insulation is then laid over the whole set of springs and a brass strip over that, and through the whole are passed machine-screws, as shown in Fig. 10, passing into tapped holes in the frame and lying be- 7 tween the springs, so that no bushings or special insulators are required and yet a high degree of insulation is obtained. The springs (lettered from p to p in the drawings) are curved around the periphery of the drum and lie against it in position to be engaged and interconnected by the brass contact-pieces 6 &c., on the drum when it is turned to bring them into position. Along the end of the box are eight binding-posts, (numbered from 1 to 8 these being wired up, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, to the respective springs of the controller. Thus post 1 is connected to the spring 19 and also directly to the side 1 of the supplycircuit, which means to the binding-post F. Post 2 is connected to post 3 and to spring 19 850. The connections are obvious from the drawings.

It will be observed in Fig. 9 that the handle e sweeps around a circle marked with the figures 1, 2, 3,and 4 andis normally against a stop in the position of cutoff marked Off. Each of the figures is so located that when the handle is moved over it the drum beneath has one or another of the sets of contacts under the springs to make the corresponding connections.

Referring now to Figs. 2, 4, 7, and 8, we will describe our improved blanket or robe. As shown in Fig. 2, this is a square robe divided into four parts, adapted to be fastened together or used separately. The structure consists of two sheets of closely-woven fabric dressed to make it practically impervious to moisture, and in each section these sheets are stitched together around the edges, as shown at w in Figs. 7 and 8. Between the two sheets of fabric we wind in long or short turns lengths of resistance-wire, terminating at a corner of each section. This may be of any suitable metal; but we have found No. 20 German-silver wire to be the most suitable for this purpose. We sometimes interpose between the resistance-wire and the fabric sheets of asbestos; but with or without this a line of stitching follows the turns of the wire on each side, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 7, to hold the same in place. WVe preferably use wire that has previously been coated with a hard and acid and alkali proof compound to insulate it; but we do not limit ourselves to that, as we may use it bare with good results, and we will not describe such insulation herein, as it may form proper subjec'mmatter for another application. Each section of the robe is complete in itself and has a terminal cord with two conductors, as O or 0, led to the proper binding-posts of the series 1 to S on the box. A section in use byitself is shown in Fig. ll It is usually the case, however, that we employ the entire robe, and in this case the four sections are laced together by means of a tape or cord (1, led through holes a which are buttonholestitched to form soft eyelets. To permit the lacing, the seam 10 is farther back from two 'of the edges of each section than from the others, and these flaps so formed are placed together with alternate edges overlapping and the eyelets registering, so that the tape or cord maybe laced in. The dimensions of the flaps are such that there is a space left between the lacing and the seam to", in which the cords C and O are led. This is very important and enables us to conveniently connect all the sections to the binding-posts on the box direct without any interposed couplings and without exposed wires, except from the foot of the robe. In general the wire lengths in the robe are as shown; but when using the insulated wire we have mentioned we generally make the turns shorter to avoid bending the wire.

Referring to Fig. 1, which shows the preferred circuit of our system, G is a supplygenerator, Which may be at a central station, feeding mains l and 2, between which are translating devices T, such as incandescent lamps and the like. S is a main or house switch, from which the wires 1 and 2 pass into reach and are attached by suitable conductors to the binding-posts F and F of our box. The lamp L is bridged across the main circuit of the posts F and F, having a switch 8 to control its action. This lamp really serves as an indicator of the condition of the circuit, as if it goes out there is no current or no difference of potential between the posts. From posts F F pass feeder-wires to the springs 19 and p on the controlling, switch, the former being also connected to the post 1 and the latter to the spring 13. Bridged across these feeders are the electrodes h and 71/, having the lamp L in the bridge, with a switch 5 to control it. Around the electrodes we provide a shunt 10, containing the coil 1', whose coils are connected to the contacts 7" of the switch 0". Normally this switch is on the zero-point, and as the current-flow to the electrodes is limited by the lamp L they will be completely shunted. As the switch-handle r is moved, however, to cut in more and more of the coils current is caused to flow to the electrodes, the subject using the samethus being limited to the drop in potential around the resistance in the shunt 10, and thus being safeguarded from harm.

Referring to Fig. 2, it will now be understood how the controlling-switch performs its functions. By tracing the circuits out it will be found that when the first set of contacts 6 and e are under the springs current will pass from the wires 6 7 through the four sections a, b, c, and d of the robe in series, as shown in Fig. 3 at w. If the handle is turned another notch, to 1, the contacts 6 c and e are brought under the springs, and the circuit is then through coils a and b, in parallel to each other, to the other pair 0 and d, in series with each other, the two pairs being in series, as shown at 00, Fig. 3. When the handle is on the second notch, contacts e c and e come under the springs, and the circuit is through each pair in parallel and the pairs in series, as shown at y. When the last notch is reached, the contacts 6 a come under the springs, and then all the sections a, b, o, and d are in parallel, as shown at 2, Fig. 3. The effect of this grouping of resistance heating-coils is as follows: Series, as at w, gives very low heat and small current-flow; parallel and series, as at m, an increase in the heat to almost double; parallel series, as at y, a further increase to four times the original heat, and all in parallel, as at z, a final increase to sixteen times the original heat. The heat is of course assumed to be dependent solely on the rate of currentflow in this case. By making the separate sections of proper resistanceit will thus be seen that almost perfect control and gradation of the current supplied is obtained without separate resistance and the consequent waste of current that ordinarily goes to heat up idle resistance. This is a very important feature of our invention and is not limited to the present system in its application. It is possible to apply this Wherever heating-coils are used. By subdividing the heating-coils and combining the separate coils in series, in parallel, and in combinations of the two the coils act as their own re sistance, regulate the current fiow,-and actually turn out useful heat for every ampere or fraction thereof.

Fig. 4 shows one expedient where it is desired to control the heats in one division of the robe only. In this case and for convenience, so that the controller-switch may still IIO &

be employed, we supply dead resistanee-coils r r r with prongs r r as shown in Fig. 5, to fit in the binding-posts to which the absent or unused sections of the robe would have been connected. The controller can thus still make the various combinations of these coils with the single section in use and give four heat-s. The same may be done with two or three sections, if desired, the empty bindingposts being supplied with the coils r in every case. Each of these coils is of the same resistance as one section of the robe.

In Fig. 6 we have shown the application of our invention to the treatment of animals. It is often necessary to sweat a horse, for instance, and the control we have over the heats in our box makes this system valuable for this purpose. We show two sections a and b in use on the horse. The former is shaped to fit to his neck, with a cap to fit the head and hold the rest in place and suitable straps. The wires may be reversed from those shown, if desired, so as to pass under the throat and have the straps on the back of the neck, as it is the throat to which the heat should be most generally applied.

It will be observed that we gain one very substantial advantage by our system over any now in useviz., we are enabled to use a storage battery to advantage for heating where a portable source is required, for we do not waste any current in regulating. Such a battery is shown at Bin Fig. 2. In said Fig. 2 it will be observed certain modifications are introduced in the arrangement of the apparatus. In the system heretofore described a shunt arrangement is adhered to, the electrodes being shunted more or less and the main feeders being shunted by a lamp across the terminals. We are not limited to the shunt arrangement, however, and so in the present figure we have shown a series arrangement. Here we place the lamps L and L in the connections to the supply-circuit and use them to regulate the initial flow, although this is not absolutely necessary, as a switch 3 is provided to shunt them when direct connection is desired. The rheostat R, with arm 1", is placed in series in the electrodecircuit instead of in shunt, and the current to the electrodes, therefore, all passes through it. An induction-coilIis also employed,which we do not describe in detail, because in itself the detailed construction may be varied without impairing our invention, which contemplates using the coil in connection with the other devices shown to produce several kinds and degrees of current for the electrodes. A switch I enables the circuit 8 9 to be thrown either direct to the electrodes to give galvanic current (the rheostat then regulating the strength of this current) or to the primary of the coil, with which a Vibrating or other circuit-breaker is connected in series to cause the inductive generation of a suitable faradic current in the secondary winding. The strength of this faradic current may be regulated both by the rheostat and the movable core tube or shield 2'. Thus several kinds and degrees or current may be developed as desired and always under perfect control.

In Fig. 11 we have shown the top of the controller-box with the induction-coil I located midway of the apparatus, between the rheostat and the controller. The switch I is also shown located by the side of the coil and the electrode binding-posts on the side of the slab. We may arrange the parts in any other desired way; but we consider this preferable. In Fig. 14 we show our invention in its preferable arrangement for treating animals. It is well understood that animals, and horses in particular, become nervous and restless when unfamiliar apparatus is employed in their immediate vicinity, and the difficulty of treatment is thus enhanced. To obviate this and permit the animal freedom of movement, we locate the controller-box on a saddle secured to the back, as shown at Q. From this a flexible connection is led to the source of supply overhead, being thus out of the way of the animal and permitting free movement. From the box the connecting-cords O O, 850., run to the sections ab 0 d of the blanket or robe, which is here made in such shape as to be applied conveniently to the limbs and body of the animal. It will be observed that where only the throat or other local part is to be treated the controller enables this to be done by simply disconnecting the other cords and using the resistance-coils r whereby the degree of heat can be perfectly regulated. On the other hand, when a general sweat-bath is required, as in cases of lung-fever or colic or the like ailments, all the sections are connected and used, as already described. IVe believe we are the first to produce a practicable scheme for the application of heat to animals in this way or, in fact, in any way.

Referring to Fig. l, we wish to call attention to a feature that is of some importance where a very slight heat is desired in the robe, as in treating very delicate or sensitive persons. This consists in means for fining the current down as required to absolutely nothing and attaining all gradations from that to maximum with all the coil-sections in parallel relation. WVe accomplish this by using the shunt-coil R across the main connections to the heater-terminals, throwing the same in when required by means of the switch 5 closing the circuit 40, which bridges the coil across the main feeders. By regulating the resistance of the coils cut in, the amount of current sent to the controller, and by it to the heating-coils, can be very nicely determined.

Having thus described our invention, what we claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-

1. In an electrotherapeutic system, a main source of supply, electrode-terminals, a heating device also having terminals, connections from the main source to both of said sets of IIO terminals, and a single rheostat, together with means to throw the rheostat into either of two connections, to regulate the current passing either to the electrodes alone, to the heating device alone, or both.

2. In an electrotherapeuticsystem,asource of current-supply, electrodes, a heating device, a single rheostat and switch, and connections from the source of supply to the heating device and the electrodes so arranged that the rheostat may be connected as an adjustable shunt for either or both, at will.

3. In an electric heating system, a group of radiators, a source of supply, an adjustable shunt resistance, and a controlling-switch, adapted to admit current to the radiators separately, or in series or parallel arrangement.

4. In electrotherapeutic apparatus, a robe or blanket containing radiating resistance wires or conductors, the body of the robe and the said wires being subdivided into separately -connected and separable sections, a source of current-su pply, and a controllingswitch adapted to admit current to the different sections in series or in parallel.

5. A sweat robe or blanket constructed in separate sections, each section containing radiatingconductors of definite resistance, suitable terminals for each section and means for detachably connecting the sections together.

6. A sweat robe or blanket consisting of two or more layers of insulating fabric, radiating-conductors secured between said layers, said robe and said conductors being subdivided into mechanically-separable sections, independent terminals for each section, and switching mechanism for admitting current to the sections and regulating the same, together with a suitable source of supply connected to the switching mechanism.

7. A sweat robe or blanket constructed in two or more parts, each part consisting of two or more layers of insulating fabric, with radiatingconductors included between the layers of fabric, and fastening devices arranged along the edges of the separate parts, whereby they may be joined together, or used separately.

8. An electric sweat robe or blanket formed in separate sections, each section composed of two or more layers of insulating fabric, with resistance-wires included between the layers, terminals for each section, and eyelet-holes along the edges of each section, said eyelets adapted to register when the sections are placed together, and suitable lacings.

9. A sweat robe or blanket constructed in separable parts, resistance-wires in each part, terminal conductors for each part, anda loose flap along the edge of each part adapted to form a pocket to receive the terminal conductors when the parts are placed together, and suitable fastening means.

10. In an electrotherapeutic system, a controlling-box, having a top formed of insulating material, two resistance-lamps mounted on said top, a switch for each lamp also mounted on the top, terminals for a source of supply monnted at one end of the top, terminals for translating devices mounted at the other end of the top, a shunt-coil rheostat and bandle and a series-multiple controlling-switch mounted between the sets of terminals, together with an induction-coil and controlling-switch therefor, and connections from the supply-terminals directly to one lamp and its switch to form a shunt, connections from the same terminals to the shunt-coil and to the other lamp with its switch, and similar connections from the same terminals to the controllingswitch, together with connections from the latter to the terminals for the translating devices, and connections from the shunt-coil to terminals for electrodes.

11. In electrotherapeutic apparatus, a sweat robe or blanket formed in separablesections shaped to fit or approximately fit the body and limbs of an animal, a controlling device and connections from the same to the sections of the robe, and means to secure the controlling device on the body of the animal, whereby freedom of movement during treatment is assured.

12. In eleotrotherapeutic apparatus, a sweat robe or blanket made in separable sections shaped to fit the various parts of the body of a quadruped, resistance-wires in said sections, and a source of current-supply to heat same when in position.

In testimony whereof we have hereunto affixed our hands, in the presence of two witnesses, this 14th day of June, A. D. 1902.



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2432159 *Apr 30, 1945Dec 9, 1947Edgar D HyreElectrically heated shoulder pad
US2458119 *Feb 20, 1943Jan 4, 1949Gerrit Van DaamElectrically heated wearing apparel
US2467349 *Aug 13, 1943Apr 12, 1949Gerrit Van DaamElectrically heated device
US2712591 *Apr 3, 1953Jul 5, 1955Albert S RogellElectrical bandage
US2842655 *Mar 25, 1957Jul 8, 1958Morris S SchwebelHeating pad
US4114352 *Jul 19, 1976Sep 19, 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air ForceProtective jacket for chronically instrumented dogs
US6675743 *Jan 24, 2003Jan 13, 2004Two Olive Trees MinistriesMassage blanket for pets
US7219627 *Sep 21, 2004May 22, 2007Electronic Materials LlcElectrical bandage protector
US20090282908 *May 11, 2009Nov 19, 2009Thermogear, Inc.Electrifiable fabric
US20140109314 *May 21, 2012Apr 24, 2014Koninklijke Philips N.V.Temperature-controlled multi-zone mattress-style support
Cooperative ClassificationA61F2007/0001