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Publication numberUS7207 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 26, 1850
Publication numberUS 7207 A, US 7207A, US-A-7207, US7207 A, US7207A
InventorsHugh Bell
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 7207 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

'Y ShBtS--Sheet l.


Patented Mar. 26, 1850.

'7 Sheets She 1. 2A H. BELL.


PatentedvMar. 26, 1850.


Eaten'd Mm. 26

No. 7,207-I m Z @55615 i 7 Sheets-Sheet 4. H. BELL. BALLOON.

No. 7,207; Patented Mar. 26, 1850 Mzfzesss: 157W 0 i? MMM 7 Sheets--Shee 5.


BALLOONl Patented Mar. 26, 1650 No. 7,207. f


pg j,

7 Sheets-Sheet 6.



No.7,20.7. v Patented Mam. 26, 1850.

' l 7 Sheets-Sheet 7- H. BELL.


No. 7,207. Patented Mar. 26, 1,850.



Specification of Lettersatent No. 7,297, dated March 26, 1850.

o all whom it may concern:

lie it known that l, Hoon Benn, esquila,

oi'i London, in the Kingdom of England, have invented certain Improvements in Aerial Machines and Machinery in Connection with the Buoyant Power `lroduced by Gaseous Matter.

My invention relates to improvements in aerial machines and in apparatus to be used in connection with the buoyant power produced by gaseous matter.

ln any aerial motor machines `the suspending, powerl is upon the principle of the balloon. lt is combined with mptive power for the purpose of propelling-the form of the balloonor buoyant part being modified for passage through the air andmay be termed the balloon motor machine.

lstly, balloon motor machine: rlhis lin its complete form is composed in the first place Vot a buoyant apparatus; Qndly, of a frame' work and car to one of which 1s attached an J apparatus `capable 01E producing motive power; rdly, of a guiding or steering apparatus, and, thly, of apparatus for arrestingthe progress of the machine over water and land. A

l will now proceed to describe my invention with reference, `to the balloon motor machine which is represented in the figures, Sheet l.

The balloon or bag containing the buoyant gas l construct of an elongated form havlng its greatest length placed in a more or less horizontal direction fore and aft (I use these terms to distinguish the advance from the rear end ot the balloon in its passage through the air as in the ordinary acceptation of those lterms on shipboard.) no matter whether the form be pearlile, that of two cones placed base to base a cylinder with cones at the extremities or any of those -forms liattened laterally or vertically. Any one of these forms present very considerable diminution of resistance to the atmosphere on heingpropelled through it inthe direction of its length as, compared 4to the usual -i'orm of the ordinary balloon. I believe the best form to be somewhat like that shown in around in a horizontal line to about where the upper and lower halves of the balloon membrane meet or somewhat below this it should be sufficiently loose to admit of the;f balloon being distended with buoyant gas above that membrane Without interfering with its capacity further than by. its own thickness which of course would be very trilling. This partition membrane is shown in Figs. 2 and 4, Sheet l2 which are longitudinal and transverse sectlons of the machine, 1,arepresenting the membrane of the balloon and b b the septum membrane. It is seen to be close to the lower half of the balloon,

ity above it is distended with gas having ,little or no atmospheric air beneath it or between it and the lower half of the balloon. The only other attachment it would have is at the bottom part of the balloon where the rope from the top emptying valve vc passes through the safety gas valve d to be within reach of the aeronaut. This should be a, cylindrical passage supported by hoops so as to prevent any possibilit of the membrane becomin jammed an fouling the valve rope. Tie emptying valve might be situated elsewhere, as at the after'extremity of the balloon above the septum membrane b o to be acted upon by a rope from the outside. In this case thehooped part of the partition membrane would be unnecessary and it would be left attached byits margin only. The septum membrane b b should. prevent' as much as possible all communi- 'cation of atmospheric air (if any were beneathit) with the buoyant "gas above it. If aballoon` with thispartition membrane be filled with gas yabove the septum b b to ,about three fourths of its contents and the remaining quarterbeneath the septum with common air so as to distend it the balloon may at moderate and at the same time variable elevations always be kepttensc without any escape of gas being necessary for on the expansion of the whole contents of the` apparatus while ascending, in the atmosphere it is so arranged that alll the atmospheric air beneath the septum b bwould escape before any of the buoyant gas could do so from the balloon aboveh This is effected by means of a valve c constructed so' earth the buoyant Agas would again become cavity of the balloon and attached all` the situation it would occupy when the c avy would fall.` And if this septum b be nearly'l condensed causing the balloon membrane to become lax, to counteract which atmospheric air should be injected by the blowing machine f or other'suitable apparatus into the space beneath the septum b b, from` which it has been suffered to escape and thus obviate the otherwise fiacci state into which it equal in extent of surface to'one horizontal halfof the balloon itmay be kept tense longer than there could vpossibly be sui'lcient buoyant power to support the machine in air. The objcct'of this arrangement is to facilitate the rapid motion of a large machine of this kind through the air and without which it would be im racticable, as will be evident'to any one Wyo has seen a half lled balloon b ag with the wind; under which circumstance any propelling poner would if attempted be attended with considerable danger to the'balloon;

rThe a1r injecting or filling apparatus if, may be either a large light syringe with valves or an apparatus similar to the patent bellows ,tted with a single valve to be worked by the hand or by other driving power employed for propelling by the vshaft f. The septulnb b havingno tension to resist but merely tov prevent the` buoyant gas and atmospheric air becoming diffused or intermingling with each other, maybe so thin as to weigh but a few pounds and the air injecting machine ,may be very small if It mayl worked by "effective motive power. be here stated that if the propellin powen be efficiently applied to one of the ormsof the buoyant machines above mentioned in its distended state it wouldk easily compensi' sate for several pounds above the weightof the arrangement of apparatus just described' by the increased ease with which it would pass through the air on being propelled obliquely upward. It would never be requ1 site to take up any atmospheric-air in tht 5 aration of material as may be 'most fitted to.-

space between the septum and the lower half of the balloon it is only to be forced in when lthe balloon as collapsed from a jdei'cient' quantity of gas. The buoyant gas gradually escaping from this machine while ascending in the air may be` made use ofto heat the,v

water to producestearn should such be `used as of the propelling power. The membranes used in the construetionfof the vbuoyant apparatus should be of such material or prepf prevent exosmos'e and endosmose combined with the greatest possible lightness -suchY as silk or preparationsthereof. jj

In place of the vnettin fin common use for strengthening the balloon and affording an attachment to the framework-or cai' I use flat bands g g g' those made of silk I -belie've will bcfound to give thel greatest strengthA combined with the least weight. These bands g g g are placed; longitudinally andl` transversely around the balloon 'diz and ,also diagonally if great strength be yrequired as shown in part at Fig. 1 and stitched Where they cross one another or'they may be so woven. y this arrangement the advantages gained are greater strength more equal strain, less resistance to motion through the air and less chaiing to the silk or membrane a a containing the buoyant gas that being very considerable from the knots of the netsingle strong band attached all around at the central horizontal line of the balloon. fore and aft and also to the corresponding inside part of the llattenedbands. v This is shown in the' transverse section, Fig. 4, Sheet 3, where' the balloon membrane a is bulged inward in order vto show the connecting band b where it will be seen to be attached by both margins one to the balloon membrane a and the other vto the band work or netting 'g'. There should be a lacing in the center of this band all the way around so that when the .flat band netting is separated from the balloon it may take one half of theband andthe balloon the other half. This separatin band should be so broad. as not to inter erewith the ordinary relations'of theballoon and its netting. The lgreat advantage of -this arranvement is as ollows; Suppose while in the air all the gas was suddenly let out by the bursting of the above. The impulse towardthe earth would cause the lower half 'membranes to rise and fill or-biilge like a arachute and would give the occupantsof the: car a chance of being band 6 being continuouslthroughout the horizontal 'circumference it ,may consist of a series of' bands or straps one at ea'ch vertical band of the .network g g.'

apparatus used`in ballooning, believe will supersede all' that have been hitherto used for preventing the esca e of gas, and this .from the ease with whic it may be opened itsvsurfaces are reversed and tted to any part of the balloon wherev it is -wished that ythe gas should escape on the ltension reaching a certain point and the springs or vul- ,pitch it vforms a certain'safety valve admitting ofthe escape cf gas when it-has exceeded that-pitch. In theserepresentations which the valves are placed inthe ordinary by meanshfuof a rope attachedv to the lower plate.-l"ig.=k 3,)Sheet 2, represents-a vertical section; Fig; 4, a sideelevation of thisim-V proved valve/:fy ,1, 1, is the rim or valve seat in. onegpiece -with the bridges 4, 4. The valve plateI 9. is larger than the part against ting inr common use, and I also apply a.

and closed at the will ofthe aeronaut. If'

.balloon and t0 be acted on bl' the aerommt 12.5

balloon with orwithout rupture'of netting brought safe to the ground'. Instead of the;

The construction of my imV roved valve lio canizedindia rubber be regulated to that it is supposed to be in the situation of that in f,

show a diierent position of the propellerskv which would perhaps `be better adapted for propelling than that Shown' in the .otherl figures as being closer to-the resisting area of the machine and equally Within the coniiiiaiid of the acron'aut, y

During the passage of this aerial machine through the atmosphere it is necessary to employ some apparatus for guiding their movements which I terni the steering or tail apparatus (from the siiiiilarity'to` thetail of a bird) which has imparted to it two motions the one a -hinge motion and the other a rotating motion combined for the purpose of obtaining the necessary movements of an extended surface or fan more or less approachiiigto those of the tail of the. bird so that the guiding or directing the `whole machine When-iii motion in every direction may be at the commandjof the aeronaut.- The ytail apparatus which is represented 'in Figs. l, 2, and 5, Sheet l, is composed of a frame more iless in the'form of a birds tail over, which some membrane "may be stretched or it may be 'made wholly of metal this moved upon a hinge joint Z by means ofwjla; running cord orchain y i/ passing from-` either surface of'the tail fan m over the :pulleys on the ends of the branches of tubing n npaSSing down into the axis tubingao throng which it 'is conveyed to thepriphery of t ie Wheel p situated at' the extremity of this tubing as represented in Y' the frame work or it may be in the car or boat by these meansa complete hinge motion is obtained. By turning the Wheel p on its axis by the handle s in either direction the ,taken up on the periphery while'the other will be Slacked out causing the extreinity'of the tail to depart from the Y. straight line thewheel apparatus being represented on a large scale at Fig. 3, Sheet 3.

The partial rotation ofl Works the arms being the Whole tail .apparatus just mentioned is effected by the motion of a. small lever attached to the arms on each side of the wheel in which its pivot firmly attached to the tubing o on which the hinge of the tail fan m works this.. tube is rotated by moving the lever vto either side and hence it is called the axis tfube'the tube in which it has the j rotary 'motion is marked vo.

In F ig. 3, Sheet=3,.wi1l be; thattwo rate 'ets or fixing wheels are'represeuted for the purpose of? securing the taill m in its different positions ai is 4attlched to' the Wheel. which, is held at any required point by the 'click :v1 which adjusts the position ofthe tail on its hinge motion -as before explained by the cords y y while the ratchet wheels s with its tube o is aifixedto the frame work secures i. the whole apparatus inany'position' ob-v taine'd'byl its rotation with the tube o by means of the click s where the rotary movement has to be produced oat o the'straight the motion of its tail {paratus which I term water f' resented in Figs. 8 .and 9, sheet 2, 'in the ex-- line as hen the tail is situated` much above or belo the level of the boat as would be the case were it situated at the after ex.- Y

before the .hinge by l'means of another similar wheel in reaoh'of the aeronaut through a. succession of pulleys the hinge wheel would act in the saineway straight tube admittin The first mode of producin tion and slight rotation of t the most simple is that which I The results from the above combinations of the hinge motion and rotary motion are that the fan may be made to bend on its hinge in any direction' of a circle namely' up or down or laterally in any diagonal of these motions consequently the direction'of the whole machine when moving sufficiently for Steerage throughthe atniospl'ieie may be changed upward ,or` downward to either side or to any diagonal of any of these on the same principle' as the bird directs its course by the hinge mo'- understood by reference to Figs. 2 and 5, Sheet 1, wlierethe dotted lines show the different positions.

My improvements in machines for'arresting motion in aerial machines over the surface of Water or land consists grapnel, rep# anded and colla sed states. Its general orm is seen to be t at of an umbrella. ATheribs'2, 2, 2, arejmade of iron,'brass or metal 1 tubing and the covering 3 3 B'which is fas- -tened firmly to the ribs, of very. strong. cloth preparedV so las to be impervious to the water. The ribs 2-2 are hinged at one end and connected at intervals by stron cords 4-4-4-4 to the collar 5 at the neck of t e center rod l, 1, so as to prevent the ribs openl. ing more than to a certainextent. To .the

at hinge'being refer.

-altliough it' might b e placed transversely and its line would not 'pass through. a

of a .rotary motion. v.,

which wiii be readily of, 1st, an api short end ofthe Arod above the collara f strong rope 6 is attached and also to the balloon. The ferrule end 7 is lengthened and of solid metal while the rod l 1s of tubing, and another smallrope 8 is attachedjto it at` v its extremity. When it isintended to ar# possible while atrseathis 4machine isto-be with athread or slight cord that will easrest the progress of a balloon as much 'f ily break.; The apparatus is -n'ow tol be let down rapidly by one being'slack .the vheavy end descends first the aerial machine fcaniascend much -from the diminution of-weight produced the moment thatr the rope becomes tight the thread around the umbrella will` give way when it the larger rope the smaller v and is carried deeply into the water before 'naar opens immense resistance to its;l passage through'the water is produced bythe body ofc water `it vcor'ltai'ns'. -The aerial machine 6 *is to be' slackened andthe small rope to hauled upon by this the Water grapnel has lits ends reversed when it collapses as seen'in Fig. V9r and the. only resistance to its being hauled up is its own weight and the friction arising from its passage through the water. nel either for water or the common one used for 'land should be dropped if possible while theaerial machine ils-kept as 4nearly as possible over the same spot of surface. Again the grapnel rope whether for lander water should have a long piece or pieces of vulcanized caoutchouc of its whole breadth or one or more springs proportionably strong in its rope or the rope should be of an elastic material by these means the sudden jerk occassioned by bringing too is felt in using the common rope from the ordinary balloon when the wind is fresh will be in aA great measure prevented.

When steam power is used the generation I water. The balloon becoming speciicallylighter would rise in the air the consumption of coal or aiiyiniammable fluid should now cease and the gas be allowed to pass through the tubeto be ignited beneath the boiler as the balloon became lax air must be pumped or injectedinto its proper receptacle after a time the balloon would gradually diminish in buoyant power until if allowed it would sink to the ground if at this time water be requireda small quantity so as not to increase much the specific gravity of the machine may be caught up by bucket the machine being made to oppose the wind so as to keep it for the time over the water as stationary as possible.A The coal or fluid ballast is now to be made use of. if the inachinc has a tendency to ldescend it may be kept up by being` propelled in an oblique direction upward until by the use of the ballast the speciiie gravity has become equal to the air it is moving in. The discharging only a portion of ballast or gras alternately b usino" it tonoduce heat for the 0encray CD i D tion of steam carried to a very slight extent would be suiiicient in most Cases to get into It may be observed that a vgrapany current oi air or even to pass to the` Atrade Winds to be carried a considerable part of the Way toward its destination without incapacitating the machine from returning to the same means again and again in case of adverse winds until itcould arrive at its destination or obtain a supply of fuel and gas from a station.

It must be recolleeted that taking two orl three miles of atmosphere upward iroin'the surface ofthe earth that there are various This is not necessarily the case but is believe most frecurrents in different directions.

quent-ly found to be so. Under the circumstances it would be necessary only to pass from one current to another until one was found more or less fair and to keep in this current without propelling if it were of the same specific gravity as the machine or if not tense such propelling power as by steer-` age would kee the machine in this favorable stratum citen would the current be suf- ,y

iciently strong to carry along the machine for a considerable time without any propelling power until another current were met with on the same level or one passed intol either above or below which would counteract any previous deviation of course. Short flights and toward the 'close of long flights only would require' greatnicctv in the direction of its course. i It is not absolutely necessarythat 'the buoyant power should in all cases be suilicient oi itself to support the machine in air without the propelling power but that it should 4be suiiieient to prevent concussion on alighting on the 'ground to cause 4injury to passengers or machine. The propelling power when in action would be suliicient to keep the machine up when the latter is steered in an oblique direction upward by the helm or tail even if there should be considerable deficiency of buoyant power so that were the propelling power to cease the machine i'nust at once'dcscend to the ground. There would be certainly considerable diliculty in stopping' at diil'erent places when the wind was high Athe same amount or' wind which admits of a common balloon being retained on the ground previous to starting also admits oi' the balloon motor machine being retained bythe Agrapnel especially as its form is better adapted 'for admitting of its passing more easily through the atmosphere the propellcrs also would assist much and would when in action recordingy tothe resistance from the wind in most cases be quite sufficient to enable the balloon motor machine to remain over the same spot of ground. llhe detaching of the boat from the frame 'work is to be eliiected at sea by using the water grapnel, loweringr away the boat by means oi the tackles 2 il and then on a favorable opportunity oi'ering when the boat is just arrived at the surface of the water in the desccntof the ballll-5 loon suddenl to detach both tackles (the use of one only if SSible is much to be preferred); The bal oon should be retained if it would assist in the direction of course required provided-it be sufficiently sound to rclaingas by means of a rope at the head of the boat or nif not all the gas should. be let out of the balloon which should be stowed away' in board. Recourse should be had tQ detaching the boat only when some accident had happened so'as to render it not sulficiently buoyant or safe.

Having described the nature of m invention and the manner of carrying tie same into eiect I would have it understood that I do not confine myself to the precise details herein set forth; but

What I claim as my invention and desire to'be .protected under Letters Patent- A 1. The application of one or more flexible partitions which I have termed the septum membrane to balloons .for the 'purpose hereinbefore described.

251 claim the application of a' rotary Ino- 'tion in conjunction with` a hinge motion fortail in order to effect the Steerage substantially in the manner herein described.

8. I claim the use of the Water grapnel for the urpose of arresting the motion of aerial macliin'es and also the application of elastic ropes to grapnels either forland or Water and which elastic ropes may be formed entirely of elastic material or by introducing omehelastic'material or metal spring vin its engt 4. And lastly I claim the construction of the valve shown in the Figs.- 3, 4, 5, Sheet 2, as applied tq balloons in 'which the valve or plate duringits motion retains a position parallel to its seat.



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2719015 *May 28, 1951Sep 27, 1955Anderson Lloyd JBarrage balloon safety valve
US3039419 *Apr 13, 1959Jun 19, 1962Eugene RimarSea-anchors or water-drags
US3488019 *Aug 8, 1968Jan 6, 1970Miles H SonstegaardCargo-gas airship with boundary layer control
US3971533 *Feb 25, 1975Jul 27, 1976Slater Saul IConvertible airship
US4018406 *Apr 12, 1976Apr 19, 1977Raven Industries, Inc.Redundant blower drive for pressurized hot air airship
US4085912 *Apr 14, 1976Apr 25, 1978Slater Saul IConvertible airship
US4189879 *Dec 5, 1977Feb 26, 1980Patterson Merle WEarth anchor
US4251963 *Oct 1, 1979Feb 24, 1981Patterson Merle WEarth anchor
US4721054 *May 20, 1986Jan 26, 1988Satoru KobayashiAnchor device
US4836126 *Apr 15, 1988Jun 6, 1989Satoru KobayashiAnchor retrieving device
US4848261 *Apr 15, 1988Jul 18, 1989Satoru KobayashiAnchor
US20060192048 *Mar 2, 2004Aug 31, 2006Mauro PedrettiLifting body for an airship
Cooperative ClassificationB64B1/00