US 722837 A
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No. v22,s37. z PATENTED MAR; 17., 1903. F. L. GUILLEMBT.
* AIR BRAKE.
APPLIGATION FILED 00181, 1894. N0 MODEL. 1 I 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
' FIG 6 l2 J T 10 K 4A TI v WITNESSES: v J w; $4M. INVENTOR:
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
FRANQOIS LEONIDAS GUILLEMET, OF SAN FRANCISCQ, CALIFORNIA.
SPECIFICATION- forming part of Letters Patent No. 722,837, dated March 17, 1903.
Application filed October 31, 1.894:- Bri 1N 5Z'71541- NO mod l- To aZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that LFRAN OIs LEONIDAS GUILLEMET, a citizen of France, residing in the city and county of San Francisco, State of California, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Air-Brakes, of which the following is a specification.-
My invention relates to quick-acting automatic air-brakes; and its principal objects are, first, to provide a quick-acting triple valve in which the speed of what is known as quickacting featurewill be as great as can possibly be attained with the sole agency of airpressure; second, to make such quick-acting feature thoroughly reliable and eiiicient at all times, irrespective of conditions-that is, whether the brakes are already partly or fully applied or not and no matter what amount of dirt may be present in the traiurpipe and its connections; third, to efiect'an automatic discharge of such dirt and of water of condensa-. tion which collect in the train-pipe and the valve-chambers; fourth, to facilitate the release of the brakes after an emergency stop.
The invention comprises also a novel and improved arrangement of graduating-valve,
permitting the same to remain firmly seated 1 part or parts which are designed for producing when the brakes are partly applied.
The principal advantages of my improved triple valve are secured or rendered practicable by discharging apart of the train-pipe pressure, preferably into the atmosphere, and effecting the closure of the discharge-passage by a new method or principle, which will be fully described hereinafter. With the brakes in common use the train-pipe pressure is expanded into the brake-cylinders for produc ing quick action in emergency stops. This practice of admitting train-pipe pressure into the brake-cylinders in emergency is objection-I First, it is unnecesthe brake-cylinder for relieving train-pipe pressure is a very variable quantity, not only component parts of such device.
,for a higher than atmospheric pressure.
on account of variation in travel of the brakepiston, but also because when the brakes are partly applied the space is partly taken up and the action of the emergency-valves is very uncertain and cannot be trusted, yet it is just when the brakes are partly applied that the efficiency of the emergency-valves is most frequently desirable or indispensable. Third, with train-pipe pressure admitted to the brakecylinder in emergency the auxiliary-reservoir pressure is but slightly reduced, and a quick release is thereby rendered doubtful, principally on long trains. Fourth, dirt accumulating in the train-pipe cannot be discharged into the brake-cylinder for. obvious reasons. Fifth, the quick-action feature must be most rapid when pressure from the train'pipe is vented into the open air.
In this specification and the appended claims whenever I'use the term graduatingvalve I mean a valve which controls the admission of pressure from the auxiliary reservoir to the brake-cylinder in service stops, and graduating-spring the spring or other appliance which arrests the triple-valve piston at theproper point for service stops. By the term emergency-valve device I mean the what is known as quick action, whether dependent or independent from the plain triple valve. The terms emergency-piston and emergency-valve will of course designate All such terms are well understood by those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains. When using the term equilibrium of fluid-pressure, I intend to include atmospheric pressure; but the term fluid-pressure or fluid under pressure when used without the word equilibrium in conjunction will be meant In using the term discharge-passage from the train-pipe I mean a passage through which pressure is relieved from said pipe Without reference to where the pressure thus relieved may go; but by the term exhaust-passage from the train-pipe I mean a passage leading from the train-pipe to the atmosphere, whether all the pressure in the train-pipe or only a part thereof is exhausted through said passage. By the term valve device I a section on the line a .2 of Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is a vertical section through a modified construction, and Fig. 7 shows a second modification of a detail in Fig. 6.
1 2 3 are parts of the valve-casing.
4 is the triple-valve piston; 5, the slidevalve of the triple valve; 6, the graduating valve; 7, graduating-spring abutting against a stationary piston'S, which is made air-tight by means of the rubber gasket 9 and metallic gasket 10 and fits in the tube formed in the piston 4; 11, sleeve fast in part 1 of the valvecase, at the end of which the seat of valve 6 is formed and acting also as a guide for the piston 4; 12, bushing into which the flat seat of valve 5 is formed; 13, spring holding valve 5 to its seat; 4*, sleeve fastened to or made integral with piston 4; 14, strainer; 16, parts of inner casing or shell for the emergency-valve device; 17, emergency-piston; 17 piston-rod; 18, emergencyvalve; 19, emergency-valve spring; 2021, packing- -rings for rod 17"; 22, rubber or leather gasketin valve 18; A, train-pipe connection;
B, auxiliary-reservoir connection; 0, brake-' cylinder connection; D, feed-port, preferably I tapering, as shown, and may also be a groove;
E, passage from feed-port to auxiliary reservoir; F, service-stop port or passage; G, emergency-port normally in communication with the exhaust-port H through cavity I in valve 5; J, passage to emergency-piston chamber; K, chamber of slide-valve 5; L, chamber of piston 4; M, chamber of piston 17; M, space of predetermined volume; N, port of predetermined size through which pressure is admitted to or exhausted from one side of piston 17; O, discharge port or passage from the train-pipe; P P, ports between chamber K and the auxiliary reservoir; Q, emergencyvalve chamber; R, small leak at the edge of port J; S S, bolt-holes in flange T.
The sleeve 4 is provided near the end with a series of inner lugs or notches U, adapted to catch valve 6, and a series of grooves V, parallel to the lugs, one lug and a groove only being shown.
From the main train-pipe the air-pressure reaches into the auxiliary reservoir through passage A, chamber L, port D, and passage E. Thence it flows into chamber'K through passages P P, and from chamber K into chamber M through port J. 1
The piston 4 has the usual slight range of independent motion before catching valve 5 in moving either way. In service stops the piston 4 moves alone first to the left, covering port D. Then it moves together with valve 5 until the lugs U catch valve 6, and the exhaust-port H is then out of communication with port G. A little further motion of the piston to the left will unseat valve 6 against the resistance of spring 7, and auxiliary-reservoir pressure will be admitted to the brakecylinder through grooves V and passages F and O, and on equalization of auxiliary-reservoir pressure with that in the train-pipe the spring 7 will close valve 6 and hold it firmly seated if the air-pressure has any tendency to leak around it. It will be seen that although'the valve 6, spring 7, and piston 8 are held in the piston 4 they remain undisturbed until the latter piston unseats valve 6, and piston 8 is never disturbed. If a sudden fall of pressure occur at any point in the trainpipe, the piston 4 will makea full stroke to the left, and the parts J H will then be brought into communication with each other through cavity I in valve 5, thereby quickly relieving the pressure on top of piston 17. The pressure in the space M will also be relieved, but having to pass first through the restricted port N will not escape so quickly and will have time to momentarily lift piston 17 and valve 18, thereby venting train-pipe pressure into the atmosphere or elsewhere; but as soon asthe pressure in the space M is exhausted the spring 19 will close valve 18. It will be understood that by properly proportioning the size of ports N 0 and that of space M with the'volnme of air contained in a car-section of train-pipes any desired amount of pressure may be relieved from the trainpipe. The communication between ports J H will be partly established before the port G is uncovered and will be still maintained after full opening of port G, through which the auxiliary reservoir 'pressure will quickly equalize into the brake-cylinder. With the valve 5 at the service-stop position the port J is partly or fully covered by it; but in order to prevent the pressure in chamber M and space M being fully exhausted by leakage communication of that chamber with chamber K is inaintained through a minute groove Rat the edge of port J, so that if an emergency stop is desired when the brakes are partly applied there will be pressure in the space M for operating the emergencyvalve. It is quite unnecessary that the emergency or quick-action feature should be able to take place two or'm'ore-times in succession, yet such feature could be readily obtained simply by adjusting the emergency-valvedevice in such way as to effect a reduction of pressurein the train-pipe only about-equal to the reduction occurring in the-auxiliary reservoir by expansion into the brake-cylinder. This would permit the spring 7 to retract the piston 4 immediately after equalization of auxiliary-reservoir pressure into the brakecylinder, and the space M would then be refilled with pressure and ready for another quick action; butIdeem it preferable to efiect a reduction of pressure in the train-pipe of about five pounds in excess of the reduction occurring in the auxiliary reservoir, or, say, about twenty-five pounds reduction in the train-pipe and twenty in the auxiliary reser- VOlI.
It is desirable that the flanges T T should be of such size or form as to retain interchangeability of connection with the appliances in actual use; but it is still more desirable to secure perfect drainage of chamber L, as any moisture freezing in that chamber may interfere with the operation of the brakes. In order to harmonize these two desirable conditions, the center of flanges T T is on a lower plane than the center line of the chambers K L, and in this way the passage E may lead from the bottom of chamber L to the auxiliary reservoir in a horizontal plane, thereby effecting perfect drainage of chamber L and permitting also any dirt passing through the strainer 14 to find its way into the auxiliary reservoir instead of having a tendency to remain in chamber L. The flange T should be preferably fastened on one side of the auxiliary reservor or of the brake-cylinder in a way such as to direct the pressure from the trainpipeinto chamber Q in a straight line, as every angle in the pipes retards the motion of the fluid, so, also, do the strainers when located in the usual manner, even if kept perfectly clean, which is seldom the case, for the dirt accumulates in a pretty short time and obstructs the strainers in part at least, thereby retarding the quick-action feature when not stopping it entirely; but with my device no strainers are required between the main trainpipe and the chamber Q. -Whenever the quick-action feature of the brake is brought into play, a solid stream of fluid will shoot out in a nearly-straightline without meeting with any obstacle and carrying with it any dirt or water in the vicinity of valve 18, and the most troublesome element to be contended with in the use of air-brakes will thus be removed. The strainer 14, which is placed in the branch of passage A leading to chamber L, having a large space beneath it and its outer face being turned in direction of passage A, through which the dirt is supplied, it can never become filled and packed solid with dirt, as is frequently the case with the brakes in use. It is also located so as to be easily inspected without breaking the trainpipe joint at A by simply removing the part or cap 2.
The outer diameter of the inner shell 15 is somewhat larger at the bottom than at the top, so as to facilitate removal for inspection.
It will be observed that the face and seat of valve 18 are unlike the common arrangement of disk valves, whose face or seat carry a gasket of soft material. My arrangement, which is susceptible of modifications of detail, will be understood from the drawings and has for its object to prevent any gritor dirt to remain on or around the valve-face or its seat when pressure is discharged from the train-pipe; but while I have illustrated what I deem one of the best arrangements of valve for the purpose of cleaning the train-pipe and claim its new features I do not wish to limit myself to any particular detail or form of construction of the valve device controlling the removal of dirt from the train-pipe, but to one that has no considerable tendency to become quickly deranged or leaky by the presence of dirt on, around, or near it, and is adapted to free itself from such dirt, so that strainers may be dispensed with between the main train-pipe and the discharge-passage, if desired.- The valve-seat and the valve-face are inclined, so that the direction in which the dirt would naturally tend to fall is the same as the direction in which it would be carried by the flow of air through the passage, and when the valve is unseated any dirt which may be caught on the face of the valve will drop off or be blown off into the passage.
In the modification illustrated by Big. 6 the space or chamber M is normally filled with pressure, as in the former design, but is normally out of comm unication with the emergency-piston 17, and the piston-chamber M is normally exposed to atmospheric pressure, but is brought into communication with the space M when the piston 4 makes a full stroke to the left. The exhaust-port H is adapted to communicate at times with the brake -cylinder and permanently with the chamber M. When the piston 4 makes afull stroke to the left, the passage J communicates with the port and passage J through the recess I in valve 5, and the pressure in the space or chamber M is suddenly brought beneath the piston 17, from where it escapes more slowly through port N and the large exhaust-passage H.
The port may open into an expansionchamber 3 of determined size, so as to gage the amount of air to be drawn from the trainpipe. In this event the port 0 could remain open for a longer space of time than if the expansion chamber is absent, and when closed the pressure remaining in the chamber 3 would be vented through the small port W. It is obvious that the closure of the passage 0 will be eifected by valve 18, whatever the destination of the pressure relieved from the train-pipe may be; but if admitted into the brake-cylinder a check-valve should be located in passage 0 for preventing backflow from the brake-cylinder to the train-pipe.
The casing 15 makes with the bushing 15 a tapering joint, which is thus rendered tight. The joint may also be formed directly with the outer casing, and the bushing is considered as an integral part of the outer casing.
The piston 17 may be actuated by pressure either from the train-pipe, from the auxiliary reservoir, or from any other limited or unlimited source of supply-such, for instance, as is shown in the modification of detail Fig. 7, in which said piston is actuated by auxiliary-reservoir pressure when the valve 5 advances to the left until the recess or groove J communicates with the port J through the recess I. In this case the pressure is gradually admitted into the space M through port N instead of being gradually discharged from pensed with. I consider such leakage as the equivalent of the port N.
What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. In an automatic fluid-pressure brake system, the combination, with a train-pipe, an auxiliary reservoir, and a brake-cylinder, of an emergency-valve con trolling the release of fluid from the train-pipe, a piston by whose movement the emergency-valve is operated and which is located in a chamber which is disconnected from the train-pipe and from the brake-cylinder in the application of the brakes, a triple valve device controlling ports by which fluid is admitted to and released from the chamber, and a passage through which the pressures on opposite sides of the piston may be equalized when the brakes are applied, substantially as set forth.
2. In an automatic fluid-pressure brake system, the combination, with a train-pipe, an auxiliary reservoir and a brake-cylinder, of an exhaust-passage through which fluid is released from the train-pipe to the atmosphere, an emergencyvalve, a movable abutment which is actuated by fluid-pressure to open the exhaust-passage, a triple-valve device, a passage controlled by the triple-valve device for admitting fluid under pressure to the brake-cylinder, a passage controlled by. the triple valve through which fluid under pressure is supplied to the movable abutment, and a normally open port or passage through which fluid-pressures on opposite sides of the movable abutment may be equalized and thereby permit the closure of the exhaustpassage, substantially as set forth.
3. In a triple valve, the combination of a piston for holding the graduating-valve to its seat.
4. In a triple valve, the combination of a piston, a main slide-valve having a lost-motion connection with the piston and controlling the exhaust from the brake-cylinder, and the supply from the auxiliary reservoir to the brake-cylinder in emergency applications, a graduating-valve operated by the piston, a stationary seat therefor and a spring having a support independent of the piston for holding the graduating-valve to its seat.
5. In an air-brake, the combination, of a triple-valve casing, a piston-chamber formed in said casing, an auxiliary reservoir, and a port or passage leading from the bottom of the piston-chamber to the auxiliary reservoir, said passage being entirely below the bottom of the piston-chamber whereby the said chamber will drain into the auxiliary reservoir.
6. In a triple-valve device, a piston-chamber, a cap closing the end of the piston-chamber, a passage in the main casing leading from the train-pipe, a passage in the cap leading to the piston-chamber and a removable strainer located at the juncture of these passages.
F. LEONIDAS GUILLEMET. Witnesses:
JOSEPH CHAVANETTE, MAROELLIN CHAVANETTE.