|Publication number||US7254754 B2|
|Application number||US 10/619,648|
|Publication date||Aug 7, 2007|
|Filing date||Jul 14, 2003|
|Priority date||Jul 14, 2003|
|Also published as||CA2532766A1, CA2532766C, CN1902592A, CN100495353C, EP1644819A2, US7788569, US8108750, US20050015700, US20080016413, US20080126890, WO2005006173A2, WO2005006173A3, WO2005006173A9|
|Publication number||10619648, 619648, US 7254754 B2, US 7254754B2, US-B2-7254754, US7254754 B2, US7254754B2|
|Inventors||Steven Robert Hetzler, Daniel Felix Smith, Shmuel Winograd|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Non-Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (34), Classifications (14), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is related to patent application Ser. No. 10/619,641, entitled “Anamorphic Codes”, patent application Ser. No. 10/619,633, entitled “Autonomic Parity Exchange,” and patent application Ser. No. 10/619,648, entitled “Multi-path Data Retrieval From Redundant Array” each co-pending, co-assigned and filed concurrently herewith, and each incorporated by reference herein. The present application is also related to co-pending and co-assigned patent application Ser. No. 10/600,593, which is also incorporated by reference herein.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to storage systems. In particular, the present invention relates to a system and a method for providing improved performance, protection and efficiency for an array of storage units.
2. Description of the Related Art
The following definitions are used herein and are offered for purposes of illustration and not limitation:
An “element” is a block of data on a storage unit.
A “base array” is a set of elements that comprise an array unit for an Error or Erasure Correcting Code.
An “array” is a set of storage units that holds one or more base arrays.
A “stripe” is a base array within an array.
n is the number of data units in the base array.
r is the number of redundant units in the base array.
m is the number of storage units in the array.
d is the minimum Hamming distance of the array.
D is the minimum Hamming distance of the storage system.
IOw is the number of IOs to perform an update write.
The total number of storage units in an array is m=n+r.
Storage systems have typically relied on RAID techniques for protecting against data loss caused by storage unit failures. Current RAID designs, however, are reaching the limits of their usefulness based on increasing storage unit capacities. The notation (X+Y) used herein will be used to indicate X data units and Y redundant units. Most systems today use RAID 5 (n+1) or single mirroring (1+1) as a basic array design. Both of these types of storage system configurations have a minimum Hamming distance of D=2 and, therefore, protect against a single storage unit failure. As used herein, the term “distance” refers to the minimum Hamming distance. The likelihood of multiple drive failures and hard errors, however, have increased the occurrence of data loss events in RAID 5 system configurations. Multiple storage unit losses leading to data loss have been observed in practice.
Many array configurations have been proposed for handling such a high failure rate. For example, RAID 6 (n+2) having a distance D=3, double mirroring (1+2) having a distance D=3, and RAID 51 (n+(n+2)) having a distance D=4 have all been proposed as solutions for handing a high failure rate. Nevertheless, all of these array configurations have shortcomings as will be described in connection with Table 1 and
What is still needed is an array configuration that provides improved performance, protection and efficiency over conventional approaches.
The present invention provides an array configuration that provides improved performance, protection and efficiency over conventional approaches.
The advantages of the present invention are provided by an array controller coupled to three data storage units and three check storage units: a (3+3) configuration, referred to herein as a RAID 3+3 array. Information is stored on the data storage subsystem as a symmetric Maximum Distance Separation code, such as a Winograd code, an EVENODD or a derivative of an EVENODD code, or a Reed Solomon code. The array controller determines the contents of the check storage units so that any three erasures from the data and check storage units can be corrected by the array controller. Failure of any three storage units, data and check, can occur before data stored in the data storage subsystem is lost. The array controller updates a block of data contained in array using only six IO operations while maintaining the contents of the check storage units so that any three erasures of the data storage units and the check storage units can be corrected by the array controller. Two of the IO operations are read operations and four of the IO operations are write operations. More specifically, the read operations read data from the data storage units that are not being updated, and the four write operations write data to the data storage unit being updated and to the three check storage units.
The present invention is illustrated by way of example and not by limitation in the accompanying figures in which like reference numerals indicate similar elements and in which:
The present invention provides a new storage system configuration that has significant advantages over previously conventional storage system configurations. In that regard, the storage system configuration of the present invention provides the best combination of performance, protection and efficiency. The storage system configuration of the present invention also enables entirely new techniques for handling errors that increase the level of protection. See, for example, patent application Ser. No. 10/619,641, entitled “Anamorphic Codes”, patent application Ser. No. 10/619,633 , entitled “Autonomic Parity Exchange,” and patent application Ser. No. 10/619,648, entitled “Multi-path Data Retrieval From Redundant Array”, and each incorporated by reference herein.
The configuration of storage subsystem 100 is referred to as a symmetric code in which the number of data storage units is the same as the number of redundant storage units, and is MDS. Array controller 101 calculates redundant information from the contents of the data units such that all the data can be recovered from any three of the six storage units.
There are several ways of calculating the redundant data. The preferred method is to use a Winograd code. Winograd codes are highly efficient encodings that only utilize exclusive-OR (XOR) operations for computing the redundant data. There are highly efficient Winograd codes for computing a 3+3 code, (as illustrated in patent application Ser. No. 10/600,593, which is incorporated by reference herein. There are also extensions to the EVENODD code that only utilize XOR operations, however they are less efficient than the Winograd codes. See, for example, M. Blaum et al., “EVENODD: An Efficient Scheme For Tolerating Double Disk Failures In A RAID Architecture,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 192-202, February 1995, and M. Blaum et al., “The EVENODD Code and its Generalization,” High Performance Mass Storage and Parallel I/O: Technologies and Applications,' edited by H. Jin et al., IEEE & Wiley Press, N.Y., Chapter 14, pp. 187-208, 2001.
The data efficiency of RAID 3+3 storage subsystem 100 is ½. The configuration of RAID 3+3 array 100 as a storage subsystem that is part of a larger storage system provides several advantages over conventional storage subsystems relating to failure resilience and write performance.
For example, RAID 3+3 subsystem 100 can tolerate failure of any three storage units without losing the data set. This is a property of a Maximum Distance Separation (MDS) erasure code; such as a Winograd code, an EVENODD or a derivative of an EVENODD code, or a Reed-Solomon code, that RAID 3+3 storage subsystem 100 uses. The resilience to failure permits repairs to be made to RAID 3+3 storage subsystem 100 in a less urgent fashion for conventional RAID system configurations. That is, by providing more redundancy, the opportunity to repair a broken subsystem is increased, thereby allowing a longer interval before data loss occurs due to storage unit failures. Additionally, by keeping the number of storage units within the subsystem low, the chances of units failing within each subsystem is reduced in comparison to subsystems that use a larger number of storage units.
An additional benefit occurs during the repair stage when having D≧2 (i.e., there is remaining redundancy) allows the recovery of further, perhaps small, data loss events by any unit that is being used during the repair process. Furthermore, when one or fewer storage units have failed, array controller 101 of RAID 3+3 subsystem 100 is able to repair data from any storage unit that returns incorrect data.
RAID 2 + 2
RAID n + 3
RAID 3 + 3
Table 1 compares the data storage efficiency and write performance penalty of different conventional system configurations and a RAID 3+3 system configuration according to the present invention. The first (leftmost) column lists a number of conventional system configurations, including a RAID 3+3 system configuration according to the present invention. The second column shows the minimum Hamming distance, the third column shows the data storage efficiency, and the fourth column shows the write performance penalty for the different system configurations listed in the first column to Table 1. The data storage efficiency value for each respective system configuration, ignoring spares, is computed assuming an array size of m=16 storage units. The write performance penalty values represent the number of IO operations for small block writes.
The three rightmost system configurations in
A RAID 3+3 system configuration according to the present invention achieves a distance of D=4, while requiring only six IOs for small block writes.
A conventional updating technique is used for a linear MDS code to update parities based on changes in data. The conventional technique requires reading the old data from the data drive, reading the corresponding old parities from the parity drives, writing the new data, computing the new parities and writing the new parities to the parity drives. The conventional technique of updating parities based on changes in data will be referred to herein as the “forward method” of updating parities. Thus, the number of IOs to perform an update write for the forward method is:
A second method that can be used for updating parity in an MDS code referred to herein as the “complementary method” of updating parities. In the complementary method, the existing data is first read from the data drives that are not being updated, then the new data and parity values are written. The number of IOs to perform an update write for the complementary update method is:
Thus, there are situations in which the complementary method is more efficient than the conventional forward method. When
it follows that
n+r≦2(r+1) n≦r+2. (4)
Equation 4 shows that array configurations having a high degree of redundancy thus have better IO efficiency by using the complementary method for updating parity. The complementary method also spreads the IO load more evenly among the storage units of the system because there is one IO per device—either a read or a write. Conversely, the forward method involves read-modify-write operations on the accessed devices resulting in a more localized access pattern. The complementary method may also have better implementation characteristics when, for example, nearby data is cached.
A symmetric code where n=r provides a further performance advantage when the complementary method is used for update writes. In a symmetric code, the Hamming distance is D=r+1. In the general MDS case, the number of IOs to perform an update was shown to be IOwfwd=2D. For a symmetric code update using the complementary method,
Thus, two IOs are saved from the case of the general MDS codes using the forward update method. This means that a symmetric code can achieve a minimum distance that is 1 greater than a general MDS code at the same write performance.
Distance D=4 can also be achieved using a 3× mirror. This requires only four IOs for an update write, but has an efficiency of ¼. RAID 51 system designs and derivatives can achieve distance D=4 at six IOs with a combination of the forward method and a copy, but have efficiency <½.
Distributed parity can be used with a RAID 3+3 system configuration according to the present invention for avoiding hot spots. Hot spots can occur when data access patterns are localized. RAID 5 uses distributed parity (also called declustered parity) to avoid hotspots induced by having a dedicated parity storage unit (known as RAID 4). RAID systems using the forward update method will have hot spots on the parity units due to the read-modify-write operations. While RAID systems using the complementary update method avoid this type of hot spot, write activity will concentrate on the check units.
While the present invention has been described in terms of storage arrays formed from HDD storage units, the present invention is applicable to storage systems formed from arrays of other memory devices, such as Random Access Memory (RAM) storage devices, optical storage device, and tape storage devices. Additionally, it is suitable to virtualized storage systems, such as arrays built out of network-attached storage. It is further applicable to any redundant system in which there is some state information that associates a redundant component to particular subset of components, and that state information may be transferred using a donation operation.
Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be apparent that certain changes and modifications may be practiced that are within the scope of the appended claims. Accordingly, the present embodiments are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the invention is not to be limited to the details given herein, but may be modified within the scope and equivalents of the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||714/710, 714/E11.034, 714/800, 714/6.21, 714/6.2|
|International Classification||G11C29/00, G06F11/10, G06F3/06|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F2211/1064, G06F2211/1057, G06F2211/1059, G06F11/1076|
|European Classification||G06F11/10R, G06F11/10M|
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