|Publication number||US7255772 B2|
|Application number||US 10/897,296|
|Publication date||Aug 14, 2007|
|Filing date||Jul 21, 2004|
|Priority date||Jul 26, 2000|
|Also published as||EP1303870A2, US6921456, US20020046707, US20050000651, WO2002009147A2, WO2002009147A3|
|Publication number||10897296, 897296, US 7255772 B2, US 7255772B2, US-B2-7255772, US7255772 B2, US7255772B2|
|Inventors||Maximilian A. Biberger, Frederick Paul Layman, Thomas Robert Sutton|
|Original Assignee||Tokyo Electron Limited|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (105), Non-Patent Citations (60), Referenced by (8), Classifications (22), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation application of the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/912,844, filed on Jul. 24, 2001 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,921,456, and titled “HIGH PRESSURE PROCESSING CHAMBER FOR SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE,” which claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/220,883, filed on Jul. 26, 2000, and from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/283,132, filed on Apr. 10, 2001, and titled “SUPERCRITICAL PROCESSING CHAMBER FOR PROCESSING SEMICONDUCTOR WAFER. The U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/912,844, filed on Jul. 24, 2001, and titled “HIGH PRESSURE PROCESSING CHAMBER FOR SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE,” the U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/220,883, filed on Jul. 26, 2000, and the U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/283,132, filed on Apr. 10, 2001, and titled “SUPERCRITICAL PROCESSING CHAMBER FOR PROCESSING SEMICONDUCTOR WAFER” are all incorporated by reference.
This invention relates to the field of high pressure processing. More particularly, this invention relates to the field of high pressure processing of a semiconductor substrate.
Processing of semiconductor substrates presents unique problems not associated with processing of other workpieces. Typically, the semiconductor processing begins with a silicon wafer. The semiconductor processing starts with doping of the silicon wafer to generate transistor semiconductors. Next, the semiconductor processing continues with deposition of metal and dielectric layers interspersed with etching of lines and vias to produce transistor contacts and interconnect structures. Ultimately in the semiconductor processing, the transistor semiconductors, the transistor contacts, and the interconnects form integrated circuits.
A critical processing requirement for the processing of the semiconductor substrate is cleanliness. Much of semiconductor processing takes place in vacuum, which is an inherently clean environment. Other semiconductor processing takes place in a wet process at atmospheric pressure, which because of a rinsing nature of the wet process is an inherently clean process. For example, removal of photoresist and photoresist residue subsequent to etching of the lines and the vias uses plasma ashing, a vacuum process, followed by stripping in a stripper bath, a wet process.
Other critical processing requirements for the processing of the semiconductor substrates include throughput and reliability. Production processing of the semiconductor substrates takes place in a semiconductor fabrication facility. The semiconductor fabrication facility requires a large capital outlay for processing equipment, for the facility itself, and for a staff to run it. In order to recoup these expenses and generate a sufficient income from the facility, the processing equipment requires a throughput of a sufficient number of the wafers in a period of time. The processing equipment must also promote a reliable process in order to ensure continued revenue from the facility.
Until recently, the plasma ashing and the stripper bath was found sufficient for the removal of the photoresist and the photoresist residue in the semiconductor processing. However, recent advancements for the integrated circuits include etch feature critical dimensions below dimensions with sufficient structure to withstand the stripper bath and low dielectric constant materials which cannot withstand an oxygen environment of the plasma ashing.
Recently, interest has developed in replacing the plasma ashing and the stripper bath for the removal of the photoresist and the photoresist residue with a supercritical process. However, high pressure processing chambers of existing supercritical processing systems are not appropriate to meet the unique needs of the semiconductor processing requirements.
What is needed is a high pressure processing chamber for semiconductor processing which meets cleanliness requirements of the semiconductor processing.
What is needed is a high pressure processing chamber for semiconductor processing which meets throughput requirements of the semiconductor processing.
What is needed is a high pressure processing chamber for semiconductor processing which meets reliability requirements of the semiconductor processing.
The present invention is a high pressure chamber for processing of a semiconductor substrate. The high pressure chamber comprises a chamber housing, a platen, and a mechanical drive mechanism. The chamber housing comprises a first sealing surface. The platen comprises a region for holding the semiconductor substrate and a second sealing surface. The mechanical drive mechanism couples the platen to the chamber housing. In operation, the mechanical drive mechanism separates the platen from the chamber housing for loading of the semiconductor substrate. In further operation, the mechanical drive mechanism causes the second sealing surface of the platen and the first sealing surface of the chamber housing to form a high pressure processing chamber around the semiconductor substrate.
The preferred pressure chamber of the present invention is preferably used for supercritical processing of a semiconductor wafer. Preferably, the preferred pressure chamber forms part of a supercritical processing module. Preferably, the supercritical processing module is used to remove photoresist from the semiconductor wafer. Alternatively, the supercritical processing module is used for other supercritical processing of the semiconductor wafer, such as photoresist development.
A pressure chamber frame of the present invention is illustrated in
The opening/closing housing portion 14 of the pressure chamber frame 10 includes the windows 18, which provide access for assembly and disassembly of the preferred pressure chamber. Preferably, there are four of the windows 18, which are located on sides of the pressure chamber frame 10. Preferably, each of the windows 18 are framed on their sides by two of the posts 19, on their top by the pressure chamber housing portion 12, and on their bottom by a base 23. The bolt holes 22 of the pressure chamber housing portion 12 are for bolting a top lid to the pressure chamber frame 10.
Prior to describing the preferred pressure chamber of the present invention, a first alternative pressure chambers is described in order to more simply introduce aspects of the present invention.
The first alternative pressure chamber of the present invention is illustrated in
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that fasteners couple the wafer platen 34 to the cylinder 36, couple the cylinder 36 to the piston, and couple the sealing plate 38 to the pressure chamber frame 10. Further, it will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the bolts which preferably couple the top lid 32 to the pressure chamber frame 10 can be replaced by an other fastener, such as by screws or by threading the pressure chamber frame 10 and the top lid 32.
A cross-sectional view of the first alternative pressure chamber 30 in a closed configuration is illustrated in
The pressure chamber frame 10 and the piston body 54 form a hydraulic cavity 58 below the piston body 54. The pressure chamber frame 10, the sealing plate 38, the piston body 54, and the piston neck 56 just above the piston body 54 form a pneumatic cavity 60 between the piston body 54 and the sealing plate 38.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that a piston seal between the piston body 54 and the pressure chamber frame 10 isolates the hydraulic cavity 58 from the pneumatic cavity 60. Further, it will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that a neck seal, between the piston neck 56 and the sealing plate 38, and a plate seal, between the sealing plate 38 and the pressure chamber frame 10, isolate the pneumatic cavity 60 from atmosphere. Moreover, it will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that in operation hydraulic and pneumatic fluid systems, both of which are well known in the art, are coupled to the hydraulic cavity 58 and the pneumatic cavity 60, respectively.
In the supercritical processing, the semiconductor wafer 46 occupies the wafer cavity 44 where a supercritical fluid is preferably used in conjunction with a solvent to remove the photoresist from the semiconductor wafer 46. After the supercritical processing and venting of the wafer cavity 44 to atmospheric pressure, hydraulic fluid within the hydraulic cavity 58 is depressurized while the pneumatic cavity 60 is slightly pressurized with a gas, which moves the piston 40 down. This lowers the wafer platen 34 so that the semiconductor wafer 46 is adjacent to the slit 16. The wafer 46 is then removed through the slit 16. Preferably, the semiconductor wafer is removed by a robot (not shown). Alternatively, the semiconductor wafer 46 is removed by a technician.
A second semiconductor wafer is then loaded through the slit 16 and onto the wafer platen 34. Next, the pneumatic cavity 60 is vented to atmospheric pressure while the hydraulic cavity 58 is pressurized with the hydraulic fluid, which drives the wafer platen 34 into the spacer/injection ring 42, which reforms the wafer cavity 44. The wafer cavity 44 is then pressurized, and the supercritical fluid and the solvent remove the photoresist from the second wafer.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that during the supercritical processing the hydraulic fluid within the hydraulic cavity 58 must be maintained at an hydraulic pressure which causes an upward force that is greater than a downward force on the wafer platen 34 caused by the supercritical fluid.
The spacer/injection ring 42 of the present invention is further illustrated
A cross-section of the spacer/injection ring 42 is illustrated in
The wafer cavity 44 and a two port outlet of the present invention are illustrated in
In operation, incoming supercritical fluid 82 enters the annulus 64 of the spacer/injection ring 42, creates the vortex within the wafer cavity 44, and alternately creates first and second vortex centers proximate to the first and second exhaust ports, 78 and 80, as the shuttle piece moves from the first position 74 to the second position 76. Outgoing supercritical fluid 84 then exits the two port outlet 70. In this way, the supercritical processing of an entire surface of the semiconductor wafer 46 is assured.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the injection nozzles 66 of the spacer/injection ring 42 and the two port outlet 70 can be incorporated into a general pressure chamber having ingress and egress for a semiconductor substrate through a gate valve. Further, it will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that depending upon a particular supercritical process for the semiconductor substrate, the spacer/injection ring 42 could be unneeded since the particular supercritical process does not require the vortex for adequate processing. Moreover, it will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the shuttle piece 72 of the two port outlet 70 can be replaced by a more general valve arrangement.
The preferred pressure chamber of the present invention is illustrated in
The alternative piston neck 56A includes a hollow center portion where the pneumatic cylinder 86 couples to the alternative piston 40A. The piston neck 56A couples to the lower platen 88 at a top of the piston neck 56A. The lower platen 88 couples to the upper platen 90 at an upper surface of the lower platen 88. The lower platen 88 and the upper platen 90 couple to the pedestal 92 at centers of the lower and upper platens, 88 and 90. The pedestal 92 couples to the pneumatic cylinder 86 at a lower end of the pedestal 92. The pedestal 92 includes a vacuum port 94, which provides vacuum for a pedestal vacuum chuck 96.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the preferred pressure chamber 30A includes a vacuum line to the vacuum port 94 and a pneumatic line to the pneumatic cylinder 86.
A top view of the upper platen 90 is illustrated in
A cross-section of a portion of the upper platen 90 is illustrated in
A bottom surface of the upper platen 90 is further illustrated in
The upper platen 90 is preferably sized to accommodate a 300 mm wafer. An alternative upper platen can be used in lieu of the upper platen 90, where the alternative upper platen has the fourth and fifth o-ring grooves, 100 and 102, and the first and second vacuum grooves sized to accommodate a different size wafer than the 300 mm wafer, for example a 200 mm wafer. Thus, rather than replacing the wafer platen assembly 34A in the preferred pressure chamber 30A (
The pressure chamber frame 10, the alternative top lid 32A, the spacer/injection ring 42, and the wafer platen assembly 34A of the preferred pressure chamber 30A are further illustrated in
The supercritical processing module of the present invention, incorporating a second alternative pressure chamber of the present invention, is illustrated in
The second alternative pressure chamber 30B includes an alternative pressure chamber housing 12A and an alternative wafer platen 34B. The alternative pressure chamber housing 12A and the alternative wafer platen 34B form an alternative wafer cavity 44A for the semiconductor substrate 46. The alternative pressure chamber housing 12A includes alternative injection nozzles 66A. Preferably, the alternative wafer platen 34A is held against the alternative pressure chamber housing 12A using a hydraulic force. Alternatively, the alternative wafer platen 34B is held against the alternative pressure chamber housing 12A using a mechanical clamping force. Preferably, the alternative wafer platen 34B moves to a load/unload position 215 by releasing the hydraulic force. Alternatively, the alternative wafer platen 34B moves to the load/unload position 215 upon release of the mechanical clamping force. Further alternatively, the alternative wafer platen 34B moves to the load/unload position 215 by actuating a drive screw coupled to the alternative wafer platen 34B or by using a pneumatic force.
The carbon dioxide supply arrangement 206 includes a carbon dioxide supply vessel 216, a carbon dioxide pump 218, and a carbon dioxide heater 220. The chemical agent and rinse agent supply arrangement 212 includes a chemical supply vessel 222, a rinse agent supply vessel 224, and first and second high pressure injection pumps, 226 and 228.
The carbon dioxide supply vessel 216 is coupled to the second alternative pressure chamber 30B via the carbon dioxide pump 218 and carbon dioxide piping 230. The carbon dioxide piping 230 includes the carbon dioxide heater 220 located between the carbon dioxide pump 218 and the second alternative pressure chamber 30B. The pressure chamber heater 204 is coupled to the second alternative pressure chamber 30B. The circulation pump 210 is located on the circulation loop 208. The circulation loop 208 couples to the second alternative pressure chamber 30B at a circulation inlet 232 and at a circulation outlet 234. The chemical supply vessel 222 is coupled to the circulation loop 208 via a chemical supply line 236. The rinse agent supply vessel 224 is coupled to the circulation loop 208 via a rinse agent supply line 238. The separating vessel 214 is coupled to the second alternative pressure chamber 30B via exhaust gas piping 240. The liquid/solid waste collection vessel 217 is coupled to the separating vessel 214.
The separating vessel 214 is preferably coupled to the liquefying/purifying arrangement 219 via return gas piping 241. The liquefying/purifying arrangement 219 is preferably coupled to the carbon dioxide supply vessel 216 via liquid carbon dioxide piping 243. Alternatively, an off-site location houses the liquefying/purifying arrangement 219, which receives exhaust gas in gas collection vessels and returns liquid carbon dioxide in liquid carbon dioxide vessels.
The pressure chamber heater 204 heats the second alternative pressure chamber 30B. Preferably, the pressure chamber heater 204 is a heating blanket. Alternatively, the pressure chamber heater is some other type of heater.
Preferably, first and second filters, 221 and 223, are coupled to the circulation loop 208. Preferably, the first filter 221 comprises a fine filter. More preferably, the first filter 221 comprises the fine filter configured to filter 0.05 μm and larger particles. Preferably, the second filter 223 comprises a coarse filter. More preferably, the second filter 223 comprises the coarse filter configured to filter 2–3 μm and larger particles. Preferably, a third filter 225 couples the carbon dioxide supply vessel 216 to the carbon dioxide pump 218. Preferably, the third filter 225 comprises the fine filter. More preferably, the third filter 225 comprises the fine filter configured to filter the 0.05 μm and larger particles.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the supercritical processing module 200 includes valving, control electronics, and utility hookups which are typical of supercritical fluid processing systems. Further, it will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the alternative injection nozzles 66A could be configured as part of the alternative wafer platen 34B rather than as part of the alternative chamber housing 12A.
In operation, the supercritical processing module is preferably used for removing the photoresist and photoresist residue from the semiconductor wafer 46. A photoresist removal process employing the supercritical processing module 200 comprises a loading step, a cleaning procedure, a rinsing procedure, and an unloading step.
In the loading step, the semiconductor wafer 46 is placed on the alternative wafer platen 34B and then the alternative wafer platen 34B is moved against the alternative chamber housing 12A sealing the alternative wafer platen 34B to the alternative chamber housing 12A and, thus, forming the alternative wafer cavity 44A.
The cleaning procedure comprises first through fourth process steps. In the first process step, the alternative wafer cavity 44A is pressurized by the carbon dioxide pump 218 to desired supercritical conditions. In the second process step, the first injection pump 226 pumps solvent form the chemical supply vessel 222 into the alternative wafer cavity 44A via the chemical supply line and the circulation loop 208. Upon reaching desired supercritical conditions, the carbon dioxide pump stops pressurizing the alternative wafer cavity 44A. Upon reaching a desired concentration of the solvent, the first injection pump 226 stops injecting the solvent. In the third process step, the circulation pump 210 circulates supercritical carbon dioxide and the solvent through the alternative wafer cavity 44A and the circulation loop 208 until the photoresist and the photoresist residue is removed from the semiconductor wafer. In the fourth process step, the wafer cavity 44A is partially exhausted while maintaining pressure above a critical pressure, then the alternative wafer cavity 44A is re-pressurized by the carbon dioxide pump 218 and partially exhausted again while maintaining the pressure above the critical pressure.
The rinsing procedure comprises fourth through seventh process steps. In the fourth process step, the alternative wafer cavity is pressurized by the carbon dioxide pump 218. In the fifth process step, the second injection pump 228 pumps a rinse agent form the rinse agent supply vessel 224 into the alternative wafer cavity 44A via the rinse agent supply line 238 and the circulation loop 208. Upon reaching a desired concentration of the rinse agent, the second injection pump 228 stops injecting the rinse agent. In the sixth process step, the circulation pump 210 circulates the supercritical carbon dioxide and the rinse agent through the alternative wafer cavity 44A and the circulation loop 208 for a pre-determined time. In the seventh process step, the alternative wafer cavity 44A is de-pressurized. Alternatively, it may be found that the fifth and sixth process steps are not needed.
In the unloading step, the alternative wafer platen 34B is moved to the load/unload position 215 where the semiconductor is removed from the alternative wafer platen 34B.
Preferably, at least two of the supercritical processing modules of the present invention form part of a multiple workpiece processing system, which provides simultaneous processing capability for at least two of the semiconductor wafers. The multiple workpiece processing system is taught in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/704,642, filed on Nov. 1, 2000, which is incorporated in its entirety by reference. Alternatively, the supercritical processing module of the present invention along with a non-supercritical processing module forms part of a multiple process semiconductor processing system. The multiple process semiconductor processing system is taught in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/704,641, filed Nov. 1, 2000, which is incorporated in its entirety by reference. Further alternatively, the supercritical processing module of the present invention forms part of a stand-alone supercritical processing system employing a single supercritical processing module of the present invention.
A third alternative pressure chamber of the present invention comprises the second alternative pressure chamber 34B plus a surface enhancement feature of the alternative chamber housing 12A above the semiconductor substrate 46. The surface enhancement feature comprises a height variation from an outer diameter of the alternative wafer cavity 44A to a center of the alternative wafer cavity 44A in order to provide more uniform molecular speeds above the semiconductor substrate 46. Preferably, the height variation comprises a high point at the outer diameter of the alternative wafer cavity 34B to a low point at the center of the alternative wafer cavity 34B providing a more constricted space at the center of the wafer cavity 34B. Alternatively, the height variation comprises the high point at the outer diameter of the alternative wafer cavity 34B, the low point between the outer diameter and the center of the alternative wafer cavity 34B, and an intermediate point at the center of the alternative wafer cavity 34B.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that the preferred pressure chamber 30A and the first through third alternative pressure chambers of the present invention are appropriate for high pressure processing that is below supercritical conditions.
It will be readily apparent to one skilled in the art that other various modifications may be made to the preferred embodiment without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||156/345.26, 134/1.2, 134/1.1, 118/715, 430/256, 438/631, 438/645, 134/1.3, 156/345.1|
|International Classification||H01L21/304, H01L21/027, C23C14/00, H01L21/00, C23C16/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L21/67051, H01L21/67748, H01L21/67751, H01L21/67126|
|European Classification||H01L21/677B6, H01L21/677B8, H01L21/67S2D4W4, H01L21/67S2M|
|Jul 21, 2004||AS||Assignment|
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