|Publication number||US7271491 B1|
|Application number||US 09/652,495|
|Publication date||Sep 18, 2007|
|Filing date||Aug 31, 2000|
|Priority date||Aug 31, 2000|
|Also published as||US7517797, US20020182771|
|Publication number||09652495, 652495, US 7271491 B1, US 7271491B1, US-B1-7271491, US7271491 B1, US7271491B1|
|Original Assignee||Micron Technology, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (33), Referenced by (61), Classifications (35), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to carrier substrates for use in chip-scale packages and to chip-scale packages including such carrier substrates. Particularly, the present invention relates to silicon carrier substrates. Methods of fabricating chip-scale packages are also within the scope of the present invention.
2. Background of Related Art
In conventional semiconductor device fabrication processes, a number of distinct semiconductor devices, such as memory chips or microprocessors, are fabricated on a semiconductor substrate, such as a silicon wafer. After the desired structures, circuitry, and other features of each of the semiconductor devices have been fabricated upon the semiconductor substrate, the substrate is typically singulated to separate the individual semiconductor devices from one another.
Various post-fabrication processes, such as testing the circuits of each of the semiconductor devices and burn-in processes, may be employed either prior to or following singulation of the semiconductor substrate. These post-fabrication processes may be employed to impart the semiconductor devices with their intended functionality and to determine whether or not each of the individual semiconductor devices meet quality control specifications.
The individual semiconductor devices may then be packaged. Along with the trend in the semiconductor industry to decrease semiconductor device size and increase the density of structures of semiconductor devices, package sizes are also ever-decreasing. One type of semiconductor device package, the so-called “chip-scale package” or “chip-sized package” (“CSP”), consumes about the same amount of real estate upon a substrate as the bare semiconductor device itself. Such chip-scale packages typically include a carrier substrate having roughly the same surface area as the semiconductor device itself. As the carrier substrate of such chip-scale packages is small, electrical connections between the semiconductor device and the carrier substrate are often made by flip-chip-type bonds or tape-automated bonding (“TAB”). Due to the typical use of a carrier substrate that has a different coefficient of thermal expansion than the semiconductor substrate of the semiconductor device, these types of bonds may fail during operation of the semiconductor device.
In view of the potential for failure of the flip-chip or TAB electrical connections in chip-scale packages, chip-scale packages that include more flexible electrical connections, such as wire bonds, were developed. An exemplary chip-scale package that includes such flexible electrical connections is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,685,885 (hereinafter “the '885 patent”), issued to Khandros et al. on Nov. 11, 1997. The chip-scale package of the '885 patent may be assembled by orienting and disposing a sheet of interposer material over a wafer including a plurality of semiconductor devices thereon. The bond pads of the semiconductor devices may then be wire-bonded or otherwise flexibly bonded to corresponding contacts of the interposer. The wafer and interposer sheet may then be simultaneously singulated to separate individual semiconductor device packages from each other. The method and devices of the '885 patent are, however, somewhat undesirable. The package of the '885 patent includes a semiconductor device, a flexible, sheet-like dielectric interposer, and a substrate. Thus, the likelihood of failure of the semiconductor device is undesirably high. Moreover, the interposer of the package of the '885 patent may include circuitry thereon to reroute electrical signals to and from the bond pads of the semiconductor device. These circuits may undesirably alter the electrical characteristics of signals transmitted through the bond pads.
Following packaging, the packaged semiconductor devices may be retested or otherwise processed to ensure that no damage occurred during packaging. The testing of individual packaged semiconductor devices is, however, somewhat undesirable since each package must be individually aligned with such testing or probing equipment.
Accordingly, there is a need for a semiconductor packaging process that facilitates testing, probing, and burn-in of semiconductor devices without requiring the alignment of individual semiconductor devices and by which a plurality of reliable chip-scale packages may be substantially simultaneously assembled. An efficient chip-scale packaging process with a reduced incidence of semiconductor device failure is also needed. There is a further need for chip-scale packaged semiconductor devices that consume about the same amount of real estate as the semiconductor devices thereof and that withstand repeated exposure to the operating conditions of the semiconductor device.
A carrier substrate according to the present invention, which is also referred to herein as a semiconductor substrate or simply as a carrier, is comprised of a semiconductor material and includes apertures defined substantially through the semiconductor material. The apertures of the carrier substrate are alignable with or may otherwise be positioned to communicate with corresponding bond pads of a semiconductor device to be secured to the carrier substrate. Any of the exposed surfaces of the carrier substrate may be covered with insulative material.
Conductive material may be disposed within and substantially fill the apertures so as to facilitate the transmission of signals to and from the bond pads of the semiconductor device through the carrier substrate. Alternatively, the apertures of the carrier substrate may be lined with conductive material by known metallization processes, such that a hollow portion may remain within the apertures. The hollow portion may be subsequently filled with a conductive bump material, such as solder. When the apertures are substantially filled with conductive material, an aperture and the conductive material therein collectively define an electrically conductive via, which is also referred to herein as a via for simplicity, through the carrier substrate.
The carrier substrate may also include conductive traces extending substantially laterally from selected ones of the electrically conductive vias. Preferably, each laterally extending conductive trace is carried by the carrier substrate proximate a surface opposite the surface to which a semiconductor device may be secured, which opposite surface is also referred to herein as a back side surface or simply as a back side of the carrier substrate. Such laterally extending conductive traces facilitate reconfiguration of the electrical paths through the carrier substrate.
Contacts, which communicate with corresponding vias, may be disposed proximate to and are preferably exposed at the back side of the carrier substrate. If the carrier substrate includes any conductive traces that extend from the electrically conductive vias, a contact may be disposed proximate an end of a conductive trace, opposite the via from which the conductive trace extends and with which the conductive trace communicates. Alternatively, a contact may be disposed along the length of a conductive trace.
A conductive bump, such as a solder bump or a solder ball, may be disposed adjacent each contact. Alternatively, if the apertures of the carrier substrate were lined with conductive material, a conductive bump may be disposed substantially over selected apertures and permitted to substantially fill any remaining hollow portion of the apertures by capillary action or wicking.
The carrier substrate may also include insulative material on the back side thereof. The insulative material may be grown onto or deposited on the back side of the carrier substrate. If insulative material is disposed on the back side of the carrier substrate, the contacts or conductive bumps are preferably exposed therethrough.
When the carrier substrate is employed in a chip-scale package, a semiconductor device is invertedly disposed over the carrier substrate such that bond pads on the active surface of the semiconductor device substantially align with corresponding vias of the carrier substrate. Thus, the vias through the carrier substrate communicate signals to and from the corresponding bond pads of the semiconductor device. The carrier substrate and the semiconductor device may be secured to one another, at least in part, by bonding the conductive material of the vias to the material of the bond pads.
Alternatively, or in combination with bonds between the conductive material of the carrier substrate and bond pads of the semiconductor device, an intermediate layer may be disposed between the semiconductor device and the carrier substrate to secure the semiconductor device to the carrier substrate. Preferably, such an intermediate layer comprises an adhesive material securable to both the active surface of the semiconductor device and a surface of the carrier substrate.
In a preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention, apertures are defined through a semiconductor wafer, such as a silicon wafer, which is referred to herein as a substrate wafer and may also be referred to as a first wafer. Preferably, the locations of the apertures of the carrier substrate or substrate wafer correspond substantially to bond pad locations of semiconductor devices fabricated on a wafer including a plurality of semiconductor devices, which wafer is referred to herein as a semiconductor device wafer and may also be referred to as a second wafer. The apertures through the carrier substrate or substrate wafer may be defined by known processes, such as by laser drilling or by masking and etching.
The carrier substrate or substrate wafer is aligned with the semiconductor device or semiconductor device wafer so that corresponding apertures of the carrier substrate or substrate wafer and bond pads of the semiconductor device or semiconductor device wafer are substantially aligned with one another. A polymeric material or an adhesive material may be disposed on either an active surface of the semiconductor device or semiconductor device wafer or on a surface of the carrier substrate or substrate wafer to be disposed adjacent the semiconductor device or semiconductor device wafer. The semiconductor device or semiconductor device wafer and the carrier substrate or substrate wafer are then disposed adjacent one another.
A layer of insulative material may be grown or disposed on any exposed surfaces of the carrier substrate or substrate wafer by known processes, such as by thermal oxidation techniques or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The insulative material may be disposed on the carrier substrate or substrate wafer either prior to or after assembly thereof with the semiconductor device or semiconductor device wafer.
Conductive material may be disposed in each of the apertures to define vias through the carrier substrate or substrate wafer. As conductive material is disposed within each of the apertures, the conductive material and the material of the bond pad exposed to the aperture may diffuse and thereby at least partially secure the semiconductor device wafer and the substrate wafer to one another.
Any laterally extending conductive traces may be fabricated on the back side of the substrate wafer. Known techniques, such as metallization processes, masking processes, and etching processes, may be employed to fabricate these conductive traces.
Contact pads comprising under-bump metallurgy (“UBM”) or ball-limiting metallurgy (“BLM”), which are referred to herein as contacts for simplicity, may be fabricated on the back side of the substrate wafer. Preferably, each of these contacts correspond to and communicate with a via of the carrier substrate or substrate wafer. The contacts may be fabricated by known processes, such as by known metallization, masking, and etching processes. A conductive bump, such as a solder bump or a solder ball, may be disposed on each of the contacts by known processes.
An assembly that includes the semiconductor device wafer and the substrate wafer may be singulated by known processes. Upon singulation of individual semiconductor devices from the semiconductor device wafer and the substantially simultaneous singulation of the substrate wafer, individual chip-scale packages are separated from one another.
Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to those of skill in the art through a consideration of the ensuing description, the accompanying drawings, and the appended claims.
With reference to
As shown in
Contacts 24, such as the ball-limiting metallurgy structures or under-bump metallurgy structures known in the art, may be disposed in communication with vias 20 and carried by carrier substrate 10 on or proximate back side 11. If carrier substrate 10 includes any laterally extending conductive traces 22, contacts 24 may be disposed adjacent such conductive traces 22. Referring again to
Carrier substrate 10 may also include insulative material 28 on back side 11. Insulative material 28 may be disposed in a layer that substantially covers back side 11. The presence of insulative material 28 on back side 111 is especially preferred if carrier substrate 10 includes any conductive traces 22 exposed at back side 11. If carrier substrate 10 includes insulative material 28, insulative layer 13 coating apertures 12, vias 20 within apertures 12, contacts 24, or conductive bumps 26 are preferably exposed through insulative material 28.
Turning now to
Each aperture 12, which is lined with an insulative layer 13, preferably extends substantially through carrier substrate 10. The location of each aperture 12 preferably corresponds substantially to a location of a bond pad 16 (see
As shown in
With reference to
As shown in
If the removal of portions of insulative layer 38 from carrier substrate 10 is desired, known processes, such as mask and etch techniques, may be employed. For example, it may be desirable to remove insulative layer 38 from the surfaces of apertures 12 from bond pads 16, or from electrically conductive vias 20. Thus, a mask including openings or apertures therethrough to expose apertures 12 would be fabricated and employed in combination with an etchant that selectively etches the material of insulative layer over the material of bond pads 16 or the semiconductor material of carrier substrate 10.
Preferably, as conductive material 18 is disposed in apertures, conductive material 18 contacts bond pads 16 of semiconductor device 14. As conductive material 18 or via material may adhere to bond pads 16, conductive material 18 may diffuse, thereby forming a diffusion region or contact between conductive material 18 and the corresponding bond pad 16, the disposal of conductive material 18 within apertures 12 may at least partially secure carrier substrate 10 and semiconductor device 14 to one another.
Conductive material 18 may be annealed to insulative layer 13 by known processes, such as by thermal anneal techniques.
Any undesired regions of conductive material 18 (e.g., of either of layers 18 a or 18 b) that remain on back side 11 may be removed by known processes. For example, known planarization techniques, such as chemical-mechanical planarization or chemical-mechanical polishing, may be employed to substantially completely remove the conductive material 18 from back side 11. Alternatively, if the selective removal of any portion of conductive material 18 from back side 11 is desired, known patterning processes, such as mask and etch techniques, may be employed to pattern conductive material 18.
With reference to
Alternatively, if conductive material 18 (or the material of second layer 18 b) is a solder-wettable material, contacts 24 may be patterned from the conductive material 18 disposed over back side 11 of carrier substrate 10. Known processes, such as masking and etching, may be employed to define contacts 24 from conductive material 18.
Referring now to
With reference to
If layer 18′ includes a barrier material, the barrier material may be disposed on the insulative layer 13-lined surfaces of apertures 12 by known processes, such as by chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition. The wettable conductive material of layer 18′ may also be disposed over the insulative layer 13-lined surface of each aperture 12 by known processes, such as chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition. Barrier material or conductive material may be removed from back side 11 of carrier substrate 10 by known processes, such as by known patterning or planarization techniques.
As shown in
As the chip-scale packages 30 of the present invention may be fabricated on a wafer scale, as depicted in
Turning now to
Although the foregoing description contains many specifics and examples, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention, but merely as providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments. Similarly, other embodiments of the invention may be devised which do not depart from the spirit or scope of the present invention. The scope of this invention is, therefore, indicated and limited only by the appended claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by the foregoing description. All additions, deletions and modifications to the invention as disclosed herein and which fall within the meaning of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.
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|U.S. Classification||257/774, 257/E23.021, 257/E23.008, 257/E23.011, 257/778, 257/E23.067, 257/737|
|International Classification||H01L23/52, H01L29/40, H01L23/485, H01L23/14, H01L23/498, H01L23/48|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L2924/00014, H01L2224/05572, H01L2224/05026, H01L2224/05001, H01L2224/13, H01L2924/12042, H01L2924/01022, H01L2924/01006, H01L23/49827, H01L2924/14, H01L23/147, H01L2924/01033, H01L24/10, H01L2924/01079, H01L2924/014, H01L2224/13099, H01L2924/01005, H01L2924/01013, H01L24/13|
|European Classification||H01L24/10, H01L23/498E, H01L23/14S|
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