|Publication number||US7278920 B1|
|Application number||US 10/334,146|
|Publication date||Oct 9, 2007|
|Filing date||Dec 31, 2002|
|Priority date||Dec 31, 2002|
|Publication number||10334146, 334146, US 7278920 B1, US 7278920B1, US-B1-7278920, US7278920 B1, US7278920B1|
|Inventors||Paul R. Klamer, Darrell Ronnie Otwell|
|Original Assignee||Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Non-Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (23), Classifications (19), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This description relates to gaming systems, and more particularly to multiplayer gaming systems.
Movie theaters typically include high quality audio-visual systems. The visual and sound systems present in a theater may include the most advanced technologies designed to make the theater experience realistic and intense. Similarly, the visual display systems may include a high-resolution display.
In one general aspect, multiple player games may be enabled for concurrent and interactive participation by more than one player at more than one location. For instance, input to and control of a gaming environment may be enabled by a first player at a first location and by a second player at a second location that is different from the first location. The gaming environment for the first player may be displayed on a first screen that is operated by a first commercial entity, and the gaming environment for the second player may be displayed on a second screen that is operated by a second commercial entity. The first and second commercial entities may each differ from either of the first and second players, and either or both of the first and second commercial entities may commercialize services related to the gaming environment for at least one of the first and second players.
Implementations may include a system or program capable of achieving the above features.
The details of particular implementations are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.
A theater-based gaming system is provided to enable concurrent and interactive play of a game by multiple players at multiple commercial locations. A first player inputs and controls the games environment at a first location while a second player independently inputs and controls the game's environment at a second location. The environments for the first and second players are displayed on screens that are operated by one or more commercial entities, which commercial entities differ from either of the first and second players. As such, a business may capitalize on online or remote gaming by hosting one or more sites for such gaming, and charging players for the opportunity to participate at their physical premises.
The following simplified example illustrates the operation of a theater-based gaming system. In this example, a first user purchases a ticket at a first theater to enter a theater configured to participate in a gaming environment. To join the game, the first user rents a game controller with gaming glasses and connects this game controller to a game connection point in the theater. A second user at a second theater may do the same to join a game, that is, to retrieve a stored game identity that is associated with a particular configuration or online identity so that the users may play the game, view the game and control a perceivable display, and/or message each other (e.g., to coordinate team activity). Thus, a single theater may simultaneously host multiple players or viewers. Upon joining the game, the first and second users may compete against other players in other theaters. For example, in an air combat simulation, they may work together in trying to shoot down their opponents.
Generally, the first theater 110 and the second theater 130 are movie theaters configured to support a multiplayer gaming environment. Specifically, the first and second theaters may be operated as commercial entities configured to provide commercial services related to the gaming environment. Examples the commercial services may include a theater that provides a gaming environment and that collects entrance or participation fees and ancillary fees (e.g., equipment rental) from game participants (e.g., players and/or viewers). The revenues need not be realized directly from the participants; for example, revenues may be realized through advertisements and sponsorships. Furthermore, the revenues may be realized in an automated manner. For example, a user may have an associated online account/identity that is associated with an electronic payment method.
Different commercial entities may be part of a single unified or several distinct theater systems, and each commercial entity may support multiple users at one or more locations. For example, the first theater 110 may be located in an east coast company's theater while the second theater 130 may be located in a west coast company's theater. A first player may be in the east coast company's theater while the second player may be in the west coast company's theater. The east coast company's theater may have multiple participants. Alternatively, a first player may participate in a first theater of the east coast company while the second player participates in a second theater of the east coast company.
The network 120 may include hardware and/or software capable of enabling direct or indirect communications between the first theater 110 and the second theater 130. As such, the network 130 may include a direct link between the first theater 110 and the second theater 130, or it may include one or more networks or subnetworks between them (not shown). Each network or subnetwork may include, for example, a wired or wireless data pathway capable of carrying and receiving data. Examples of the network 120 include the Internet, the World Wide Web, a WAN (“Wide Area Network”), a LAN (“Local Area Network”), analog or digital wired and wireless telephone networks, radio, television, cable, satellite, and/or any other delivery mechanism for carrying data.
Generally, the management system 140 is configured to manage the gaming environment for games available at the first and second theaters. Depending on the configuration of the gaming system 100, the operations performed by the management system 140 may differ. For example, if a player console local to either of the first or second theaters 110 and 130 is configured to perform many of the tasks, the management system 140 may perform a limited number of tasks. For example, when a player's console manages the display, and inputs, the management system 140 may manage the theater screen, the sound systems, and the interplayer gaming data. In another example, when the player's consoles are more limited, the management system may manage the displays and inputs, in addition to the theater screen, the sound systems, and the interplayer gaming data.
Although management system 140 is shown as interfacing with the gaming system 100 through the network 120, aspects of the management system may be distributed in more than one location, and/or as part of one or more of the theaters 110 and 130. For example, the management system 140 may reside in an intelligent switch (not shown) as part of network 120. The intelligent switch may be configured to manage traffic flows for the gaming environment. In another example, each player may have a gaming console which performs some game management. The game consoles may interface with a server which integrates multiple consoles. Furthermore, one or more servers may be tied together to create an array of management systems.
Additional theaters and/or gaming systems may be coupled into the gaming system 100. For example, the first theater 110 may include a theater in a cinema complex while the second theater 130 may be a theater in the same cinema complex. In another example, non-theater-based gaming systems may participate in the gaming environment.
Generally, the first player system 111 and the second player system 112 are configured to enable input to and control of a gaming environment by a player operating the player system. The first player system 111 and the second player system 112 may share one or more pieces of hardware and/or software. For example, the first player system 111 and second player system 112 may be included in a console having joysticks, with each player using one joystick.
The theater display 113 is configured to display the gaming environment for the players on a screen operated by a commercial entity. For example, the theater display 113 may include a movie screen and a projector configured to interface with one or more player systems, where the player systems communicate with the projector directly or indirectly through one or more intermediary systems.
A movie screen (not shown) in the theater display 113 may include a passive surface without active elements, that is, without electronic components, displays or devices or the movie screen may include an active surface with electronic components, displays, and devices used to enhance the gaming environment. In one example, the movie screen may include sensors to respond with the first player system. With sensors behind the screen, the player may interact with a displayed image, appearing to target an image in the screen. The first player system 111 may transmit an infrared signal that the screen sensors then detect, and use to modify the gaming environment (e.g., registering that a target has been struck).
The theater display 113 may use filtering techniques to create multiple displays for multiple players. For example, the theater projection system and/or movie screen may use polarization filtering techniques to control the images seen by one user. For example, participants in the theater may be divided into two teams. Images to be displayed for a first team may be oriented with a first polarization while images to be displayed for a second team may be oriented with second polarization. In this example, each player may be outfitted with a pair of glasses that filter the available images so that the appropriate polarization is displayed.
Other techniques to generate multiple displays may be used. For example, the image displayed on the theater display 113 may be coupled to a set of time slotted glasses, where each display (e.g., for a particular player or team) is shown during a time slot and blocked during other time slots. The glasses and images may feature a luminescent element enhancing the quality of the time-slotted image. For example, the time-slotted lens may include an element configured to continue displaying the image received from the theater display 113 for an extra time slot as the glasses are filtering a different time slotted display. In another example, the projector may project multiple displays, each encoded according to a different Fourier transform. Each player's display then may be viewed by using a set of glasses configured to perform the appropriate Fourier filtering/transform.
Regardless of whether polarized, time-slotted, Fourier, or other techniques are used, the filtering techniques may compensate for the distance between the display and the player. For example, if a certain seat is a certain distance away, the filtering glasses can compensate for that distance by adjusting the filtering. Thus, compensation for distortion and errors introduced by the distance may be made as the display and/or filtering is performed.
The theater controller 114 may be used to control the gaming environment within the theater and enable the gaming environment to be shared across more than one theater. Generally, the theater controller 114 includes one or more devices configured to interconnect the player systems (e.g., first player system 111 and second player system 112) so that multiple player systems may share a gaming environment with the theater systems (e.g., the theater display 113 and/or the theater audio system 116).
Depending on the configuration of the player systems and/or the commercial entity operating the theater, the configuration of the theater controller 114 may vary. For example, when the player systems include only a joystick, they may interface with a game system controller configured to operate as a theater controller 114. In another example, the players may bring their own player systems and connect their player system to other game systems and/or an Intratheater network 115. For example, a player may connect their player system into an Intratheater network 115 with the Intratheater network 115 acting as the controller that connects the player systems, the theater display 113, and the audio system 116.
Controlling the gaming environment within the theater may include managing the data sets for the players within the theater. For example, the theater controller 114 may determine that a first player's data set should be shared with a second and third players' system.
The theater 110 may include an audio system 116. Generally, the audio system 116 provides audio support in a theater and includes one or more speakers in the theater. The audio system 116 may be configured to provide an emulated listening experience (e.g., Dolby™ sound). The audio information may be localized and theater-wide sound. For example, a first portion of the theater may be provided with audio signals of interest to a first group, while a second portion of the theater receives a different audio signal. Each “team-based” signal may be associated with a set of one or more speakers from which it is played.
Generally, player controller 1111 is configured to enable input to and control of a gaming environment by a first player at a first location. The player controller 1111 may include a device configured to run gaming software. The player controller 1111 may include one or more devices capable of interfacing in a multiplayer gaming environment. The player controller 1111 may include a controller (not shown) that processes instructions received from or generated by a software application, a program, a piece of code, a device, a computer, a computer system, or a combination thereof, which independently or collectively direct operations of the player controller 1111. The instructions may be embodied permanently or temporarily in any type of machine, component, equipment, storage medium, or propagated signal that is capable of being delivered to the player controller 1111 or that may reside with the controller at player controller 1111. Player controller 1111 may include a general-purpose computer (e.g., a personal computer (PC) 112) capable of responding to and executing instructions in a defined manner, a workstation, a notebook computer, a PDA (“Personal Digital Assistant”), a wireless phone, a component, other equipment, or some combination of these items that is capable of responding to and executing instructions. Player controller 1111 may include a game system designed to run game software.
In one implementation, the player controller 1111 includes one or more gaming software applications (e.g., a game stored on a CD, a game cartridge, a hard drive, or downloadable from a network) capable of interfacing with other devices in the gaming system 100. The gaming applications may run on a general-purpose operating system and a hardware platform that includes a general-purpose processor and specialized hardware for graphics, communications and/or other capabilities.
The input device 1112 may include one or more devices configured to enable a player to control aspects of a multiplayer game. Typically, the input device 1112 includes a physical device configured to capture physical exertions of the player and translate those exertions into an electronic data set. This electronic data set then may be used to control virtual game systems and the interplay of different virtual gaming systems in the gaming environment. The input device 1112 may include a joystick, a game pad, steering wheel, throttle, keyboard, or some other device configured to map a user's physical exertions into electronic data sets. The input device 1112 may be shared by more than user. For example, if the virtual gaming system is a complex device (e.g., a modern jet fighter), the input device may be configured so that more than one player may share the input device 1112 and/or the virtual gaming system (e.g., a pilot and a navigator in a virtual fighter aircraft).
The glasses 1113 may be configured to filter a subset of displays from multiple displays generated from a theater display 113. For example, the glasses 1113 may be configured to filter using the polarized, time-slotted, and Fourier-filtered techniques described previously. The glasses may be configured to enable a personal display over a common display. For example, several players may share a common view. However, within the common view, a personalized heads up display may be generated to display gaming data particular to each player.
The second display 1114 may include an auxiliary display, personalized for a player. For example, the second display 1114 may include a LCD (“Liquid Crystal Display”) configured to attach to a player controller 1111. The LCD may display gaming data particular to the player. For example, in an air combat game, the LCD may be used to display airplane data (e.g., a radar display).
The voice/audio/messaging device 1115 generally is configured to enable the different players to exchange communications with one another through the gaming environment. In one example, the voice/messaging device may include a keyboard and a software application enabling users to send instant messages to one another. In another example, the audio/messaging device 1115 may include headphones with a microphone configured to enable voice communications between the players. The communications may include one-one or one-many communications. For example, in one-one communications, a first player may speak directly to a second player without other players being able to receive the communications. In one-many communications, a first play may wish to broadcast a message to multiple gaming participants.
The voice/messaging system 1115 also may be used to provide personal audio content from the gaming environment. For example, each user may have a specific sound environment based on their state in the gaming environment. For example, a racing game may feature different Doppler sounds based on whether a player is passing or being passed by another car. These player-specific sounds may be transmitted through the audio system 116, which may include player-specific speakers, for example, headphones.
The management system 140 may include a theater manager 141 configured to manage the communications between two theaters, a mapping node 142 configured to map and filter data sets from different players to other players, a duplicating device 143 configured to transmit the data sets to one or more other systems, a live feed node 144 configured to enable players access to a live event, and a scheduler 145 configured to manage the scheduling of the theaters. In general, each of the systems may be independently or collectively implemented by a general-purpose computer capable of responding to and executing instructions in a defined manner. Examples of the devices used as management systems may include a personal computer, a special purpose computer, a workstation, a server, a device, a component, or other equipment or devices capable of responding to and executing instructions. The management system may be arranged to receive instructions from one or more of a software application, a program, a piece of code, a device, a computer, a computer system or a combination thereof, which independently or collectively directs operations, as described herein. The instructions may be embodied permanently or temporarily in any type of machine, component, storage medium, or propagated signal that is capable of being delivered to hosts.
The theater manager 141 is configured to manage the gaming session between theaters. Generally, the theater manager 141 enables management and administrative operations that may include authenticating users, theaters, and gaming environments. Other management operations may include accounting for revenue, time, and software licenses. Still, other management operations may include more game-focused tasks such as controlling the game environment (e.g., the number of players, the capability and configuration of the virtual gaming systems), launching and terminating the gaming environment, and configuring the player controllers 111 and/or theater systems (e.g., the theater display 113 and the theater controller 114).
The mapping mode 142 is a system configured to manage the mapping of data sets between different player consoles. For example, the mapping node may determine that two players do not interact with one another in the gaming environment.
The duplicating device 143 may include a duplicating switch configured receive gaming data sets, duplicate the gaming data sets, and transmit the duplicated gaming data sets to multiple clients. Generally, a duplicating switch includes a device that performs network operations and functions in hardware (e.g., in a chip or part of chip). In some implementations, the duplicating switch may include an ASIC (“Application Specific Integrated Circuit”) implementing network operations logic directly on a chip (e.g., logical gates fabricated on a silicon wafer and then manufactured into a chip). For example, an ASIC chip may perform filtering by receiving a packet, examining the IP address of the received packet, and filtering based on the IP address by implementing a logical gate structure in silicon.
Implementations of the device included in the duplicating switch may employ a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A FPGA is generally defined as including a chip or chips fabricated to allow a third party designer to implement a variety of logical designs on the chip. For example, a third party designer may load a FPGA with a design to replace the received IP addresses with different IP addresses, or may load the FPGA with a design to segment and reassemble IP packets as they are modified while being transmitted through different networks.
Implementations of the device included in the duplicating switch also may employ a network processor. A network processor is generally defined to include a chip or chips that allow software to specify which network operations will be performed. A network processor may perform a variety of operations. One example of a network processor may include several interconnected RISC (“Reduced Instruction Set Computer”) processors fabricated in a network processor chip. The network processor chip may implement software to change an IP address of an IP packet on some of the RISC processors. Other RISC processors in the network processor may implement software that monitors which terminals are receiving an IP stream.
Although various examples of network operations were defined with respect to the different devices, each of the devices tends to be programmable and capable of performing the operations of the other devices. For example, the FPGA device is described as the device used to replace IP addresses and segment and reassemble packets. However, a network processor and ASIC are generally capable of performing the same operations.
Although a duplicating device 143 is described as a duplicating switch, a server or host also may be used to duplicate the gaming data set.
The live event node 144 is a device configured to assimilate data representing a live event (e.g., a car race or baseball game) and transform that assimilated data into a format for use as a gaming data set. For example, the theater game may feature a car racing game where players compete against an actual car race going on. The car race may be logically represented so that players can virtually compete against actual cars. Similarly, a baseball game may be digitally represented so that players can virtually participate in an actual baseball game. Generally, the live event node receives telemetry or other data describing the data event, and converts the live event data into a format so that other devices in the gaming system 100 may process the live event data. For example, the gaming system 100 may receive an IP stream describing the position of one or more cars. The live event node 144 then may convert these positions, and make them computer-generated players in the game. Alternatively, the live event node 144 may receive a data set already formatted for incorporation into the gaming environment. In one example, the live event node then may transmit the live event gaming data set to a duplicating device 143 for subsequent duplication into the gaming environment.
Although the live event node 144 is shown as part of the theater gaming management system, the live event node 144 may be located at a separate and distinct location than the other devices in the management system 140 and the gaming system 100. For example, in the case of a racing game, the live event node 144 may be located at the racetrack where the live event data is being collected. Alternatively, the live event node 144 may be distributed across more than one location. For example, there may be telemetry equipment that tracks the actual car position may be located at the racetrack, a server that converts the telemetry data into an IP stream may be located in a data center, and a program that converts the IP stream into a gaming data set for the gaming environment may be a program, interface, or server located in a theater (e.g., a virtual interface on the duplicating device 143, or on the theater manager 141).
The scheduler 145 is configured to manage the availability of gaming environments with respect to allotted theater time. For example, a theater may determine that additional theaters may be used for gaming during daytime hours, while gaming operations need to be reduced during the evening to accommodate an increased demand for theatergoers. Accordingly, the scheduler 145 may enable the game to be played at identified theaters during the daytime, but terminate gaming environments as the featured movie times approach in the evening.
The scheduler 145 may include a state manager that enables a previously played gaming environment to be loaded, and a currently playing gaming environment to be saved. For example, a particular gaming environment may have an active following where members wish to return to that same gaming environment. Accordingly, the scheduler may save the state of the game upon a designated termination time. The scheduler then may notify members (e.g., via email or instant messaging) about the schedule for the virtual gaming environment. Alternatively, members of that gaming environment may ‘vote’ or coordinate calendars to schedule resuming the game at a time preferred by at least some members.
Although management system 140 may be configured to operate independent of theaters 110 and 130, management system 140 also may be individually provided with each or either of theaters 110 and 130. For example, when the management system 140 is independent of theaters 110 and 130, the management system 140 may be located in a national data center configured to aggregate multiple theater systems. Alternatively, in an example where management system 140 is provided with theater 110, the management system may provide management services for theater 110, and selectively forward communications as needed to other systems. Thus, local communications may be managed internal to theater 110 with intertheater communications may be forwarded as need to other theater managers and/or regional managers theater managers.
Perspectives 500A and 500B both may be used in the theater-based gaming system 100. For example, perspective 500A may be the display a theater gaming participant sees when they look through their glasses 1113. Alternatively, the first player might see the perspective 500A on a second display 1114, while the theater screen shows a perspective 500B proving an overview of the action for non-playing viewers. Either perspective may be used independently or the perspectives may be used collectively. For example, a game might feature only first or third person perspectives. Alternatively, a player may control the selection of the perspective.
In the exemplary air combat game shown, the airplanes are trying to target each other. Typically, this involves placing the opponents airplanes in the field of view a launching a weapon at the airplane appearing in the field of view. For example, the display associated with the second field of view 640A is shown in
The proximate zone 720 of airplane 710 includes airplane 730 but does not include airplane 750. Accordingly, the gaming data set related to airplane 730 is sent to the system controller airplane 710 while the gaming data set related to airplane 750 is not sent to the system controlling airplane 710. Airplanes 710 and 750 are both within the proximate zone 740 of airplane 730, so gaming data sets related to both aircraft are sent to system controlling airplane 730. Finally, airplane 710 does not fall within the proximate zone 760 of airplane 750 while airplane 730 does. Thus, the gaming data set related to airplane 730 is sent to the system controller for airplane 710 while the gaming data set related to airplane 750 would not be sent to the system controlling airplane 710.
Filtering gaming data sets for participants in theater-based gaming systems may conserve theater bandwidth and processing power. For example, the player controller 1111 in a theater may not be able to accommodate large number of participants in a multiplayer game. Accordingly, the theater-based gaming system may arrange the gaming environment and filter gaming data sets so that the gaming controller 1111 is not overwhelmed.
Initially, the first player system 111 at a first location transmits a request to join (step 810) that is received by the theater manager 140 (step 820). Requesting to join 810 may include determining that the rules of the game allow for the first player system to join. For example, some gaming environments may have a maximum number of players allowed to participate. Other gaming environments may limit when a player may join, for example, at the beginning and at certain intermissions in the game. In some instances, the first player system may be joined automatically. For example, the first play system may be joined by virtue of connecting the first player system to a theater system. Alternatively, joining the gaming environment may include associating the first player system with a gaming identity. For example, the virtual game system controlled by the first player system may be associated with a particular identity, for example, an “ace” or pilot whose identity persists for two or more sessions of air combat.
Requesting to join (step 810) may include retrieving a gaming environment identity. This identity may be used to determine the virtual game system configuration, that is, attributes of the system that the first player system 111 is controlling. For example, an aircraft may have a certain mix of munitions and a display of enemy aircraft “kills” painted on the fuselage. The online identity also may be used for messaging and to coordinate scheduling. Additionally, the online identity also may be used to enable the user to participate when the user is at a non-theater location.
Receiving a request to join 820 may include determining that the user operating the first player system 111 is a paying customer. This may be performed by charging an account electronically or verifying the account status of the user.
The theater manager 140 joins the first player system to the gaming environment (steps 830 and 840). Joining the gaming environment may include creating a virtual game system that is controlled in a virtual gaming environment. For example, in an air combat game, another aircraft may be inserted in the melee. When the virtual game system is part of a larger virtual gaming system (e.g., the side gunner on a WWII bomber), joining the gaming environment may activate that virtual game system for the first player system 111.
Joining the virtual gaming environment also may include temporally delaying the first player system until an entry point in the game is reached. For example, in addition to waiting for an intermission or a time out in the game, the theater manager may wait until a player leaves the virtual gaming environment.
Joining the virtual gaming environment may include load balancing or intelligently selecting an entry mode for a first player system 111. For example, if the teams are unbalanced or one team is experiencing an advantage, the newly joined first player system 111 may enter the game in accordance with the selection criteria. For example, the first player system may join the team with fewer players, or join a server that has the most available processing capacity to provide a better gaming experience.
Having joined the gaming environment, the first player system 111 is enabled to input and control the gaming environment (step 850). This may include creating a virtual gaming system for the first player, and enabling a joystick on the first player system to control the virtual gaming system. With the first player system 111 participating in the gaming environment, the gaming environment is operated (step 860). Generally, operating the gaming environment includes receiving the inputs and controls from the participating player systems, determining an action based on the inputs, determining a result and interaction of the inputs, and determining an appropriate state for the virtual gaming systems based on the results. For example, a player controlling an aircraft may direct their plane to turn. The theater manager 140 may receive the turning direction, determine the next state of the aircraft based on the turn, and determine how the turn affects other players (e.g., is the aircraft in their sights). With the next state of the gaming environment determined, the theater manager 140 may generate a display for the first player system 111 (step 870), and transmit the display to the first theater display 113 (step 880). The first theater display 113 receives the display and generates the display (step 890). Receiving the display may include performing some intermediary processing to create a user and theater specific display. For example, the display may be processed so that it is inserted into the appropriate time slot for the first player system.
With the display generated, the first player system 111 may view the first theater display (step 895). For example, a set of time slotted glasses may filter on the appropriate time slots.
Although participating in a theater-based gaming system was described using the first player system 111, the second player system 112 also may participate in the theater-based gaming system as was described with respect to step 810-895 and is shown by step 810A.
Other implementations are within the scope of the following claims. For example, the gaming data sets that are created in the course of operating the gaming environment may be processed by the systems described in
The first player system 111 may be connected by a wireless connection (e.g., infrared, Bluetooth, or 802.11b Ethernet). For example, a player may bring their gaming system with a wireless communications port into a theater-based gaming system. The theater-based gaming system then may selectively enable the controllers so that the participants may take turns participating in the game.
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|U.S. Classification||463/34, 463/31, 463/42, 463/40|
|International Classification||A63F13/00, A63F9/24|
|Cooperative Classification||A63F13/87, A63F13/54, A63F13/843, A63F2300/8023, A63F2300/69, A63F13/27, A63F2300/407, A63F2300/30, A63F13/12, A63F2300/8088, A63F2300/50, A63F2300/516|
|Sep 29, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: WARNER BROS. ENTERTAINMENT INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KLAMER, PAUL R.;OTWELL, DARRELL RONNIE;REEL/FRAME:018328/0026;SIGNING DATES FROM 20060818 TO 20060908
|Mar 17, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Mar 25, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
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