|Publication number||US7284381 B2|
|Application number||US 11/373,653|
|Publication date||Oct 23, 2007|
|Filing date||Mar 9, 2006|
|Priority date||Nov 3, 2003|
|Also published as||US7082775, US20060162349, US20080134696|
|Publication number||11373653, 373653, US 7284381 B2, US 7284381B2, US-B2-7284381, US7284381 B2, US7284381B2|
|Inventors||Tim L. Edwards, Jeffrey B. Weber|
|Original Assignee||Emergency Water Solutions, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (67), Referenced by (1), Classifications (12), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/851,615, filed May 20, 2004 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,082,775, having the same title and inventors as the present application, which claims the benefit of U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/517,115 filed Nov. 3, 2003. The specifications of the above non-provisional parent and provisional applications are incorporated in their entireties herein by reference.
The present invention relates to the field of evaporative and conductive cooling for relief of heat exhaustion symptoms in humans. More particularly, the invention relates to self-contained rapidly deployable fogging and micro-misting systems and methods for dispensing a cooling pocket area of fog from a mobile vehicle, thereby promoting evaporative and conductive cooling for the relief of heat exhaustion symptoms.
Heat illness, or heat exhaustion, is a common problem affecting firefighters, road and building contruction workers, and other personnel in situations demanding physical exertion, the use of protective garments, or work in harsh environments. In these and other situations, body heat, or metabolic heat, combines with radiant heat from the environment to elevate the person's body temperature. The body also gains heat by convection when the ambient air temperature rises above normal body temperature (98.6 degrees F.). The body attempts to control its temperature by raising and lowering the heart rate (raising and lowering blood pressure), sending blood to the surface of the skin, and through perspiration. As the perspiration evaporates, heat is drawn from the body. However, in situations where protective garments such as firefighting suits or protective jackets, boots, gloves, and so on are needed, the body's natural evaporative cooling process becomes overburdened.
Studies conducted on firefighters have shown that fire suppression activities produce over 400 kilocalories of heat per hour and that another 180 kilocalories of per hour can be attributed to radiant heat (heat from the fire). Evaporation of over one quart of perspiration is needed to remove 580 kilocalories of heat. Therefore, a firefighter needs to evaporate over one quart of perspiration during each hour of work in order to maintain a safe body temperature.
Heat illness occurs as the body loses its ability to regulate temperature and affects not only the person's welfare but also cognitive abilities. Notwithstanding the increased potential for dangerous accidents due to heat illness symptoms, left untreated, heat illness can rapidly lead to progressively worse conditions or even death.
Heat illness generally has three stages: heat stress, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. These stages are often difficult to distinguish, therefore experts recommend treating for the worst case when there is any doubt. Symptoms of heat stress include cool or moist skin, weakness, dizziness, and nausea. Treatment for heat stress includes moving the victim to an area of shade, loosening the victim's clothing, and giving the victim water. The symptoms of heat exhaustion include a weak pulse (low blood pressure), shallow breathing (breathing rate increasing), clammy skin (perspiring), a pale face, a loss of appetite, and possible confusion and irritability. And treatment for heat exhaustion includes all the steps for heat stress plus sponging the victim with water, fanning to increase evaporation, and seeking medical attention. Finally, the symptoms of heat stroke include a rapid pulse, hot or dry skin (no perspiration), a high body temperature (over 105 degrees F.), mental confusion, and a loss of consciousness. The treatment for heat stroke includes all the steps for heat exhaustion plus immediately cooling the victim's body before evacuation to a hospital.
Close attention must be given to the symptoms of heat illness so that the appropriate treatment is given in time to avoid progressively more serious conditions. In many situations, particularly those involving firefighting, road construction, manual labor in warm weather, or simply where there are no ready-made or available sources of shade or cooling, the steps that can be taken to respond to symptoms of heat illness are limited. When there is no area of shade, for example, other means to provide cooling, such as evaporative cooling, are needed.
Prior inventions involving evaporative cooling have not satisfactorily addressed the particular needs for a self-contained, rapidly deployable, mobile evaporative cooling device suitable for firefighting, commercial, or other types of vehicles and suitably designed for relief of heat illness or heat exhaustion symptoms.
One prior invention consists of a portable misting fan. The device consists of a water storage container, a fan, and a mist nozzle. Water stored in the container is dispensed from mist nozzle directly into the fan's airflow stream. This helps atomize the mist into smaller droplets and projects the mist outward covering more area. The system must have a portable electrical means, such as a DC battery pack or electrical AC power source, which requires power cords and, thus, setup time. This design does not lend itself well for fixed mobile application because of the fan and other hardware related to such device and the required time for setting up the system.
Another practice consists of using mist fans or pressure misting systems for outdoor sports (football, soccer, golf, tennis, etc.), sunbathers, lounge areas, over vending machines, and mounting under tents. These water misting apparatuses include several spray nozzles that can be attached to a fixed surface individually or in series. Similar applications may be used at amusement parks to cool people while they are waiting in long lines. This type of technology has been designed for these limited applications (such as outdoor sports) and are not suitably designed for the rapid deployment and mobile heat illness or heat exhaustion recovery applications discussed herein. All of these misting systems require substantial setup or assembly before use.
Other misting systems consist of components such as a water tank, a water pump, and spray nozzle and are available for applications such as golf carts, boats, and baby carriage canopies. These systems are unsatisfactory for mobile heat illness recovery applications because of the low performance components selected, low effective volume or area of mist delivered, the unpleasantly or unsatisfactorily large particle size of the mist dispensed, and assembly or set up required with such systems.
For a more complete understanding of the present invention, the drawings herein illustrate examples of the invention. The drawings, however, do not limit the scope of the invention. Similar references in the drawings indicate similar elements.
In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, those skilled in the art will understand that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details, that the present invention is not limited to the depicted embodiments, and that the present invention may be practiced in a variety of alternate embodiments. In other instances, well known methods, procedures, components, and systems have not been described in detail.
Parts of the description will be presented using terminology commonly employed by those skilled in the art to convey the substance of their work to others skilled in the art. For example, a person having ordinary skill in the art will be able to comprehend terms such as ultraviolet (UV), micron, check valve, atomization, power-take-off (PTO), and pounds-per-square-inch (psi), pounds-per-square-inch-gauge (psig), pounds-per-square-inch-absolute (psia), cubic-feet-per-minute (cfm), evaporative cooling, convective cooling, conductive cooling, variable-mean-diameter (VMD) and so on in the context and intended meaning of the present invention and within the spirit and scope of the present invention.
Various operations will be described as multiple discrete steps performed in turn in a manner that is helpful for understanding the present invention. However, the order of description should not be construed as to imply that these operations are necessarily performed in the order they are presented, nor even order dependent. Lastly, repeated usage of the phrase “in one embodiment” does not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, although it may.
As an overview,
As a first example,
Referring next to
Numerous other vehicles may be used. Other examples include, but are not limited to, recreational vehicles such as motorhomes and the like, mobile blood donation vehicles, sporting event vehicles such as auto racing support vehicles, as well as installations on trailers that can be towed by on- or off-highway vehicles. As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, a wide variety of mobile platform may be used.
The operation of the present invention for emergency response vehicle 100 is illustrated in
Again referring to
Moving on to
For a more detailed discussion of the coolant delivery system, in one embodiment, for delivering coolant to one or more fogging nozzles disposed on a mobile platform, we turn now to
According to one embodiment, coolant delivery pump 715 receives coolant liquid directly from refillable reservoir 705. In another embodiment, coolant delivery pump 715 alternatively receives coolant fluid from an outside source such as an outside water line. For example, emergency response vehicles 100, commercial vehicles 300, and recreational vehicles, to name just a few, often are equipped with water supply input lines, accepting, for example, standard residential pressure water hose connections. Or, with certain emergency response vehicles 100 or fire trucks, such water supply lines may comprise connections with municipal fire hydrants or other special use water supply infrastructure.
Not shown in
One skilled in the art will appreciate that additional controls may be added. For example, additional controls may be added to indicate coolant level in refillable reservoir 705, various valve position indicators such as a valve position indicator for drain valve 705 and solenoid valves 725 and 740, and pressure leading to coolant delivery pump 715 (indicating the fluid resistance through any coolant conditioning stages 710). Furthermore, one skilled in the art will appreciate that some or all controls may be automated so as to minimize the manual controllability of various system components. In one embodiment, a control panel is provided with an on-off switch, a display for indicating active operation of the system, and a control valve for adjusting and regulating the coolant flow to fogging nozzles 735 and, thus, characteristics such as rate of atomized coolant flow from fogging nozzles 735.
Still referring to
The coolant delivery pump 715, according to one embodiment, comprises a commercial grade displacement/diaphragm type pump capable of delivering an operating pressure of 25 to 65 psig (using water as the coolant liquid) and requiring 12 volts DC power. In another embodiment, coolant delivery pump 715 comprises a commercial grade high PSI pump capable of delivering pressure around 1500 psi.
In one embodiment, power requirements for the aforementioned components, and those to be mentioned hereafter, are provided by power components available on the mobile platform or vehicle (or a combination of vehicle and mobile platform in the case of a trailer installation). For example, vehicle battery power may be used to supply the 12 volts DC needed to operate the coolant delivery pump 715, according to one embodiment. Alternatively, a power-take-off (PTO) device may be used to provide mechanical or rotational power (torque) to coolant delivery pump 715 wherein such pump is of a design to work cooperatively with such PTO device. Such a PTO device, in one embodiment, may be used to power other components discussed previously and that remain to be discussed hereafter (electrically, through the use of a vehicle alternator and battery, or mechanically, through powertrain linkages to transfer torque). In one embodiment, power provided to coolant delivery pump 715 and other components that remain to be discussed comprises mechanical power from belt linkages with the fan belt system of the drive motor (often a diesel or gasoline engine) inherent to a vehicle such as emergency response vehicle 100.
Referring still to
In one embodiment, a smaller mobile platform such as all-terrain-vehicle 200 may be more economically fitted with a high pressure coolant liquid system such as coolant delivery system 700 using coolant liquid fogging nozzles 735 rather than coolant gas/coolant liquid mixing type fogging nozzles as will be discussed. In one embodiment, fogging nozzles 735 comprise high pressure coolant liquid dispensing nozzles and coolant delivery pump 715 comprises a high PSI pump operating at pressures above the standard residential water supply pressure range of 40 psi to 65 psi.
Turning now to
The external mix type fogging nozzle 800, shown in
Alternatively, the internal mix type fogging nozzle 900, shown in
Referring next to
In one embodiment, fogging nozzle 1010 comprises a coolant gas/coolant liquid mixing type fogging nozzles such as external mix type fogging nozzle 800, the coolant gas comprises air delivered at between 65 psig and 90 psig, the coolant liquid comprises water delivered at between 25 psig and 65 psig, and fogging nozzle 1010 dispenses fog droplets with a variable-mean-diameter of between 10 and 40 microns. In one embodiment, fogging nozzle 1010 comprises a commercial grade, durable nickel plated brass construction.
A system for providing coolant gas to one or more fogging nozzles, such as fogging nozzle 1010, is shown in
In one embodiment, each of the one or more fogging nozzles 1150 comprise external mix type fogging nozzle 800 and require approximately 1.8 cubic-feet-per-minute (cfm) at a given pressure for proper operation. In one embodiment, one or more metering valves (not shown) may be used for regulating coolant gas flow through fogging nozzles 1150 and coolant liquid flow through fogging nozzles 1150. As known in the art, the one or more metering valves may be connected just prior to each of the one or more fogging nozzles 1150 to allow for manual (or automated) adjustment of coolant gas flow (the rate of flow typically measured in cubic-feet-per-minute) and coolant liquid flow (the rate of flow typically measured in pounds-per-hour) to affect the size, shape, and coolant saturation level of the cooling pocket area of fog dispensed by fogging nozzles 1150. In one embodiment, the metering valves are integrated into each of the one or more fogging nozzles 1150. In another embodiment, the metering valves are disposed upstream of the one or more fogging nozzles 1150. In yet another embodiment, metering valves are optionally used with other components such as solenoid valve 725 (for coolant liquid flow control) and coolant gas compressor 1110 (for coolant gas flow control).
In one embodiment, coolant gas compressor 1110 delivers compressed coolant gas to one or more fogging nozzles 1150 without intervening one or more coolant gas conditioning stages 1120. In one embodiment, the one or more coolant gas conditioning stages 1120 comprise one or more coolant gas particulate filter and/or one or more ultraviolet (UV) lamp coolant gas conditioning device. In one embodiment, coolant gas conditioning stage 1120 comprises a 40 micron particulate filter to prevent clogging of fogging nozzle 1010. In one embodiment, coolant gas conditioning stage 1120 comprises an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection lamp device for removing bacteria and other contaminants in the coolant gas delivered to fogging nozzle 1010.
In one embodiment, pressurized coolant gas is delivered to one or more fogging nozzles 1150 through coolant gas lines connected to a coolant gas storage tank (not shown). As already discussed, in one embodiment, the coolant gas storage tank (not shown) comprises the coolant gas storage tank associated with coolant gas compressor 1110. Alternatively, coolant gas compressor 1110 may comprise a supply of compressed coolant gas disposed on the mobile platform (or in the case of a trailer installation, the vehicle associated with the mobile platform trailer). In one embodiment, the coolant gas comprises air supplied from an on-board air supply (on-board the mobile platform or vehicle).
As previously mentioned, in one embodiment, power provided to coolant gas compressor 1110 comprises mechanical power from belt linkages with a fan belt system of a drive motor (often a diesel or gasoline engine) inherent to a vehicle such as emergency response vehicle 100. Likewise, also previously mentioned, a power-take-off (PTO) device may be used to provide mechanical or rotational power (torque) to coolant gas compressor 1110 wherein coolant gas compressor 1110 is designed to work cooperatively with such a PTO device.
An example of integrating the present invention with an available on-board air supply is illustrated in
As described herein, the present invention provides a method and system for relief of heat exhaustion symptoms through evaporative and conductive cooling, and, more particularly, comprises a rapidly deployable mobile fogging system suitably designed for relief of heat exhaustion symptoms, including a mobile platform for transporting the rapidly deployable mobile fogging system to locations where relief of heat exhaustion symptoms is needed, one or more fogging nozzles disposed on the mobile platform and oriented for dispensing a cooling pocket area of fog adjacent to the mobile platform, a coolant delivery system fluidly connected to the one or more fogging nozzles, and one or more controls for regulating the dispensing of the cooling pocket area of fog.
Although a person having skill in the art may comprehend alterations and modifications of the present invention after having read the foregoing description, it is to be understood that the particular embodiments shown and described by way of illustration are in no way intended to be considered limiting. References to details of particular embodiments are not intended to limit the scope of the claims. Rather, it will be appreciated that many variations, modifications, and embodiments are possible, and all such variations, modifications, and embodiments are to be regarded as being within the spirit and scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||62/171, 62/304, 261/26|
|Cooperative Classification||A62C99/0018, A62C27/00, A62B99/00, B60H1/3202, F24F5/0035|
|European Classification||F24F5/00C7, B60H1/32B, A62B99/00|
|Mar 19, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: EMERGENCY WATER SOLUTIONS, INC., OREGON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:EDWARDS, TIM L;WEBER, JEFFREY B;REEL/FRAME:020666/0801;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050214 TO 20060306
|Feb 23, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 5, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Oct 23, 2015||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Dec 15, 2015||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20151023