US 728818 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
` PATENTED MAY 19, 1903. E. -P.- WRIGHT.
APPLIUATION FILED SEPT. 5. 1902.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
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,1N0-728'318- PATBNTED MAY 19, 1903-. Y
' j E. P. WRIGHT.
. PPLIOATON FILED SEPT. 5. 1902. O MODEL. v 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
HNHIIWII i Patented May 19, 1903.
EDWIN P. WRIGHT, OF RICHMOND, VIRGINIA.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N o. 728,818, dated May 19, 1903.
Application filed September 5, 1902. Serial No. 122,246. (No model.)
To all whom, it mfay concern:
Beit known that LEDWIN P. WRIGHT,a citizen of the United States, residing at Richmond, in the county of Henrico and State of Virginia, have invented new and useful Improvements in Dental Manikins, 'of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to educational appliances, and particularly to manikins, the objects in View being to provide one that is adapted to thoroughly teach practical, operative, and mechanical dentistry and the correction of palatal deformities; to provide the same with teeth and contiguous tissues all in their proper natural relative positions; to adapt it to be operated upon in a practical manner, as in the human head, so that the student maybe taught successfully the art of filling cavities, and incidentally the use of the rubber dam, of correcting crooked or irregular teeth, the taking of impressions, the fitting of artificial teeth, bridgework, pivoting, lcrowning, dto., and, in fact, as before stated, all branches of practical denistry.
With the above main objects and others of less importance in View the invention consists in certain features of construction hereinafter specified, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
Referring to the drawings, Figure 1 is a general perspective view of a manikin embodying the invention, the same being shown as mounted upon and supported by a frame adapted to be clamped to an ordinary chair (see dotted lines) or a dental chair. Fig. 2 is a partial vertical central sectional view through the jaws of the manikin, the supporting-frame being removed. Fig. 3 is a detail in perspective of the tooth-plate. Fig. 4 is a front elevation of the same. Fig. 5 is a detail in transverse vertical section of one of the detachable lips and its support.
Similar n umerals of reference indicate similar parts in al1 the figures of the drawings.
It will of course be understood that the manikin hereinafter described may be supported in any suitable manner; but in the present instance in order that it may be adapted to 'students not provided with regular dental chairs it is illustrated and describedin connection withasupporting-frame that is adjustable to tany ordinary chairback and designed to be securely clamped thereon.
The above-described frame may be of any suitable construction adaptedfor the purpose in View and'in the presentinstance comprises a transverse base-piece 1 of such length as will adapt it to readily take between the uprights 2 of an ordinary chair, (see dotted lines,) the ends of the base-,piece accommodating clamping-bolts 3, the outer ends of which-are Winged and pass through longitudinal slots 4, formed in a pair ofabutting extension-bars 5, located on the front face of the aforesaid base-piece 1. Angular clamps 6 may be located at the outer ends of the extension-bars 5, the said clamps beingdesigned to embrace the opposite uprights of the chair-back, and forpthe purpose of securing the supporting frame at any point of Vertical adjustment upon the chair-back, and thus give the manikin proper height to suit the student, thumbscrews 7may be located at the rear ends of the clamps, the inner ends of the said thumbscrews impinging upon the rear faces of the said uprights, all as indicated in Fig. 1. A standard 8 is mounted rigidly upon the basepiece 1 at the center of the latter, from which point it rises, and the same has hinged, as at 9, or otherwise loosely connected to a point near its lower end a clamping-bar 10. The inner faces of the clamping-bar and standard may be provided with half-sockets 11, within which, as will hereinafter appear, may be secured the immediate support of the manikin, and the clam ping bar described may be caused to retain the said support through the instrumentality of a clamping-bolt 12, passed through the clamping-bar and the standard.
The manikin or head 13 may be made of papier-mch or other suitable material and of course is made in representation of the human head. It comprises the upper or fixed jaw 14 and the lower movable jaw 15. In the present instance the base of the skullor manikin is cut away at the rear, and from the same depends a standard 16, the same at its lower end terminating or merging in av, ball 17, designed to tit within the sockets 11, heretofore referred to, and beheld in any position that can be assumed by the human neck through the instrumentality of the clampingbolt 12.
The lower jaw 15 at its rear ends may be connected in any suitable manner with the base of the head; but it is preferred that such a construction be employed as will permit of not only the hinge movement of said lower jaw, but also a lateral movement, for by the latter the upper and lower jaws may be caused to assume different relative positions', thus representing different characteristics of persons and giving the student opportunity of noticing this and the dierent character of bites resulting therefrom. In the present instance there are formed in the base ofthe head and the upper ends of the lower jaw sockets 18, in each pair of which is located the opposite spherical heads 19 of the opposite couplings, the heads of each coupling being connected by an intermediate neck 20. It will be obvious that the opposite heads each working independently in its socket will permit of a forward movement of the lower jaw, as well as any lateral movement.
Within the post 16 there may be threaded a winged set-bolt 20, the inner end of which impinging against the rear end of the lower jaw will serve to hold or limit the same in its opening. Coiled retracting-springs 21 may connect theopposite sides of the jaw and head for the purpose of closing the same when released. These springs may be disconnected at their lower ends from hooks extending from the lower jaw at any time, if desired, and thus the jaw be permitted to drop, this being advantageous duringlectures in that it obviates the necessity of manually retaining the jaw lowered, and thus the demonstrators hands are left free for any purpose whatever.
In both rthe upper and lower jaws, by any suitable means, are held upper and lower tooth-plates 22, (shown in detail in Fig. 3,) which plates, as will hereinafter appear, are removable and are designed to hold either a series of blanks, as 23, Fig. 2, a series of teeth 24, or a combination of the two, it being understood that the blanks represent in practice the spaces left in the gums by missing teeth. For the purpose of rendering the teeth slightly yielding, as in the human subject,it may also be to advantage to locate between v each two teeth narrow plugs '25, of rubber.
These will permit of sufiicient separation of the teeth to insert rubber dams, wedges, duc.,
employed in filling and also give access to cavities between the teeth. To gain such access, it would be simply necessary to use the ordinary devices for separations employed in dental practice or otherwise, and the teeth would then be in about the same position the natural teeth would assume after the use of wedges for this purpose.
The teeth-plates 22, it will be understood, may be colored to represent any pathological condition desired, and said plates being removable different plates may be employed for this purpose. As before stated, the plates may be rendered removable in any desired manner,o'ne Very simple way being that shown wherein each plate is provided upon its eX- terior with a rib 26, extending from end to end of the plate andv having a dovetailed groove 27, the latter riding upon and receiving a corresponding rib 28, located upon the upper and lower jaw of the manikin.
The teeth plates mentioned are simply models of the human jaw cast in rubber, celluloid, metal, or other material, the same having the alveolar ridge cut away from one tuberosity to the other in the upper jaw and in the case of the lower jaw from the anterior of the ramus to the same point ony the opposite side, the cut being made in both instances to the gumline on the lingual surfaces to a depth sufficient to receive the root portion of the teeth, either natural or artificial, which are placed in their normal positions. These teeth may be formed with slightly-rounded bases, or rather such formations of bases as will cause the same to partake of the curvature of the alveolar ridge, and likewise with regard to the blanks and plugs 23 and 25, respectively. The outer wall of the alveolar ridge is represented in the present instance in each tooth-plate by a curved clampingband 29, the same being hinged at one end, as at 30, to a stationary section 31 of the said outer wall and at its opposite end terminating in a transverse perforated ear 32, which by a screw 33 may be secured to a similar ear 34, located at the opposite side of the plate and extending laterally from a corresponding stationary' section of the wall. vIt will be obvious that by means of a screw-driver the clamping band or bands may be released at their free ends, swung open, and an adjustment or arrangement of teeth completed without a removal of the tooth-plates from the manikin. In this manner one or more teeth may be removed or replaced, each representing a dilferent condition, all as will be readily understood. There may also be provided artificial lips 35, preferably made of rubber and capable of being stretched and expanded in imitation of the human lips. These lips may be permanently secured to the jaws of the manikin or made removable, as will hereinafter appear. It is well, however, that they be employed in order that the student will be better prepared to meet the act-ual conditions in practice. Any means may be employed to secure the lips either temporarily or permanentlyin position 5 but in the present instance narrow cleats 3G, one foreach lip, are secured thereto, the same being'somewhat U-shaped in cross-section and terminatingat theirinner free edges in a longitudinal bead or rib 37. A corresponding though oppositelydisposed cleat 38 is secured to each of the jaws and terminates at its free edge in a bead 39. By interlocking the cleats of the lips and jaws the ribs are caused vto engage, and thus temporarily lock, it being understood that the cleats IIO IIS`
are made of such material, such as spring sheet metal, as will cause the ribs to pass each other when a slight pressure is exerted either way. (See Fig. 5.)
From the foregoing description, in connection with the accompanying drawings, it will be apparent that the invention presented will be found exceedingly useful in practically illustrating to students of the dental profession all manner of mechanical work, as well as all pathological conditions,usually found only in subjects or in colored illustrations in books of a technical nature, so that the student by the use of this invention not only gains the theoretical knowledge, but gets the practical work so necessary to his professional education.
Of course the invention is not limited to the various details herein described; but it is to be understood that the same may be varied in this regard as found desirable.
What is claimed is- 1. The combination with a manikin, of a supporting-frame, means for adjustably supporting the manikn upon said frame and means for securing the said frame to the back of a chair.
2. The combination with a dental manikin, of an adjustable supporting-frame therefor,
and means for securing the adjustable frame upon the back of a chair.
3. The combination with a dental manikin, a support therefor, lneans for adjustably supporting the manikin upon the support,a frame for the support, and means for adjustably supporting the frame upon a chair.
4. The combination with a dental manikin, of a standard forsupporting the same, a basepiece connected to the standard, adjustable bars slotted and mounted to slide on the basepiece, clamping-bolts passed through the slots and the base-piece, and clamps, provided with thumb-screws, located at the ends of the adjustable bars and adapted to be secured to the uprights of a chair-back.
5. The combination with a frame adapted to be applied to a chair-back, and means for securing the same, of a standard rising from the frame and provided with a socket, a clamping-bar hinged to the standard and at its upper end also provided with a companion socket, a dental manikin, a post depending from thesame and terminating in a ball 1ocated in said sockets, and a clamping screwr or bolt passed through the said standard and clamping-bar. y
6. A dental manikin, comprising an upper and lower jaw, each provided with a spherical socket, in combination with the described coupling, consisting of the spherical heads 19, located in the sockets, and the intermediate connecting-necks 20.
7. A dental manikin, comprising a head, having a lower universally-connected jaw.
8. A dental manikin, comprising a head, having a universally-connected lower jaw,and retracting-springs for normally closing the same.
9. A dental manikin, comprising a head, having an upper stationary and a lower looselyconnected jaw, and removable retracting-springs for connecting said jaws.
lO. A dental manikin, provided with ilexible lips.
11. A dental manikin provided with removable lips.
12. A dental manikin, the upper and lower jaws of which are provided with the U -shaped cleats 3S terminating in ribs, in combination with the lieXible upper and lower lips, provided with the reversely-disposed U-shaped cleats 36, having ribs 37, for the purpose specied.
13. The combination with a dental manikin, comprising a lower loosely-connected jaw, in combination with a post depending from the manikin in rear of the jaw, means for supporting the post, and a set-screw passed through the post and extending into the path of said lower jaw, whereby its movement is limited.
14. The combination with a standard, provided with a socket, of a manikin, comprising a loosely-connected lower jaw, andin rear of the same having a depending post adjustably located in the socket,land a set-screw threaded transversely in the post and located in the path of the said lower jaw.
15. A dental manikin, comprising upper and lower jaws, in combination with toothplates mounted removably in said jaws.
16. A dental manikin, comprising .upper and lowerjaws, each havinga rib, in combination with tooth-plates provided with grooved ribs adapted to receive those of the jaws.
17. A tooth-plate for dental manikins made in imitation of the human jaw and having the alveolar arch cut away at its outer side, whereby it is adapted to receive in a removable manner teeth, blanks, &c., as described, and a clamping-band located in front of the cutaway portion, and means for removably securing the same in position.
18. The tooth-plate 22, having the outer cut-away portion, in combination with the clamping-band hinged as at 30, and temporarily connected at the opposite side, as at 32, 33 and 34, as described.
In testimony whereof I ax my signature in presence of two witnesses.
EDWIN P. WRIGHT.
H. B. COGHILL, S. P. OWENS.