|Publication number||US7291013 B2|
|Application number||US 10/610,199|
|Publication date||Nov 6, 2007|
|Filing date||Jun 30, 2003|
|Priority date||Jun 28, 2002|
|Also published as||US20040121286, WO2004002359A1|
|Publication number||10610199, 610199, US 7291013 B2, US 7291013B2, US-B2-7291013, US7291013 B2, US7291013B2|
|Inventors||Ines M. Aravena, Ajay Kumar|
|Original Assignee||Zimmer Dental, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (42), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (14), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/392,246, filed Jun. 28, 2002, the entire contents of which is specifically incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention is generally related to the field of dental implants, and, more particularly, to an organic shaped interface that may be employed with various dental implant devices.
2. Description of the Related Art
It is becoming more common to replace a missing tooth with a prosthetic tooth that is placed upon and attached to a dental implant. The dental implant serves as the artificial root in that it integrates with the jawbone. The prosthetic tooth preferably has a size and a color that mimics the missing natural tooth. Consequently, the patient has an aesthetically pleasing and structurally sound artificial tooth.
One known arrangement for a dental implant involves an implant portion, or artificial root, that is received in a hole prepared in a patient's jawbone (mandible or maxilla), and an abutment, or prosthesis support, that is securable to the implant portion and that extends beyond the gingival tissue to support a tooth prosthesis. The implant portion and the abutment are constructed as separate components that are secured together by an attachment means, such as a screw passed through the abutment and received within a threaded bore in the implant portion.
Current methods by which the prosthetic tooth and implant are completely integrated into the patient's mouth require six to ten months, and sometimes longer, because two distinct, time-consuming steps are involved. In a first surgical procedure, an incision is made in the gingival tissue to expose the alveolar bone. Following any dressing of the surface of the bone that may be necessary, a hole that is complementary in shape to the implant portion is drilled in the bone and the implant portion is inserted. A healing cap or screw is attached to the implant portion to occlude the threaded bore, and the gingival tissue is stitched closed over the implant portion to await osseointegration.
In a subsequent second surgical procedure, following osseointegration of the implant portion, the gingival tissue is again opened to expose the implant portion. The healing cap or screw is removed and replaced with a second healing cap having an outer surface corresponding in shape below the gum line to that of the abutment, but protruding slightly above the gingival tissue. The gingival tissue surrounding the second healing cap is sutured thereabout to await healing in conformity to the outer surface of the second healing cap.
After the gingival tissue has healed, the second healing cap is removed and replaced with a permanent abutment that is secured to the implant. The abutment can be configured to support a single tooth prosthesis fashioned thereon or to support a bridge structure carrying multiple tooth prostheses.
However, current abutment designs do not follow the scalloped shape of the bone surrounding the natural tooth. This natural bone architecture leads to the preservation of the soft tissue between the teeth (interdental papilla) necessary for aesthetic results. Many available implants have an unnatural shape due to the configuration of the interface between the abutment and the implant portion, i.e., a side-by-side flat or beveled interface. Such interfaces typically allow only the formation of approximately flat bone contours. Such prior art interfaces do not promote the formation of bone contours exhibiting desired facial to interdental height differences required to form the adequate papilla shape that is necessary to inhibit the formation of an unaesthetic empty space between the teeth (so-called black triangle disease).
The present invention is directed to various devices that may solve, or at least reduce, some or all of the aforementioned problems.
The present invention is generally directed to an abutment for dental implants. In one illustrative embodiment, the device comprises a body having a distal end, a portion of which is adapted to be positioned around at least a portion of a coronal end of an implant, and at least one recess formed on the distal end of the body.
In another illustrative embodiment, the abutment comprises a body having a distal end, a portion of which is adapted to be positioned around at least a portion of a coronal end of an implant, and a plurality of recesses formed on the distal end of the body.
In yet another illustrative embodiment, the abutment comprises a body having a distal end, a portion of which is adapted to be positioned around at least a portion of a coronal end of an implant, and a plurality of recesses formed on distal end of the body, wherein the plurality of recesses have a radius of curvature and are positioned on opposite sides of the body and wherein the recesses are adapted to be aligned with a bone in a patient's jaw.
In a further illustrative embodiment, the device comprises an implant, an abutment having an abutment body having a distal end, a portion of the abutment body being adapted to be positioned around at least a portion of a coronal end of the implant, and a plurality of recesses formed on the distal end of the abutment body.
The invention may be understood by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals identify like elements, and in which:
While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof have been shown by way of example in the drawings and are herein described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the description herein of specific embodiments is not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
Illustrative embodiments of the invention are described below. In the interest of clarity, not all features of an actual implementation are described in this specification. It will of course be appreciated that in the development of any such actual embodiment, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made to achieve the developers' specific goals, such as compliance with health-related (or human-related), system-related and business-related constraints, which will vary from one implementation to another. Moreover, it will be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time-consuming, but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.
The present invention will now be described with reference to the attached figures that are included to describe and explain illustrative examples of the present invention. The words and phrases used herein should be understood and interpreted to have a meaning consistent with the understanding of those words and phrases by those skilled in the relevant art. No special definition of a term or phrase, i.e., a definition that is different from the ordinary and customary meaning as understood by those skilled in the art, is intended to be implied by consistent usage of the term or phrase herein. To the extent that a term or phrase is intended to have a special meaning, i.e., a meaning other than that understood by skilled artisans, such a special definition will be expressly set forth in the specification in a definitional manner that directly and unequivocally provides the special definition for the term or phrase.
In general, in one aspect, the present invention is directed to various embodiments of a scalloped abutment for dental implants. As will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art upon a complete reading of the present application, the abutments described herein may be used with a variety of different surgical procedures performed to install such implants. Thus, neither the type of dental implant used nor the type of surgical procedure performed should be considered a limitation of the present invention unless such limitations are clearly set forth in the appended claims.
Aspects of the present invention will now be described with reference to the attached drawings. However, as will be understood by those skilled in the art, the present invention is not limited to the particular embodiments described or disclosed herein. As indicated in
As depicted in
Also depicted in
The abutment 30 may be coupled to the implant 20 by a variety of known techniques. For example, a screw (not shown) may be provided to couple the abutment to the implant 20 via engagement with a threaded recess (not shown) positioned within the implant 20. The details of how the abutment 30 may be attached to the implant 20 are well known to those skilled in the art and, accordingly, they will not be described in any further detail so as not to obscure the present invention.
Ultimately, a tooth prosthesis (not shown) will be attached to the abutment 30. In the depicted embodiment, the abutment 30 has a body 37 that may be provided in a variety of configurations. The abutment body 37 has a distal end 37A and a proximal end 37. The distal end 37A of the abutment 30 is adapted to engage the coronal end 29 of the implant 20. In the illustrative embodiment depicted in
When the abutment 30 is coupled to the implant 20, at least a portion of the distal end 37A of the abutment body 37 is adapted to be positioned around at least a portion of the coronal end 29 of the implant 20. For example, in one illustrative embodiment, the scalloped cuff 33 of the abutment 30 covers a portion of the bone growth promoting surface 24 (in cases where it is employed) on the facial and lingual sides of the implant 20, but it does not cover as much of the bone growth promoting surface 24 on the sides of the implant 20 on the interdental sides of the abutment 30, i.e., between the adjacent teeth. That is, due to the recesses 40, more of the bone growth generating surface 24 is exposed in the interdental areas, thereby promoting bone growth in those areas. Accordingly, a scalloped outline is thus formed between the bone growth promoting surface 24 and the relatively smooth surfaces on the scalloped cuff 33 of the abutment 30. Thus, the scalloped or natural shape of the interface between the implant 20 and the abutment 30 (the boundary between the bone growth promoting surface and the smooth surfaces of the scalloped cuff 33) aid in maintaining the bone in the areas between the teeth. The bone in turn supports the interdental papilla. The abutment 30 may be made of a variety of bio-compatible materials, such as metals, plastic, ceramic materials, glass or any combination thereof. In one illustrative embodiment, the abutment 30 is comprised of a surgical grade titanium or an alloy thereof.
The present invention may be employed with a variety of different types of devices employed in producing dental implants. For example, the recesses 40 described herein may be used on healing cups, temporary restoration devices, provisional or temporary abutments, etc. In short, the recesses 40 (one or more) may be formed on the distal end of any device that is adapted to engage an implant 20 positioned in a patient's mouth. Thus, the present invention should not be considered as limited to use with permanent abutments, unless such limitations are expressly set forth in the appended claims.
In one illustrative embodiment, the coronal end 29 of the implant 20 is spherically shaped. In such an embodiment, the spherical portions of the coronal end 29 of the implant 20 may have a radius that ranges from approximately 2.0-7.0 mm, depending on the implant body size. In one illustrative embodiment, a mechanical seal may be achieved due to mechanical deformation of portions of the distal end 37A of the abutment body 37 and/or the spherical region on the coronal end 29 of the implant 20. This deformation can be expressly controlled within the elastic region of the material and maintained by selecting the appropriate materials with specific yield strengths and by determining specific spherical dimensions when the components are engaged. This would ensure that the abutment 30 will always deformed elastically once seated and would return to its pre-deformed state once is removed from the implant 20. This would ensure that the abutment 30 can be seated multiple times on the implant 20 without exhibiting any permanent plastic deformation. Also, to ensure that abutment 30 does not gall, the inside of the abutment can be coated with low friction coatings, such as DLC and Type II anodizing. Other option, would be to make one component out of softer material that could be deformed upon engagement with the other corresponding part. Due to the softness of the material, insertion forces may be reduced, and the tendency for the components to stick to one another may also be reduced. Lastly, an optional coating could be applied to prevent galling or to improve the seal between the components. The mechanical contact between the distal end 37A and the coronal end 29 of the implant 20 would be along the outermost edge of the abutment 37. This would ensure that no anaerobic bacteria can be trapped inside the implant/abutment junction and cause bone loss. In some cases, it may not be important to preserve the bone, such as posterior maxilla and mandible. In these aforementioned cases, it may not be necessary to have a complete seal.
The mechanical contact between the distal end 37A of the abutment body 37 and the coronal end 29 of the implant 20 may be varied depending upon the particular application. For example, in one aspect, at least a portion of the distal end 37A of the abutment body 37 is adapted to be positioned around at least a portion of the coronal end 29 of the implant 20. In some cases, at least a portion of the interior surface 41 of the distal end 37A of the abutment body 37 may contact the coronal end 29 of the implant 20 at one or more locations around the perimeter of the coronal end 29 of the implant 20. In other cases, there may be limited or no contact between the interior surface 41 of the distal end 37A of the abutment body 37 and the coronal end 29 of the implant 20. In other embodiments, a coronal end surface 27 (see
In another aspect, the present invention is directed to an implant 20 having a spherical coronal end 29. The coronal end 29 may or may not be provided with a bone growth promoting surface 24. The spherical coronal end 29 of the implant 20 may be adapted to engage an abutment having a contoured cuff 33 and recesses 40 like that depicted in
The present invention may provided all or some of the following benefits to some degree. The present invention may promote bone support between implants because there is no need to flatten or countersink the ridge of the jawbone because the profile of the recesses 40 of the abutment 30 approximately follows the natural shape of the osseous interface, thereby eliminating or reducing the interference with bone growth provided by at least some existing implants that have a straight or flat interface between the implant 20 and the abutment 30. The present invention may also be useful in preventing or reducing bone resorption due to the presence of the recesses 40, i.e., natural interface, which acts to preserve (to at least some degree) the biological width (connective tissue and epithelial attachment lengths) and sulcus depth. The present invention may also encourage gingival support by promoting the preservation of an ideal distance (approximately 4.5 mm to 5.5 mm) between the facial gingival and the tip of the papilla. Lastly, the present invention may, in certain cases, provide a bone growth promoting surface in the areas between the teeth to promote bone growth and a smooth surface on the facial and lingual sides of the abutment to assist in dental hygiene.
The particular embodiments disclosed above are illustrative only, as the invention may be modified and practiced in different but equivalent manners apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the teachings herein. For example, the process steps set forth above may be performed in a different order. Furthermore, no limitations are intended to the details of construction or design herein shown, other than as described in the claims below. It is therefore evident that the particular embodiments disclosed above may be altered or modified and all such variations are considered within the scope and spirit of the invention. Accordingly, the protection sought herein is as set forth in the claims below.
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|Cooperative Classification||A61C8/0006, A61C8/005, A61C8/0077, A61C8/0066, A61C8/008, A61C8/0071, A61C8/0069|
|European Classification||A61C8/00G1P, A61C8/00G1, A61C8/00C1A, A61C8/00H|
|Jan 26, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ZIMMER DENTAL INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ARAVENA, INES M.;KUMAR, AJAY;REEL/FRAME:014915/0323;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040116 TO 20040120
|Jul 30, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ZIMMER DENTAL, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:CENTERPULSE DENTAL INC.;REEL/FRAME:015629/0191
Effective date: 20040108
|Apr 22, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 22, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8