|Publication number||US7296835 B2|
|Application number||US 11/202,843|
|Publication date||Nov 20, 2007|
|Filing date||Aug 11, 2005|
|Priority date||Aug 11, 2005|
|Also published as||US20070035143|
|Publication number||11202843, 202843, US 7296835 B2, US 7296835B2, US-B2-7296835, US7296835 B2, US7296835B2|
|Inventors||Trevor Blackwell, Scott Wiley|
|Original Assignee||Anybots, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (31), Referenced by (34), Classifications (11), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of Invention
The present invention relates generally to a robotic or artificial arm and more particularly a robotic hand and fingers, lightweight and dexterous, having human like manipulation.
2. Background Art
Robotic arms, hands and fingers have been in use and disclosed by others with the usual mechanics using metal, bearings, cables, and pulleys. The use of robotic hands in various applications is apparent today. The need for robotic arms and hands has been prevalent in areas such as prosthetics, space exploration or other work environments where a human hand is not possible or desired. In many work environments, or for the sheer realism, human like manipulation is needed for conducting tasks which require precision, for instance in grasping objects with the necessary strength and at the same having sufficient control and dexterity.
Most robotic hands have a plurality of digits, the little, ring, middle, index and thumb. Each finger is segmented into phalanges, where the tip is the distal phalange, followed by the middle (or medial) phalange, the proximal phalange and then the metacarpal at the knuckle. In constructing robotic hands with the detail, functionality and realism of human hands, the assembly can be highly complex and difficult to maintain. Servicing in turn is both difficult and often. In addition, certain assemblies result in a bulky design and also become too costly in both parts, manufacturing and as mentioned servicing.
Many robot hands have been disclosed as driven with pneumatics or electric motors. Other robot hands similar to such mechanisms are being developed by such entities as Utah/MIT, Stanford/JPL, Okada, Barrett, Bologna University, DLR German Aerospace Center, LMS, DIST Genova, Robonaut NASA, Tokyo and Karlsruhe University, Ultralight research center of Karlsruhe, Gifu University Japan. Others have incorporated tactile capacitive sensing, such as Pressure Profile Systems Inc. onto robot hands. However, none of these attempts have addressed or solved the issues of providing a robot hand and arm of a compact, inexpensive, light weight product having sufficient power and necessary control.
Prior attempts discussed above have the disadvantages and problems associated with fingers being too complex and difficult to build. In addition, power and dexterity is insufficient and cost for manufacturing such devices is much too high. Forearms have been designed but are too bulky and large to work on a robot. Simplicity in the mechanism for the movement in the fingers of the robot hand is missing. In addition, the use of sliding friction leads to cable going slack and other associated problems such as jerky motions.
Therefore, there is a need for a solution to such problems such that a robot arm is both efficient and easier to manufacture, having sufficient power and dexterity in movement in various directions and at the same time provide for realistic and humanly realistic movement. It is accordingly a principal object of the invention to provide for robot hand with the power, speed, dexterity, control and feedback of a human hand at a minimal cost.
An embodiment of the present invention is a robotic arm and in particular a robotic hand using no sliding friction except through a cable housing, but instead operates with rolling friction using cables. The preferred embodiment of the present invention provides for the robotic hand wherein the drum drive, cable housings, rolling friction, one pulley, ligament distal phalange, are designed to work together.
One object of the present invention is to provide for a low cost and easily assemble robotic hand, for instance the preferred embodiment provides for only four manufactured parts for each finger of the robot hand. In the preferred embodiment, each finger employs one pulley, three pins, eight bearings and seven cables.
Another object of the present invention is to provide for a cable housing that is compressible allowing for compliance at the finger tips and the cable housing prevents the fingers from moving as the wrist moves
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for removable fingers for servicing and providing bearings on the outside of the knuckle that allow the cables to pass through the center of the finger.
In addition, the preferred embodiment has no screw thread and no fasteners. An entire finger can be snapped together in the preferred embodiment of the present invention.
Another object of the invention provides for limited parts and easy assemble; fingers for instance, only use one pulley; cables wrap around the pulleys eliminating the need for additional pulleys or tight bends; the thumb may use three pulleys for additional capabilities such as independent distal movement.
Another object of the present invention allows for the use of larger and stronger cables for greater grip strength of the hand.
Yet another object of the present invention allows for a greater life of the cables in that the rolling friction allows for gentle bends of the cables and requires no tools to repair.
Another object is to provide for the use of a cable ligament between the distal and middle phalange, instead of a rod connection. The ligament bends through two different radii, which gives a bending ratio that is different between the middle and distal phalange.
The present invention can be made entirely non metallic with Kevlar cables (or its equivalent), Torlon bearings (or its equivalent), and carbon pins.
In addition, the palm section of the present invention is shaped for holding tools in three positions.
Another object of the present invention provides for the robotic hand to be driven by a glove over a human hand, or a hand held device that an operator can select specific grasps.
Furthermore, an object of the present invention provides for sensitivity in touch through the use of capacitive sensors for measuring fingertip pressure, allowing for feedback to human driven manipulation.
In another object of the present invention, the robotic hand is realistic in movement and provides various human-like range of motions, for example, providing for an arc position of the hand and other grasping positions.
These and other embodiments of the present invention are further made apparent, in the remainder of the present document, to those of ordinary skill in the art.
In order to more fully describe embodiments of the present invention, reference is made to the accompanying drawings. These drawings are not to be considered limitations in the scope of the invention, but are merely illustrative.
The description above and below and the drawings of the present document focus on one or more currently preferred embodiments of the present invention and also describe some exemplary optional features and/or alternative embodiments. The description and drawings are for the purpose of illustration and not limitation. Those of ordinary skill in the art would recognize variations, modifications, and alternatives. Such variations, modifications, and alternatives are also within the scope of the present invention. Section titles are terse and are for convenience only.
As illustrated in
As shown in
An embodiment of the finger 4 assembly is shown in
According to an embodiment of the present invention,
As shown in
As described, the capacitive pressure sensors or capacitor plates 100 on the finger tips such as distal phalange 125, provide a non-linear voltage such that when a finger contacts an object 108, there is a sensitive range for delicate work and a coarse range for gripping large objects. As shown in
As discussed, in the preferred embodiment, there is only one pulley 80 per digit 4, 6, 8, 10. The pulley and cable combination gives a torque multiplication at the metacarpal 30 joint increasing the grip strength of the hand 1. A cable (such as cable 91) that runs from the distal phalange 60 to the middle phalange 50 reduces the need for two extra cables per digit.
As shown in
In the preferred embodiment of thumb 12, there are eight cables controlling the movement of thumb 12 through the use of three pulleys. Six cables have been discussed in the above figures for thumb 12. Two cables in the thumb 12 which are not shown, similar to cable 96 and 97 in
As illustrated in
This embodiment can be viewed utilizing a different grip arrangement as shown in the bottom view of the robotic hand 1 of
As shown in
As illustrated in
The embodiments of the present inventions exhibit a simplified structure to other attempts in providing for a lightweight, controlled, dexterous, efficient, easy to manufacture, and powerful robot hands and arms. The embodiments of the present invention incorporate the use of rolling friction in joints of the fingers, allowing a cable to roll across the joint instead of slide across, thus diminishing friction. Since the cables wrap around the pulleys instead of over, the need for additional pulleys or tights bends is eliminated. The preferred embodiment incorporates maintaining a constant cable length to prevent the cable from going slack. Each of the fingers within a hand is removable and comprises truncated shafts 32 molded or pressed into the metacarpal phalanges to retain the side bearings 79 for ease of maintenance. Such structural connection allows room for the cables to enter a palm section of the hand without a shaft obstructing the way. The fingers and each phalange are preferably manufactured from a molding process or other equivalent process used in the industry. The material used can be plastics, metals or polymers such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or other similar materials.
In the present embodiment, the bearings are also retained, but since the force on the bearings is always in the same direction, the bearings are able to snap into the palm section and the cable tension keeps the fingers in place. When the cable tension is eased, or the cables removed, the finger is removed for maintenance or replacement. Such structure allows the fingers to be built or repaired separately and then installed on the palm. In addition, after loosening one end of each cable, no screw threads or fasteners are required and repair can be accomplished without the use of tools. The cable housing was carefully selected to provide the correct amount of spring force without collapsing under the force of the cable. The compliance of the housing allows the fingers to pick up delicate objects without breaking them. The cable housing is made from an extension spring and a compression spring (or equivalent compliant materials) in series with a PTFE (Teflon) liner to minimize friction on the cables.
Other embodiments of the present invention include the use of remotely driven mechanisms. Prosthetics can be incorporated to use the hand and arm embodiments of the present invention and which can further be extended to other robotic extremities.
Throughout the description and drawings, example embodiments are given with reference to specific configurations. It will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art that the present invention can be embodied in other specific forms. Those of ordinary skill in the art would be able to practice such other embodiments without undue experimentation. The scope of the present invention, for the purpose of the present patent document, is not limited merely to the specific example embodiments of the foregoing description, but rather is indicated by the appended claims. All changes that come within the meaning and range of equivalents within the claims are intended to be considered as being embraced within the spirit and scope of the claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US984179||Sep 26, 1910||Feb 14, 1911||Leonard Aydt||Artificial hand.|
|US1225415||Feb 9, 1916||May 8, 1917||Moses E Cronemiller||Artificial arm and hand.|
|US1285617||Feb 2, 1918||Nov 26, 1918||Louis G Caron||Artificial hand.|
|US2598593||Sep 30, 1948||May 27, 1952||Ibm||Polycentric articulated finger for artificial hands|
|US2669727||Jul 24, 1951||Feb 23, 1954||Opuszenski Theodore||Artificial hand|
|US2696010 *||Jun 30, 1952||Dec 7, 1954||Robinson George B||Pneumatically operated artificial hand|
|US2706296||May 26, 1953||Apr 19, 1955||Brown John S||Prosthetic appliance|
|US2847678||Jan 15, 1954||Aug 19, 1958||Opuszenski Theodore||System for controlled actuation of an artificial hand|
|US2859450||Jan 7, 1955||Nov 11, 1958||Becker Daniel B||Artificial fingers and hand mechanism|
|US3521303||Jul 12, 1967||Jul 21, 1970||Polyan Efim Pinkhasovich||Artificial hand for prostheses with bioelectrical control|
|US4094016||Dec 4, 1976||Jun 13, 1978||Gary Eroyan||Artificial hand and forearm|
|US4246661||Mar 15, 1979||Jan 27, 1981||The Boeing Company||Digitally-controlled artificial hand|
|US4332038||Dec 19, 1980||Jun 1, 1982||Freeland John L||Artificial hand|
|US4351553||Sep 10, 1980||Sep 28, 1982||Alfa Romeo S.P.A.||Multi-purpose mechanical hand|
|US4575297||Dec 22, 1982||Mar 11, 1986||Hans Richter||Assembly robot|
|US4643473 *||Feb 3, 1986||Feb 17, 1987||General Motors Corporation||Robotic mechanical hand|
|US4685929||Sep 28, 1984||Aug 11, 1987||Compagnie Generale de Participations, S.A.||Total hand prostheses|
|US4740126||Nov 22, 1985||Apr 26, 1988||Blomberg Robotertechnik Gmbh||Gripping hand for a manipulator|
|US4746894||Jan 21, 1986||May 24, 1988||Maurice Zeldman||Method and apparatus for sensing position of contact along an elongated member|
|US4821594||Jun 10, 1988||Apr 18, 1989||Mark E. Rosheim||Robot joints|
|US4834443||Nov 18, 1987||May 30, 1989||The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland||Robotic gripping device having linkage actuated finger sections|
|US4955918||May 30, 1989||Sep 11, 1990||University Of Southern California||Artificial dexterous hand|
|US4980626||Aug 10, 1989||Dec 25, 1990||The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration||Method and apparatus for positioning a robotic end effector|
|US4982611||May 24, 1988||Jan 8, 1991||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Multiple-degree-of-freedom sensor tip for a robotic gripper|
|US5200679 *||Feb 22, 1990||Apr 6, 1993||Graham Douglas F||Artificial hand and digit therefor|
|US5280981||Feb 1, 1991||Jan 25, 1994||Odetics, Inc.||End effector with load-sensitive digit actuation mechanisms|
|US5378033||May 10, 1993||Jan 3, 1995||University Of Kentucky Research Foundation||Multi-function mechanical hand with shape adaptation|
|US5647723||Nov 13, 1995||Jul 15, 1997||Rush; Joe A.||Memory wire robotic hand|
|US5967580||Nov 25, 1997||Oct 19, 1999||Ross-Hine Designs, Incorporated||Robotic manipulator|
|US6658962||Oct 31, 2002||Dec 9, 2003||Ross-Hime Designs, Incorporated||Robotic manipulator|
|US6913627 *||Nov 30, 2001||Jul 5, 2005||Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Multi-finger hand device|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8052185 *||Nov 8, 2011||Disney Enterprises, Inc.||Robot hand with humanoid fingers|
|US8157305 *||Jun 24, 2009||Apr 17, 2012||Panasonic Corporation||Robot hand and robot arm|
|US8425620||Apr 23, 2013||Hdt Engineering Services, Inc.||Modular limb segment connector|
|US8498741||Sep 22, 2009||Jul 30, 2013||Gm Global Technology Operations||Dexterous humanoid robotic wrist|
|US8504198 *||May 13, 2010||Aug 6, 2013||Honda Motor Co., Ltd.||Robot hand and control system, control method and control program for the same|
|US8571713 *||Nov 11, 2009||Oct 29, 2013||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Robot and method thereof|
|US8833826 *||Mar 21, 2012||Sep 16, 2014||Sri International||Mobile robotic manipulator system|
|US8936290 *||Jul 25, 2013||Jan 20, 2015||Sandia Corporation||Robotic hand with modular extensions|
|US9039057 *||Sep 21, 2010||May 26, 2015||Ariel-University Research And Development Company Ltd.||Orientation controller, mechanical arm, gripper and components thereof|
|US9044863||Feb 6, 2014||Jun 2, 2015||Steelcase Inc.||Polarized enhanced confidentiality in mobile camera applications|
|US9248575 *||Mar 6, 2014||Feb 2, 2016||Seiko Epson Corporation||Robot hand and robot|
|US9272425||Jun 22, 2015||Mar 1, 2016||Sri International||Twisted string actuator systems|
|US9272427||Aug 13, 2014||Mar 1, 2016||Sri International||Multilayer electrolaminate braking system|
|US9321172||May 11, 2012||Apr 26, 2016||Hdt Expeditionary Systems, Inc.||Modular rotational electric actuator|
|US20070219469 *||Mar 16, 2007||Sep 20, 2007||Terence Vardy||Palpitation monitor|
|US20090097953 *||Oct 11, 2008||Apr 16, 2009||R.A. Jones & Co., Inc.||Device for moving packages and methods of using the same|
|US20100145518 *||Nov 11, 2009||Jun 10, 2010||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Robot and method thereof|
|US20100207412 *||Jun 24, 2009||Aug 19, 2010||Yasunao Okazaki||Robot hand and robot arm|
|US20100259057 *||Apr 9, 2009||Oct 14, 2010||Disney Enterprises, Inc.||Robot hand with human-like fingers|
|US20100292837 *||Nov 18, 2010||Honda Motor Co., Ltd.||Robot hand and control system, control method and control program for the same|
|US20110067236 *||Nov 29, 2010||Mar 24, 2011||Sriram Muthukumar||Multi-chip packaging using an interposer such as a silicon based interposer with through-silicon-vias|
|US20110071671 *||Mar 24, 2011||Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc.||Dexterous humanoid robotic wrist|
|US20120186383 *||Sep 21, 2010||Jul 26, 2012||University Research And Development Company, Ltd||Orientation Controller, Mechanical Arm, Gripper and Components Thereof|
|US20140035306 *||Mar 21, 2012||Feb 6, 2014||Sri International||Mobile robotic manipulator system|
|US20140165814 *||Jul 26, 2010||Jun 19, 2014||Carlos Alberto Ibanez Vignolo||"self-playing robot guitar comprising a biodegradable skin-leathern formed carcass and a biodegradable skin-leathern formed musical plectrum, and protein / amino acids"|
|US20140284951 *||Mar 6, 2014||Sep 25, 2014||Seiko Epson Corporation||Robot hand and robot|
|US20150298319 *||Apr 17, 2015||Oct 22, 2015||GM Global Technology Operations LLC||Lower robotic arm assembly having a plurality of tendon driven digits|
|CN101811302A *||Apr 12, 2010||Aug 25, 2010||段峰||Five-finger independently-driven mechanical artificial hand|
|CN101811302B||Apr 12, 2010||Sep 5, 2012||段峰||Five-finger independently-driven mechanical artificial hand|
|CN102179817A *||May 24, 2011||Sep 14, 2011||清华大学||Double-flexibility piece composite under-actuated double-joint finger device for robot|
|CN102179817B||May 24, 2011||Aug 22, 2012||清华大学||Double-flexibility piece composite under-actuated double-joint finger device for robot|
|CN102806564A *||Sep 11, 2012||Dec 5, 2012||浙江大学||Arc-shaped basal articulation for humanized flexible hand|
|CN102806564B||Sep 11, 2012||Oct 15, 2014||浙江大学||拟人灵巧手圆弧型基关节|
|CN103101055A *||Feb 28, 2013||May 15, 2013||何广平||Tendon type under-driving self-adaptation multi-finger device|
|U.S. Classification||294/111, 901/46, 294/907, 901/36, 294/106|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S294/907, B25J9/104, B25J15/0009|
|European Classification||B25J9/10C, B25J15/00B|
|Sep 25, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ANYBOTS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BLACKWELL, TREVOR;WILEY, SCOTT;REEL/FRAME:019876/0026
Effective date: 20070921
|May 19, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jul 9, 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: UMBRELLA RESEARCH, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:ANYBOTS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:028518/0203
Effective date: 20120323
|Jul 20, 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ANYBOTS 2.0, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:UMBRELLA RESEARCH, INC.;REEL/FRAME:028601/0425
Effective date: 20120601
|Mar 17, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8