|Publication number||US7307446 B1|
|Application number||US 11/510,514|
|Publication date||Dec 11, 2007|
|Filing date||Aug 24, 2006|
|Priority date||Jan 7, 2003|
|Publication number||11510514, 510514, US 7307446 B1, US 7307446B1, US-B1-7307446, US7307446 B1, US7307446B1|
|Inventors||Sergey Y. Shumarayev, Thomas H. White, Rakesh H. Patel, Wilson Wong|
|Original Assignee||Altera Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (64), Non-Patent Citations (27), Referenced by (7), Classifications (17), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/148,046, filed Jun. 7, 2005 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,109,743, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/338,921, filed Jan. 7, 2003 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,940,302), both of which are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.
This application relates to circuitry for integrated circuits such as programmable logic array integrated circuits (“programmable logic devices”), and more particularly, to programmable output driver circuitry with the capability to provide adjustable amounts of preemphasis.
Programmable logic devices are integrated circuits that may be programmed by a user to perform various logic functions. Programmable logic devices may have differential (two-pin) input-output (“I/O”) circuitry for handling high-speed (I/O) signals. Some currently-available programmable logic devices with differential input-output circuitry use output drivers with a fixed (non-programmable) preemphasis feature and have input-output driver circuitry that may be selectively configured to accommodate different communications standards. The preemphasis capabilities that are provided by these output drivers help to drive high-speed signals over communications paths that are used to convey data between various system components. A user of this type of device may configure the programmable circuitry so that the peak-to-peak voltage and average voltage of the input-output signals match those specified for a particular desired signaling standard. These devices may therefore be configured to handle different high-speed differential signaling standards.
Another type of currently-available programmable logic device has programmable preemphasis circuitry that applies preemphasis signals of different durations to its high-speed output signals depending on which high-speed differential signaling standard is selected by the user. The current supply circuitry in the preemphasis circuitry in this type of device is not programmable and therefore does not provide programmable slope steepening effects at the leading and trailing edges of the I/O signals.
It is an object of the present invention to provide integrated circuit devices such as programmable logic devices that have input-output circuitry with enhanced programmable output driver preemphasis capabilities.
This and other objects of the invention are accomplished in accordance with the principles of the invention by providing a programmable logic device having input-output driver circuitry with programmable preemphasis capabilities. A user may program the driver circuitry to provide a desired amount of output signal preemphasis. The output driver circuitry can therefore be configured as needed to best accommodate particular system line conditions. The driver circuitry may be programmed to adjust the amount of slope steepening that is provided at data bit transitions in the differential output data signal or to adjust the duration of the preemphasis contribution to each bit. The driver circuitry may also be selectively configured to accommodate different I/O signaling standards. For example, the peak-to-peak voltage and average (common-mode) voltage that is handled by the input-output circuitry may be programmed as desired by the user.
Further features of the invention, its nature and various advantages will be more apparent from the accompanying drawings and the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments.
An illustrative programmable logic device 10 that can be constructed in accordance with this invention is shown in
The logic in regions 12 may be interconnected using interconnection resources such as vertical and horizontal conductors 14. Such conductors may, for example, include relatively large inter-region conductors that extend past all or some of the logic regions 12 in a row or column. There may be any suitable number of conductors 14. For example, there may be about 10-30 conductors 14 in each row and each column of regions 12. Programmable logic may be used to selectively connect all or a subset of the conductors 14 in each row or column to the associated logic regions 12 in that column. If desired, programmable logic may also be used to directly interconnect the vertical and horizontal conductors 14. The conductors 14 may be continuous or segmented and, if segmented, may be programmably connected to serve as continuous conductors.
Input-output circuitry 16 may be used to interconnect the logic of device 10 to external components (e.g., through I/O pads connected to pins in a package). Additional circuitry may also be used such as circuitry for programming and testing device 10. To avoid over-complicating the drawing, details of the programmable logic interconnections and programming and testing circuitry of device 10 are not shown in
Programmable logic device 10 may be shipped to a customer (“user”) in a substantially unprogrammed condition. The customer may use equipment (referred to as a device “programmer”) to program or configure the device 10 so that device 10 performs a desired custom logic function and so that the input-output circuitry 16 provides desired I/O functionality. Sometimes two or more conductors must be selectively connected to a third conductor. This type of function may be performed using programmable logic connectors (“PLCs”). An example of a PLC is a programmable multiplexer. Programmable logic connectors and other components on device 10 are typically controlled by programmable function control elements (“FCEs”). A programmable function control element may, for example, be based on a programmable cell. Programmable function control elements are designated by the letter “R” in the drawings.
The programmable logic connectors and function control elements on device 10 may be configured by a user to implement desired logic functions on programmable logic device 10 and to configure the input-output circuitry. For example, the state of a two-input multiplexer may be controlled by programming an associated FCE to output either a “0” or a “1.” If the FCE supplies a “0,” the first input of the multiplexer will be connected to its output. Programming the FCE so that the FCE supplies a “1,” will direct the multiplexer to connect its second input to its output. Components such as current sources, delay generators, and other circuitry may also be programmably controlled by FCEs.
Illustrative input-output circuitry 16 that may be used with programmable logic device 10 is shown in
Circuitry such as driver circuits 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26 may be used as drivers (sometimes called buffers) for input and output signals routed between lines 14′ and I/O lines 28. I/O lines 28 may have I/O pads that are electrically connected to I/O pins in an integrated circuit package. (The terms I/O lines, I/O pads, and I/O pins may sometimes be used interchangeably for the purposes of this description.) Any suitable number of I/O lines 28 may be associated with a given programmable logic device 10. As an example, there may be between 20-300 or 50-200 I/O lines 28 for a single device 10.
Driver circuit 20 is a single-ended output driver that may be used to drive a signal from one of lines 14′ onto an associated output line 28. Driver circuit 22 is a single-ended input driver.
Driver circuit 18 has both input and output capabilities and can be programmably configured to operate as either an single-ended input driver or a single-ended output driver.
Differential drive circuitry may be used to handle high-speed signals such as signals with data rates in the Gbps range. With a differential output driver circuit 24, digital data signals on a single internal signal conductor 14′ may be converted into differential digital data signals on two associated I/O lines 28.
Driver circuit 26 is a differential input circuit that converts differential input signals on a pair of I/O lines 28 into a single signal that is provided to one of lines 14′.
Input-output circuitry 16 may use driver circuits such as the driver circuits shown in
High-speed output signals may experience attenuation due to the attributes of the communications busses or paths onto which the output signals are driven during operation of device 10 in a system. For example, device 10 may be used to support communications between components on different boards in a system rack. The backplane in this type of system will have relatively long signal paths for interconnecting the boards. Due to the impedances and lengths of these paths, the signals (and particularly the high-frequency components of such signals) may be attenuated as they are launched onto and travel along the paths.
To compensate for the attenuation of the high-frequency signal components of the output signals, the output signals may be provided with preemphasis before they are launched onto the signal paths via I/O lines 28. The preemphasis, which is a relatively small amount of extra signal superimposed on top of the regular signal at the edges of each digital data bit, helps to offset high-frequency attenuation effects, thereby producing less attenuated and cleaner signals.
Because the conditions on the inter-device signal paths in a system are not all the same, the amount of preemphasis that is appropriate for one path (e.g., a long lossy path) may not be the amount of preemphasis that is appropriate for another path (e.g., a short path that is not lossy). Moreover, different signaling standards may be used by different users. The choice of a particular standard may also affect the desired amount of preemphasis to be used. Because the appropriate amount of preemphasis to be used in a given situation may be a function of the type of communications path involved, the type of signaling standard used, and other factors, the amount of preemphasis provided by circuitry 16 is preferably programmable.
A circuit diagram of illustrative I/O circuitry 16 that may be used to provide a programmable amount of output preemphasis is shown in
In single-ended operation, differential driver 44 may be turned off using function control elements 46 and the appropriate input or output drivers 36 and 40 may be used to convey signals between lines 14′ and respective I/O lines 28 a and 28 b. With this configuration, each I/O line may handle a different digital data stream.
In differential operation, the single-ended drivers in circuit portions 30 and 32 may be disabled (e.g., by programming FCEs 38 and 42 appropriately). A single stream of digital output data bits may be driven differentially onto the pair of I/O lines 28 a and 28 b using driver 44. By using a differential mode of operation, a higher data rate may be supported over the communications paths of the system than is generally possible using single-ended I/O configurations.
Function control elements 46 may be used to adjust various settings associated with differential output driver 44. Due to system constraints such as the varying lengths and impedances of the system-level communications paths, the required data rates for these paths, compatibility requirements with other equipment in the system, and system design preferences, different systems may use different differential signaling standards. Illustrative high-speed differential I/O signaling standards that may be supported by input output circuitry 16 include the low-voltage pseudo-emitter-coupled logic (LVPECL) standard, the pseudo current mode logic (PCML) standard, and the low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) standard. Additional standards such as LTD, CML, or any other suitable communications standards may also be supported or any suitable subset of such standards may be supported if desired.
The signal levels associated with the PCML, LVPECL, and LVDS differential I/O standards are shown in the graph of
Traces for the differential signals on pin 28 a (trace 48) and pin 28 b (trace 50) for an illustrative stream of digital output data bits when an output driver is used that is not producing output signal preemphasis is shown in
In the example of
Function control elements such as function control elements 46 of
The amount of preemphasis that is produced by the output driver circuitry 44 in the I/O circuitry 16 may be adjusted using any suitable programmable circuit arrangement. Parameters such as amount of slope correction (slope steepening) that is produced on the leading and trailing edges of the data bits and the amount of time that the additional preemphasis component is added may be adjusted if desired.
An illustrative differential output driver 44 in which the amount of preemphasis may be programmably adjusted is shown in
Output driver 44 may have a main driver 44 a that differentially drives signal A across pins 28 a and 28 b and a preemphasis driver 44 b that provides a programmable amount of preemphasis on top of the main output signal.
Main driver circuitry 44 a may have associated programmable current supplies 56 a and 56 b. Function control elements R1 may be used to adjust the settings of current supplies 56 a and 56 b (e.g., by selectively switching a larger or smaller number of transistors in supplies 56 a on or off or by adjusting the bias on suitable transistor gates—the other current supplies in the drawings may be adjustably controlled in the same way). By adjusting the operation of the main driver current supplies, a user may adjust the values of the parameters VOD and VCM for the differential output signal VOUT. In this way, the user may program the function control elements R1 to accommodate high-speed (typically greater than 1 Gbps) differential I/O standards such as LVPECL, LVDS, PCML, etc.
Preemphasis driver circuitry 44 b may have associated current supplies 58 a and 58 b. The amount of current that is produced by supplies 58 a and 58 b may be controlled by programming function control elements R2. When a relatively large amount of current is produced, the impact on the leading and trailing edges of the data bits (e.g., the amount of steepening of the leading and trailing edge slopes) is the greatest. If a user programs function control elements R2 so that current supplies 58 a and 58 b produce small currents, the impact of the preemphasis on the slopes of the data bit edges will be correspondingly modest.
Preemphasis driver 44 b may also have associated pulse generator circuitry 60. In the illustrative arrangement of
A graph of an illustrative data signal that may be produced across I/O lines 28 a and 28 b is shown in
As shown by the signal traces in
As shown in
In the illustrative delay circuitry 60 of
To control the operation of main driver circuitry 44 a and preemphasis driver circuitry 44 b of
Illustrative circuitry that may be used in drivers 44 a and 44 b is shown in
The function control element arrangements of
Although the I/O circuitry described above provides significant flexibility when configuring device 10 for operation, there may be consequences of providing too much programmable circuitry in I/O circuitry 16. Accordingly, it may sometimes be desirable to replace some or all of the programmable circuitry in I/O circuits 16 with hardwired circuitry. For example, some or all of the output driver circuitry 44 may be replaced with output driver circuitry that is less adjustable than driver circuitry 44 on all or a portion of programmable logic device 10.
System 1002 can be used in a wide variety of applications, such as computer networking, data networking, instrumentation, video processing, digital signal processing, or any other application where the advantage of using programmable or reprogrammable logic is desirable. Programmable logic device 10 can be used to perform a variety of different logic functions. For example, programmable logic device 10 can be configured as a processor or controller that works in cooperation with processor 1004. Programmable logic device 10 may also be used as an arbiter for arbitrating access to a shared resource in system 1002. In yet another example, programmable logic device 10 can be configured as an interface between processor 1004 and one of the other components in system 1002. It should be noted that system 1002 is only exemplary, and that the true scope and spirit of the invention should be indicated by the following claims.
Various technologies can be used to implement programmable logic devices 10 having the features of this invention, as well as the various components of those devices (e.g., the above-described PLCs and the FCEs that control the PLCs). For example, each PLC can be a relatively simple programmable connector such as a switch or a plurality of switches for connecting any one of several inputs to an output. Alternatively, each PLC can be a somewhat more complex element which is capable of performing logic (e.g., by logically combining several of its inputs) as well as making a connection. In the latter case, for example, each PLC can be product term logic, implementing functions such as AND, NAND, OR, or NOR. Examples of components suitable for implementing PLCs are EPROMs, EEPROMs, pass transistors, transmission gates, antifuses, laser fuses, metal optional links, etc. As has been mentioned, the various components of PLCs can be controlled by various, programmable, function control elements (“FCEs”). (With certain PLC implementations (e.g., fuses and metal optional links) separate FCE devices are not required.) FCEs can also be implemented in any of several different ways. For example, FCEs can be SRAMs, DRAMs, first-in first-out (“FIFO”) memories, EPROMs, EEPROMs, function control registers (e.g., as in Wahlstrom U.S. Pat. No. 3,473,160), ferro-electric memories, fuses, antifuses, or the like. From the various examples mentioned above it will be seen that this invention is applicable to both one-time-only programmable and reprogrammable devices.
It will be understood that the forgoing is only illustrative of the principles of the invention, and that various modifications can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. For example, the numbers of the various types of resources on device 10 can be different from the numbers present in the depicted and described illustrative embodiments. This applies to such parameters as the numbers of rows and columns of the various types of circuitry, the number of regions 12, the numbers of the various types of interconnection conductors, the number and types of I/O drivers, and the numbers and sizes of the FCEs used to control the circuitry. The logic used in programmable logic device 10 to perform various programmable logic functions may be look-up table logic. It will be understood that other types of logic may sometimes be used instead if desired. For example, sum-of-products logic may sometimes be used instead of look-up table logic. Although illustrated herein in the context of a particular programmable logic device architecture, it will be understood that various aspects of the invention are equally applicable to other programmable logic devices and integrated circuits as well.
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|U.S. Classification||326/26, 326/39, 326/38, 326/115, 326/86, 326/127|
|Cooperative Classification||H03K2005/00065, H03K5/06, H03K5/151, H03K19/018585, H03K2005/00032, H03K5/13|
|European Classification||H03K19/0185P, H03K5/06, H03K5/151, H03K5/13|
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