|Publication number||US7307640 B2|
|Application number||US 11/106,673|
|Publication date||Dec 11, 2007|
|Filing date||Apr 15, 2005|
|Priority date||Aug 23, 2000|
|Also published as||US6980218, US20050195210|
|Publication number||106673, 11106673, US 7307640 B2, US 7307640B2, US-B2-7307640, US7307640 B2, US7307640B2|
|Inventors||Eric Demers, Mark M. Leather, Mark G. Segal|
|Original Assignee||Nintendo Co., Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (106), Non-Patent Citations (99), Referenced by (36), Classifications (10), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/226,892, filed Aug. 23, 2000, the entire content of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
This application is also related to the following commonly assigned co-pending applications identified below, which focus on various aspects of the graphics system described herein. Each of the following applications are incorporated herein by reference:
The present invention relates to computer graphics, and more particularly to interactive graphics systems such as home video game platforms. Still more particularly this invention relates to efficient generation of texture coordinate displacements for implementing emboss-style bump-mapping effects for diffuse-lit textures on a rendered object.
Many of us have seen films containing remarkably realistic dinosaurs, aliens, animated toys and other fanciful creatures. Such animations are made possible by computer graphics. Using such techniques, a computer graphics artist can specify how each object should look and how it should change in appearance over time, and a computer then models the objects and displays them on a display such as your television or a computer screen. The computer takes care of performing the many tasks required to make sure that each part of the displayed image is colored and shaped just right based on the position and orientation of each object in a scene, the direction in which light seems to strike each object, the surface texture of each object, and other factors.
Because computer graphics generation is complex, computer-generated three-dimensional graphics just a few years ago were mostly limited to expensive specialized flight simulators, high-end graphics workstations and supercomputers. The public saw some of the images generated by these computer systems in movies and expensive television advertisements, but most of us couldn't actually interact with the computers doing the graphics generation. All this has changed with the availability of relatively inexpensive 3D graphics platforms such as, for example, the Nintendo 64® and various 3D graphics cards now available for personal computers. It is now possible to interact with exciting 3D animations and simulations on relatively inexpensive computer graphics systems in your home or office.
One problem that graphics system designers have often confronted in the past was the efficient rendering of a 3D object that displays realistic-looking surface characteristics that react to various lighting conditions in a manner similar to the surface of an actual object having, for example, random surface flaws, irregularities, roughness, bumps or other slight non-planar surface variations. While in some instances such minute surface characteristics might be actually modeled, the time required for translating and rendering a 3D object with such a complex surface would be prohibitive for most real-time or interactive gaming applications. Consequently, various solutions to this problem were offered. For example, a technique generally known as “bump-mapping” was developed which allowed one to approximate the effect that non-planar surface variations would produce on lighted object. See, for example, J. F. Blinn “Simulation of Wrinkled Surfaces” Computer Graphics, (SIGRAPH '78 Proceedings), vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 286-292 (August 1978); “Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures”, Proc. 4th Conference on Computer Graphics and Instructive Techniques, 1977; and “Programming with OpenGL: Advanced Rendering” by Tom McReynolds and David Blythe—SIGGRAPH '97 course—Section 8.3 “Bump Mapping with Textures”. Basically, this technique allows a graphics application programmer to add realism to an image without using a lot of geometry by modeling small surface variations as height differences and then applying those difference values over a surface as perturbations to a surface Normal vector used in computing surface lighting effects. Effectively, a bump-map modifies the shading of a polygon by perturbing the surface Normal on a per-pixel basis. The shading makes the surface appear bumpy, even though the underlying geometry is relatively flat.
Most conventional approaches toward implementing simple forms of bump-mapping effects with diffuse-lit textured surfaces generally entail computing, for each pixel, the difference between a first sample of a bump map texture image at a particular texture coordinate and a second sample of the same texture image at a texture coordinate displacement. In addition, computing a texture coordinate displacement map generally involves computations using eye-space components of surface Tangent and Binormal vectors (binormals). In particular, to implement a simple form of bump-mapping having an embossing type effect on a texture image, it is most efficient to compute and apply the texture coordinate displacements in the eye-space (view-space/camera-space) reference frame—which is more conducive to a subsequent rasterizing process prior rendering for display. Consequently, texture coordinate displacement for emboss-style bump-mapping is preferably computed and generated after vertex position and surface binormals at a vertex are transformed from model-space into eye-space for pixel rendering.
Typically, in low cost graphics processing systems such as a home video game system, vertex transformation and lighting (T&L) operations are commonly performed by the application program using the graphics system host CPU—primarily because a software T&L implementation, although more computationally taxing on the host CPU, is usually less expensive than using specialized hardware. Hardware implementation of T&L, however, may be preferable in gaming systems because it typically results in much faster renderings and can free up host CPU processing time for performing other desirable tasks such as game strategy and AI computations for improved game performance. Moreover, in graphics rendering arrangements where T&L operations are performed by the application software on the host CPU, additional processing tasks such as performing texture coordinate computations for bump-mapping can significantly add to the processing overhead.
In graphics rendering systems where the T&L operations are performed by dedicated graphics hardware, the host CPU typically provides model-space vertex attributes to the dedicated T&L hardware and then allows the hardware to perform all the coordinate space transformations and lighting computations. Consequently, it is not particularly efficient to require the host CPU to compute texture coordinate displacements for bump mapping purposes subsequent to the T&L hardware performing space transformations of the vertex position and surface normal/binormal vectors. Essentially, this would effectively undermine rendering speed improvements gained from utilizing dedicated T&L hardware whenever bump mapping operations are performed.
The present invention solves this problem by providing techniques and arrangements in a graphics rendering system for the efficient generation of texture coordinate displacements for implementing at least an emboss-style bump-mapping texture effect without the need for the host CPU application software to compute the required texture coordinate displacements. An enhanced API (applications program interface) vertex attribute function capable of specifying three surface normals per vertex (i.e., the Normal, Tangent and Binormal) is utilized and the host CPU application software need only compute the required additional Tangent and Binormal surface vectors per vertex in object-space (model-space), in addition to providing the surface Normal and other conventional per-vertex attributes.
Some of the features provided by aspects of this invention include:
In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a graphics rendering system is provided with enhanced vertex transformation and lighting (T&L) hardware that is capable of performing at least simple emboss-style bump-mapping in addition to the conventional T&L operations. This style of bump-mapping is useful when the surface geometry of an object is being animated. The vector geometry processing portion of the T&L hardware is enhanced to accommodate processing a transformation of object-space vertex surface binormals (i.e., the Tangent and Binormal vectors) to eye-space and the computation of a texture coordinate displacement based on light direction (light-to-vertex) vector dot products with the transformed binormals.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, an enhanced vertex attribute description API function provides three vertex surface normals (N, B and T) to the T&L vector geometry processing hardware along with vertex position and light source position. The geometry processing hardware then transforms the surface normals to eye-space, computes the light vector in eye-space and uses the vector components to compute the appropriate texture coordinate displacements for use in producing an emboss-style bump mapped texture effect.
These and other features and advantages provided by the invention will be better and more completely understood by referring to the following detailed description of presently preferred embodiments in conjunction with the drawings, of which:
In this example, system 50 is capable of processing, interactively in real time, a digital representation or model of a three-dimensional world. System 50 can display some or all of the world from any arbitrary viewpoint. For example, system 50 can interactively change the viewpoint in response to real time inputs from handheld controllers 52 a, 52 b or other input devices. This allows the game player to see the world through the eyes of someone within or outside of the world. System 50 can be used for applications that do not require real time 3D interactive display (e.g., 2D display generation and/or non-interactive display), but the capability of displaying quality 3D images very quickly can be used to create very realistic and exciting game play or other graphical interactions.
To play a video game or other application using system 50, the user first connects a main unit 54 to his or her color television set 56 or other display device by connecting a cable 58 between the two. Main unit 54 produces both video signals and audio signals for controlling color television set 56. The video signals are what controls the images displayed on the television screen 59, and the audio signals are played back as sound through television stereo loudspeakers 61L, 61R.
The user also needs to connect main unit 54 to a power source. This power source may be a conventional AC adapter (not shown) that plugs into a standard home electrical wall socket and converts the house current into a lower DC voltage signal suitable for powering the main unit 54. Batteries could be used in other implementations.
The user may use hand controllers 52 a, 52 b to control main unit 54. Controls 60 can be used, for example, to specify the direction (up or down, left or right, closer or further away) that a character displayed on television 56 should move within a 3D world. Controls 60 also provide input for other applications (e.g., menu selection, pointer/cursor control, etc.). Controllers 52 can take a variety of forms. In this example, controllers 52 shown each include controls 60 such as joysticks, push buttons and/or directional switches. Controllers 52 may be connected to main unit 54 by cables or wirelessly via electromagnetic (e.g., radio or infrared) waves.
To play an application such as a game, the user selects an appropriate storage medium 62 storing the video game or other application he or she wants to play, and inserts that storage medium into a slot 50 64 50 in main unit 54. Storage medium 62 may, for example, be a specially encoded and/or encrypted optical and/or magnetic disk. The user may operate a power switch 66 to turn on main unit 54 and cause the main unit to begin running the video game or other application based on the software stored in the storage medium 62. The user may operate controllers 52 to provide inputs to main unit 54. For example, operating a control 60 may cause the game or other application to start. Moving other controls 60 can cause animated characters to move in different directions or change the user's point of view in a 3D world. Depending upon the particular software stored within the storage medium 62, the various controls 60 on the controller 52 can perform different functions at different times.
In this example, main processor 110 (e.g., an enhanced IBM Power PC 750) receives inputs from handheld controllers 108 (and/or other input devices) via graphics and audio processor 114. Main processor 110 interactively responds to user inputs, and executes a video game or other program supplied, for example, by external storage media 62 via a mass storage access device 50 106 50 such as an optical disk drive. As one example, in the context of video game play, main processor 110 can perform collision detection and animation processing in addition to a variety of interactive and control functions.
In this example, main processor 110 generates 3D graphics and audio commands and sends them to graphics and audio processor 114. The graphics and audio processor 114 processes these commands to generate interesting visual images on display 59 and interesting stereo sound on stereo loudspeakers 61R, 61L or other suitable sound-generating devices.
Example system 50 includes a video encoder 120 that receives image signals from graphics and audio processor 114 and converts the image signals into analog and/or digital video signals suitable for display on a standard display device such as a computer monitor or home color television set 56. System 50 also includes an audio codec (compressor/decompressor) 122 that compresses and decompresses digitized audio signals and may also convert between digital and analog audio signaling formats as needed. Audio codec 122 can receive audio inputs via a buffer 124 and provide them to graphics and audio processor 114 for processing (e.g., mixing with other audio signals the processor generates and/or receives via a streaming audio output of mass storage access device 106). Graphics and audio processor 114 in this example can store audio related information in an audio memory 126 that is available for audio tasks. Graphics and audio processor 114 provides the resulting audio output signals to audio codec 122 for decompression and conversion to analog signals (e.g., via buffer amplifiers 128L, 128R) so they can be reproduced by loudspeakers 61L, 61R.
Graphics and audio processor 114 has the ability to communicate with various additional devices that may be present within system 50. For example, a parallel digital bus 130 may be used to communicate with mass storage access device 106 and/or other components. A serial peripheral bus 132 may communicate with a variety of peripheral or other devices including, for example:
A further external serial bus 142 may be used to communicate with additional expansion memory 144 (e.g., a memory card) or other devices. Connectors may be used to connect various devices to busses 130, 132, 142.
an audio interface and mixer 160,
3D graphics processor 154 performs graphics processing tasks. Audio digital signal processor 156 performs audio processing tasks. Display controller 164 accesses image information from main memory 112 and provides it to video encoder 120 for display on display device 56. Audio interface and mixer 160 interfaces with audio codec 122, and can also mix audio from different sources (e.g., streaming audio from mass storage access device 106, the output of audio DSP 156, and external audio input received via audio codec 122). Processor interface 150 provides a data and control interface between main processor 110 and graphics and audio processor 114.
Memory interface 152 provides a data and control interface between graphics and audio processor 114 and memory 112. In this example, main processor 110 accesses main memory 112 via processor interface 150 and memory interface 152 that are part of graphics and audio processor 114. Peripheral controller 162 provides a data and control interface between graphics and audio processor 114 and the various peripherals mentioned above. Audio memory interface 158 provides an interface with audio memory 126.
Command processor 200 receives display commands from main processor 110 and parses them—obtaining any additional data necessary to process them from shared memory 112. The command processor 200 provides a stream of vertex commands to graphics pipeline 180 for 2D and/or 3D processing and rendering. Graphics pipeline 180 generates images based on these commands. The resulting image information may be transferred to main memory 112 for access by display controller/video interface unit 164—which displays the frame buffer output of pipeline 180 on display 56.
Command processor 200 performs command processing operations 200 a that convert attribute types to floating point format, and pass the resulting complete vertex polygon data to graphics pipeline 180 for rendering/rasterization. A programmable memory arbitration circuitry 130 (see
Transform unit 300 performs a variety of 2D and 3D transform and other operations 300 a (see
Setup/rasterizer 400 includes a setup unit which receives vertex data from transform unit 300 and sends triangle setup information to one or more rasterizer units (400 b) performing edge rasterization, texture coordinate rasterization and color rasterization.
Texture unit 500 (which may include an on-chip texture memory (TMEM) 502) performs various tasks related to texturing including for example:
Texture unit 500 performs texture processing using both regular (non-indirect) and indirect texture lookup operations. A more detailed description of the example graphics pipeline circuitry and procedures for performing regular and indirect texture look-up operations is disclosed in commonly assigned co-pending patent application, Ser. No. 09/722,382, entitled “Method And Apparatus For Direct And Indirect Texture Processing In A Graphics System” and its corresponding provisional application, Ser. No. 60/226,891, filed Aug. 23, 2000, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Texture unit 500 outputs filtered texture values to the Texture Environment Unit 600 for texture environment processing (600 a). Texture environment unit 600 blends polygon and texture color/alpha/depth, and can also perform texture fog processing (600 b) to achieve inverse range based fog effects. Texture environment unit 600 can provide multiple stages to perform a variety of other interesting environment-related functions based for example on color/alpha modulation, embossing, detail texturing, texture swapping, clamping, and depth blending. Texture environment unit 600 can also combine (e.g., subtract) textures in hardware in one pass. For more details concerning the texture environment unit 600, see commonly assigned application Ser. No. 09/722,367 entitled “Recirculating Shade Tree Blender for a Graphics System” and its corresponding provisional application, Ser. No. 60/226,888, filed Aug. 23, 2000, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Pixel engine 700 performs depth (z) compare (700 a) and pixel blending (700 b). In this example, pixel engine 700 stores data into an embedded (on-chip) frame buffer memory 702. Graphics pipeline 180 may include one or more embedded DRAM memories 702 to store frame buffer and/or texture information locally. Z compares 700 a′ can also be performed at an earlier stage in the graphics pipeline 180 depending on the rendering mode currently in effect (e.g., z compares can be performed earlier if alpha blending is not required). The pixel engine 700 includes a copy operation 700 c that periodically writes on-chip frame buffer 702 to main memory 112 for access by display/video interface unit 164. This copy operation 700 c can also be used to copy embedded frame buffer 702 contents to textures in the main memory 112 for dynamic texture synthesis effects. Anti-aliasing and other filtering can be performed during the copy-out operation. The frame buffer output of graphics pipeline 180 (which is ultimately stored in main memory 112) is read each frame by display/video interface unit 164. Display controller/video interface 164 provides digital RGB pixel values for display on display 102.
Briefly, the graphics pipeline renders and prepares images for display at least in part in response to polygon vertex attribute data and texel color data stored as a texture image in an associated memory. The graphics rendering pipeline is provided with vertex transformation and lighting (T&L) hardware that is capable of performing simple bump-mapping operations in addition to the more conventional T&L operations. Pipelined hardware efficiently generates texture coordinate displacements for implementing emboss-style bump-mapping effects utilizing object-space (model-space) surface normals supplied per vertex, for example, by a graphics application running on the main CPU of the graphics system. An enhanced vertex attribute description command function facilitates the communication and processing of plural surface normals per-vertex in addition to other vertex attributes such as vertex position, light source position and texture coordinates. The enhanced vertex attribute function specifies Normal, Tangent and Binormal surface vectors (N, T & B) provided by the host CPU in object space coordinates and uses separate memory indexes per vertex for each of the three surface vectors so as to effectively compress the amount of data needed for bump mapping. A vector geometry processing portion of the T&L hardware is also enhanced by providing two distinct dot-product computation units to transform the Tangent and Binormal surface vectors to eye-space using a scaled model view matrix, compute a light direction vector in eye-space and perform parallel dot-product computations between the computed light direction vector and the transformed Tangent and Binormal vectors to efficiently generate the appropriate texture coordinate displacements for use in creating an embossed texture effect.
In one example embodiment, system 50 first stores a texture image in texture memory 502 (see
In more detail, bump mapping described above generates at least: (1) texture coordinate displacements (Δs, Δt) based on incoming texture coordinates (block 808), (2) a normalized light direction (block 806) and (3) a per-vertex coordinate basis function (block 802). The preferred basis function used is an orthogonal object-space coordinate basis. The three orthogonal axes of this coordinate basis are defined by the surface Normal vector, a surface “Tangent” vector and a second mutually perpendicular surface tangent “Binormal” vector with the Tangent (T) and Binormal (B) vectors oriented in directions corresponding to the texture gradient in s and the texture gradient in t (i.e., increasing s or t). The two orthogonal surface tangent vectors, T and B, are also called “binormals”. Block 802 provides these values. An object-space coordinate light vector projected onto this coordinate basis (block 806) is then used to compute texture coordinate displacements for bump-mapping. More specifically, the projection of the light direction vector onto each of the two binormals, T and B, gives the amount of texture space displacement the light causes. Basically, the light on the texture (i. e., the light direction vector) is decomposed into its surface normal component and its (s, t) coordinate components corresponding to the respective texture gradients. These (s, t) coordinate components of the light direction vector are the (Δs, Δt) texture coordinate displacements (block 808) used for bump mapping.
To perform the above operations properly for efficient rendering, object oriented Tangent and Binormal vectors at each vertex, which map in object space to the texture s and t axis, are preferably first converted to eye-space. Consequently, in the example implementation of the present invention, Command Processor 200 supplies these two binormals per-vertex to Transform Unit 300 (block 804). The Transform Unit will then transform the binormals to eye-space (block 804). (For the present example embodiment, even where the supplied binormals are constant, for example, with flat surfaces, Command Processor 200 supplies the binormals to Transform Unit 300 on a per-vertex basis.) Mathematically, the following operations are performed by Transform Unit 300 are:
where Tv=(Txv, Tyv, Tzv) and Bv=(Bxv, Byv, Bzv) are the per-vertex binormals supplied to Transform Unit 300 by Command Processor 200. The Tv vector should preferably be normalized and aligned with the s texture axis in object-space and the Bv vector should preferably be normalized and aligned with the t texture axis in object space. The Model View transformation matrix should be purely rotational, which would maintain the unit length of the binormals. However, if scaling of the binormals is required, then the Model View transformation matrix can be multiplied by a scalar. The scale applied would then be the new unit length of the binormals. This could be used to visually increase the bump mapping effect without changing the source data or the algorithm.
Given the binormal basis system, the light rotation matrix used by Transform Unit 300 (block 806) is as follows:
where (Tx, Ty, Tz) is the transformed binormal oriented along the s axis, in the direction of increasing s, while (Bx, By, Bz) is the transformed binormal oriented along the t axis, in the direction of increasing t.
The light vector is computed (block 50 80650 ) by normalizing the difference between the light position (in eye-space) and the current, transformed, vertex in eye space as follows:
The texture coordinate displacement (Δs, Δt) is then computed per-vertex (block 808) as follows:
Note that this preferred example algorithm does not use the Normal input vector to compute displacements. Only the Binormal and Tangent vectors are required. Other implementations specify a 3×3 matrix multiply including the eye-space Normal as an extra row.
The computed per-vertex delta offsets, (Δs, Δt), are then added to the post-transform (i.e., after transform to eye-space) texture coordinate generated per-vertex (block 810) to obtain new texture coordinates S1 and T1:
To efficiently implement the above computation for emboss-style bump-mapping, Transform Unit 300 includes hardwired computational logic circuitry to perform at least the following emboss bump-mapping related vector and coordinate computations:
Compute T eye =MV·T
Compute B eye =MV·B
Compute L=V eye −L pos
Compute 1/∥L∥=1/sqrt(L 2)
Compute (S1, T1)=(S0+Δs, T0+Δt)
where T and B are the respective object-space Tangent and Binormal vectors; MV is a transformation matrix having element values for converting vectors to eye-space; Lpos is the light position vector; Veye is the vertex position vector; L is the light-to-vertex vector; ∥L∥ is the normalized light direction vector; (S0, T0) are the regular transformed texture coordinates, (Δs, Δt), are the generated texture coordinate displacement values; and (S1, T1) are the new texture coordinates from which an “offset” texture used in emboss bump-mapping is obtained.
Referring again to
The L2 vector product is subsequently provided to inverse square-root computation unit 305 for computing an inverse magnitude value of the light direction vector. The Binormal and Tangent vector lighting dot-products T·L and B·L from dot unit 303 are provided to floating multiplier 306 along with the computed inverse magnitude value of the light direction vector from unit 305. Floating point multiplier 306 then computes the texture coordinate displacements ΔS and ΔT which are passed to floating point adder 308. Transformed texture coordinates S0 and T0 are provided per vertex to delay FIFO 307 and are passed in a timely fashion to floating point adder 308 for combination with computed coordinate displacements ΔS and ΔT. The new texture coordinates generated, S1 and T1, are then passed to a vertex buffer unit (not shown) within transform unit 300 and subsequently passed via graphics pipeline 180 to texture unit 500 for texture lookup. In the preferred embodiment, the texture combining unit used is capable of performing texture subtraction in one pass instead of multiple passes. The preferred texture combining operation does not use an accumulation buffer, but instead does texture combining in texture hardware.
Vector dot unit 303 includes floating multipliers 317, 318 and 319 and floating point adders 320 and 321 for computing vector dot products of the light direction vector and the Tangent and Binormal eye space vector components. Dot unit 303 may also include multiplexor 302 for receiving and staging light direction vector and transformed eye-space Tangent and Binormal vector data from floating point adder 304 and dot unit 301. Floating point multipliers 317 through 319 are used in combination with floating point adders 320 and 321 to provide a light direction vector squared product, L2, a Tangent lighting vector dot-product (T·L) and a Binormal lighting dot product (B·L) at the output of floating point adder 321. A table illustrating an example schedule of computational events for accomplishing emboss-style bump-mapping occurring per pipeline data clocking cycle/stage within Transform Unit 300 using dot unit 301 and dot unit 302 is provided immediately below:
Vector Dot Unit #1
Vector Dot Unit #2
Txe = M0 · T
Tye = M1 · T
Tze = M2 · T
Bxe = M0 · B
Bye = M1 · B
Bze = M2 · B
Lx = Vex − Lpx
Ly = Vey − Lpy
Lz = Vez − Lpz
Ld Teye, L
Out T · L; Ld L
Out B · L
During relative cycles/stages numbered 1 through 8, the Tangent and vectors are loaded into dot unit 301 and the transforms to eye space are During cycles 9 through 11, light direction vector components Lx, Ly, an Lz are computed by floating point adder 304 using eye space vertex on components and negative signed light position components. During cycles 11-13, the computed Tangent vector eye space components are loaded into multiplexing/staging buffer 302. During Cycle 14, the computed light direction vector, L, and the computed Tangent eye space vector, Teye=(Txe, Tye, Tze), are loading into the vector dot unit 303 for computing the T·L dot product. On cycle 15, the computed light direction vector, L, is again loaded into the vector dot unit 303 to compute the light direction vector squared product, L2. Finally, the binormal eye space vector, Beye=(Bxe, Bye, Bze), is loaded on cycle 18 to compute the B·L dot product. The hardware described above is fully pipelined and can compute the required values in a minimal number of distinct operations.
In the preferred embodiment, an enhanced graphics API function is used to initiate texture coordinate generation within transform unit 300. In addition to conventional texture coordinate generation wherein current vertex attribute information is used to generate a texture coordinate, the preferred graphics API supports an enhanced texture generation function that is capable of calling and using other texture coordinate generation functions. An example enhanced API texture coordinate generation function may be defined as follows:
// name of generated texture coordinates
// coordinate generation function type
// Source parameters for coord generation
// Texture Matrix Index.
The above example API function defines general texture coordinate generation in addition to supporting other texture coordinate generation functions. The MatIdx is set as the default texture matrix index by which the generated texture coordinates are to be transformed. In the present example embodiment, to implement emboss-style bump-mapping, the above API function is used with Func set to GX_TG_BUMP*, where * is a number from 0-7 indicative of one of up to eight possible different lights (light source positions) which may be selected for embossing.
The following is an example C/C++ language implementation of the above general texture coordinate generation function:
With “func” set to GX_TG_BUMP0-7, system 50 performs emboss-style bump mapping by perturbing input texture coordinates based on per-vertex specified binormals and light direction information. The original and offset texture coordinates are used to look up texels from a height-field bump map texture stored in memory 112. TEV unit 600 can be used to subtract these values in hardware in one pass to find the bump height, which value can be added to the final color of the pixel to provide emboss-style bump mapping. GX_BUMP0 indicates that light 0 will be used, GX_BUMP1 indicates that light 1 will be used, etc., in the bump map calculation.
The dst_coord for bump maps should be numbered sequentially, i.e. base texture coordinate=n, and bump offset texture coordinate=n+1. Bump map texture coordinates should be generated after coordinates generated from transforms (GX_TG_MTX2x4 and GX_TG_MTX3x4) and before coordinates generated from lighting channels (GX_TG_SRTG). An example follows:
// source for a bump mapped coordinate, transformed by a matrix GXSetTexCoordGen(GX_TEXCOORD0, GX_TG_MTX2x4, GX_TG_TEX0, GX_TEXMTX3);
// perturbed coordinate, offset from TEXCOORD0 above, light 0. Matrix (mtx) is not used for the perturbed coordinates (therefore use an identity matrix).
GXSetTexCoordGen(GX_TEXCOORD1, GX_TG_BUMP0, GX_TG_TEXCOORD0, GX_IDENTITY).
Certain of the above-described system components 50 could be implemented as other than the home video game console configuration described above. For example, one could run graphics application or other software written for system 50 on a platform with a different configuration that emulates system 50 or is otherwise compatible with it. If the other platform can successfully emulate, simulate and/or provide some or all of the hardware and software resources of system 50, then the other platform will be able to successfully execute the software.
As one example, an emulator may provide a hardware and/or software configuration (platform) that is different from the hardware and/or software configuration (platform) of system 50. The emulator system might include software and/or hardware components that emulate or simulate some or all of hardware and/or software components of the system for which the application software was written. For example, the emulator system could comprise a general purpose digital computer such as a personal computer, which executes a software emulator program that simulates the hardware and/or firmware of system 50.
Some general purpose digital computers (e.g., IBM or MacIntosh personal computers and compatibles) are now equipped with 3D graphics cards that provide 3D graphics pipelines compliant with DirectX or other standard 3D graphics command APIs. They may also be equipped with stereophonic sound cards that provide high quality stereophonic sound based on a standard set of sound commands. Such multimedia-hardware-equipped personal computers running emulator software may have sufficient performance to approximate the graphics and sound performance of system 50. Emulator software controls the hardware resources on the personal computer platform to simulate the processing, 3D graphics, sound, peripheral and other capabilities of the home video game console platform for which the game programmer wrote the game software.
As one example, in the case where the software is written for execution on a platform using an IBM PowerPC or other specific processor and the host 1201 is a personal computer using a different (e.g., Intel) processor, emulator 1303 fetches one or a sequence of binary-image program instructions from storage medium 62 and converts these program instructions to one or more equivalent Intel binary-image program instructions. The emulator 1303 also fetches and/or generates graphics commands and audio commands intended for processing by the graphics and audio processor 114, and converts these commands into a format or formats that can be processed by hardware and/or software graphics and audio processing resources available on host 1201. As one example, emulator 1303 may convert these commands into commands that can be processed by specific graphics and/or or sound hardware of the host 1201 (e.g., using standard DirectX, OpenGL and/or sound APIs).
An emulator 1303 used to provide some or all of the features of the video game system described above may also be provided with a graphic user interface (GUI) that simplifies or automates the selection of various options and screen modes for games run using the emulator. In one example, such an emulator 1303 may further include enhanced functionality as compared with the host platform for which the software was originally intended. In the case. where particular graphics support hardware within an emulator does not include the embossed bump mapping functions shown in
A number of program modules including emulator 1303 may be stored on the hard disk 1211, removable magnetic disk 1215, optical disk 1219 and/or the ROM 1252 and/or the RAM 1254 of system memory 1205. Such program modules may include an operating system providing graphics and sound APIs, one or more application programs, other program modules, program data and game data. A user may enter commands and information into personal computer system 1201 through input devices such as a keyboard 1227, pointing device 1229, microphones, joysticks, game controllers, satellite dishes, scanners, or the like. These and other input devices can be connected to processing unit 1203 through a serial port interface 1231 that is coupled to system bus 1207, but may be connected by other interfaces, such as a parallel port, game port Fire wire bus or a universal serial bus (USB). A monitor 1233 or other type of display device is also connected to system bus 1207 via an interface, such as a video adapter 1235.
System 1201 may also include a modem 1154 or other network interface means for establishing communications over a network 1152 such as the Internet. Modem 1154, which may be internal or external, is connected to system bus 123 via serial port interface 1231. A network interface 1156 may also be provided for allowing system 1201 to communicate with a remote computing device 1150 (e.g., another system 1201) via a local area network 1158 (or such communication may be via wide area network 1152 or other communications path such as dial-up or other communications means). System 1201 will typically include other peripheral output devices, such as printers and other standard peripheral devices.
In one example, video adapter 1235 may include a 3D graphics pipeline chip set providing fast 3D graphics rendering in response to 3D graphics commands issued based on a standard 3D graphics application programmer interface such as Microsoft's DirectX 7.0 or other version. A set of stereo loudspeakers 1237 is also connected to system bus 1207 via a sound generating interface such as a conventional “sound card” providing hardware and embedded software support for generating high quality stereophonic sound based on sound commands provided by bus 1207. These hardware capabilities allow system 1201 to provide sufficient graphics and sound speed performance to play software stored in storage medium 62.
All documents referenced above are hereby incorporated by reference.
While the invention has been described in connection with what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the disclosed embodiment, but on the contrary, is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangements included within the scope of the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4275413||Jul 3, 1979||Jun 23, 1981||Takashi Sakamoto||Linear interpolator for color correction|
|US4357624||Mar 20, 1981||Nov 2, 1982||Combined Logic Company||Interactive video production system|
|US4388620||Jan 5, 1981||Jun 14, 1983||Atari, Inc.||Method and apparatus for generating elliptical images on a raster-type video display|
|US4425559||Jun 2, 1980||Jan 10, 1984||Atari, Inc.||Method and apparatus for generating line segments and polygonal areas on a raster-type display|
|US4463380||Sep 25, 1981||Jul 31, 1984||Vought Corporation||Image processing system|
|US4491836||Sep 13, 1982||Jan 1, 1985||Calma Company||Graphics display system and method including two-dimensional cache|
|US4570233||Jul 1, 1982||Feb 11, 1986||The Singer Company||Modular digital image generator|
|US4586038||Dec 12, 1983||Apr 29, 1986||General Electric Company||True-perspective texture/shading processor|
|US4600919||Aug 3, 1982||Jul 15, 1986||New York Institute Of Technology||Three dimensional animation|
|US4615013||Aug 2, 1983||Sep 30, 1986||The Singer Company||Method and apparatus for texture generation|
|US4625289||Jan 9, 1985||Nov 25, 1986||Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp.||Computer graphics system of general surface rendering by exhaustive sampling|
|US4653012||Aug 15, 1984||Mar 24, 1987||Marconi Avionics Limited||Display systems|
|US4658247||Jul 30, 1984||Apr 14, 1987||Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.||Pipelined, line buffered real-time color graphics display system|
|US4692880||Nov 15, 1985||Sep 8, 1987||General Electric Company||Memory efficient cell texturing for advanced video object generator|
|US4695943||Sep 27, 1984||Sep 22, 1987||Honeywell Information Systems Inc.||Multiprocessor shared pipeline cache memory with split cycle and concurrent utilization|
|US4710876||Jun 5, 1985||Dec 1, 1987||General Electric Company||System and method for the display of surface structures contained within the interior region of a solid body|
|US4725831||Apr 27, 1984||Feb 16, 1988||Xtar Corporation||High-speed video graphics system and method for generating solid polygons on a raster display|
|US4768148||Jun 27, 1986||Aug 30, 1988||Honeywell Bull Inc.||Read in process memory apparatus|
|US4785395||Jun 27, 1986||Nov 15, 1988||Honeywell Bull Inc.||Multiprocessor coherent cache system including two level shared cache with separately allocated processor storage locations and inter-level duplicate entry replacement|
|US4790025||Sep 26, 1985||Dec 6, 1988||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Processing method of image data and system therefor|
|US4808988||Apr 13, 1984||Feb 28, 1989||Megatek Corporation||Digital vector generator for a graphic display system|
|US4812988||Aug 29, 1986||Mar 14, 1989||U.S. Philips Corporation||Processor for the elimination of concealed faces for the synthesis of images in three dimensions|
|US4817175||May 4, 1987||Mar 28, 1989||Schlumberger Systems And Services, Inc.||Video stream processing system|
|US4829295||Mar 25, 1987||May 9, 1989||Namco Ltd.||Image synthesizer|
|US4829452||Jul 5, 1984||May 9, 1989||Xerox Corporation||Small angle image rotation using block transfers|
|US4833601||May 28, 1987||May 23, 1989||Bull Hn Information Systems Inc.||Cache resiliency in processing a variety of address faults|
|US4855934||Oct 3, 1986||Aug 8, 1989||Evans & Sutherland Computer Corporation||System for texturing computer graphics images|
|US4862392||Mar 7, 1986||Aug 29, 1989||Star Technologies, Inc.||Geometry processor for graphics display system|
|US4866637||Oct 30, 1987||Sep 12, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Pipelined lighting model processing system for a graphics workstation's shading function|
|US4888712||Nov 4, 1987||Dec 19, 1989||Schlumberger Systems, Inc.||Guardband clipping method and apparatus for 3-D graphics display system|
|US4897806||Jun 19, 1985||Jan 30, 1990||Pixar||Pseudo-random point sampling techniques in computer graphics|
|US4901064||Nov 4, 1987||Feb 13, 1990||Schlumberger Technologies, Inc.||Normal vector shading for 3-D graphics display system|
|US4907174||Jun 2, 1988||Mar 6, 1990||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Z-buffer allocated for window identification|
|US4914729||Feb 18, 1987||Apr 3, 1990||Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of filling polygonal region in video display system|
|US4918625||Jul 18, 1989||Apr 17, 1990||Cae-Link Corporation||Method and apparatus for processing translucent objects|
|US4935879||Aug 5, 1988||Jun 19, 1990||Daikin Industries, Ltd.||Texture mapping apparatus and method|
|US4945500||Nov 20, 1989||Jul 31, 1990||Schlumberger Technologies, Inc.||Triangle processor for 3-D graphics display system|
|US4965751||Aug 18, 1987||Oct 23, 1990||Hewlett-Packard Company||Graphics system with programmable tile size and multiplexed pixel data and partial pixel addresses based on tile size|
|US4974176||Dec 18, 1987||Nov 27, 1990||General Electric Company||Microtexture for close-in detail|
|US4974177||Jun 14, 1989||Nov 27, 1990||Daikin Industries Ltd.||Mapping circuit of a CRT display device|
|US4975977||Nov 28, 1989||Dec 4, 1990||Hitachi, Ltd.||Rotation processing method of image and system therefor|
|US4989138||May 14, 1990||Jan 29, 1991||Tektronix, Inc.||Single bus graphics data processing pipeline with decentralized bus arbitration|
|US5003496||Aug 26, 1988||Mar 26, 1991||Eastman Kodak Company||Page memory control in a raster image processor|
|US5016183||Sep 13, 1988||May 14, 1991||Computer Design, Inc.||Textile design system and method|
|US5018076||Sep 16, 1988||May 21, 1991||Chips And Technologies, Inc.||Method and circuitry for dual panel displays|
|US5043922||Sep 7, 1989||Aug 27, 1991||International Business Machines Corporation||Graphics system shadow generation using a depth buffer|
|US5056044||Aug 8, 1990||Oct 8, 1991||Hewlett-Packard Company||Graphics frame buffer with programmable tile size|
|US5062057||Dec 9, 1988||Oct 29, 1991||E-Machines Incorporated||Computer display controller with reconfigurable frame buffer memory|
|US5086495||Dec 16, 1988||Feb 4, 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Solid modelling system with logic to discard redundant primitives|
|US5091967||Apr 10, 1989||Feb 25, 1992||Dainippon Screen Mfg. Co., Ltd.||Method of extracting contour of a subject image from an original|
|US5097427||Mar 26, 1991||Mar 17, 1992||Hewlett-Packard Company||Texture mapping for computer graphics display controller system|
|US5136664||Feb 23, 1988||Aug 4, 1992||Bersack Bret B||Pixel rendering|
|US5144291||Nov 2, 1987||Sep 1, 1992||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Means for eliminating hidden surface|
|US5163126||May 10, 1990||Nov 10, 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for adaptively providing near phong grade shading for patterns in a graphics display system|
|US5170468||Aug 18, 1987||Dec 8, 1992||Hewlett-Packard Company||Graphics system with shadow ram update to the color map|
|US5179638||Apr 26, 1990||Jan 12, 1993||Honeywell Inc.||Method and apparatus for generating a texture mapped perspective view|
|US5204944||Jul 28, 1989||Apr 20, 1993||The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York||Separable image warping methods and systems using spatial lookup tables|
|US5224208||Mar 16, 1990||Jun 29, 1993||Hewlett-Packard Company||Gradient calculation for texture mapping|
|US5239624||Apr 17, 1991||Aug 24, 1993||Pixar||Pseudo-random point sampling techniques in computer graphics|
|US5241658||Aug 21, 1990||Aug 31, 1993||Apple Computer, Inc.||Apparatus for storing information in and deriving information from a frame buffer|
|US5255353||Apr 20, 1992||Oct 19, 1993||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Three-dimensional shadow processor for an image forming apparatus|
|US5268995||Nov 21, 1990||Dec 7, 1993||Motorola, Inc.||Method for executing graphics Z-compare and pixel merge instructions in a data processor|
|US5268996||Dec 20, 1990||Dec 7, 1993||General Electric Company||Computer image generation method for determination of total pixel illumination due to plural light sources|
|US5278948||Aug 21, 1992||Jan 11, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Parametric surface evaluation method and apparatus for a computer graphics display system|
|US5307450||Sep 28, 1993||Apr 26, 1994||Silicon Graphics, Inc.||Z-subdivision for improved texture mapping|
|US5315692||Aug 18, 1992||May 24, 1994||Hughes Training, Inc.||Multiple object pipeline display system|
|US5345541||Dec 20, 1991||Sep 6, 1994||Apple Computer, Inc.||Method and apparatus for approximating a value between two endpoint values in a three-dimensional image rendering device|
|US5353424||Nov 19, 1991||Oct 4, 1994||Digital Equipment Corporation||Fast tag compare and bank select in set associative cache|
|US5357579||Jul 15, 1993||Oct 18, 1994||Martin Marietta Corporation||Multi-layer atmospheric fading in real-time computer image generator|
|US5361386||Aug 17, 1993||Nov 1, 1994||Evans & Sutherland Computer Corp.||System for polygon interpolation using instantaneous values in a variable|
|US5363475||Dec 5, 1989||Nov 8, 1994||Rediffusion Simulation Limited||Image generator for generating perspective views from data defining a model having opaque and translucent features|
|US5377313||Jan 29, 1992||Dec 27, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Computer graphics display method and system with shadow generation|
|US5392385||May 22, 1992||Feb 21, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Parallel rendering of smoothly shaped color triangles with anti-aliased edges for a three dimensional color display|
|US5392393||Jun 4, 1993||Feb 21, 1995||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Architecture for a high performance three dimensional graphics accelerator|
|US5394516||Jun 28, 1991||Feb 28, 1995||U.S. Philips Corporation||Generating an image|
|US5402532||Sep 30, 1994||Mar 28, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Direct display of CSG expression by use of depth buffers|
|US5404445||Oct 31, 1991||Apr 4, 1995||Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc.||External interface for a high performance graphics adapter allowing for graphics compatibility|
|US5408650||Jun 29, 1993||Apr 18, 1995||Digital Equipment Corporation||Memory analysis system for dynamically displaying memory allocation and de-allocation events associated with an application program|
|US5412796||Apr 22, 1991||May 2, 1995||Rediffusion Simulation Limited||Method and apparatus for generating images simulating non-homogeneous fog effects|
|US5415549||Mar 21, 1991||May 16, 1995||Atari Games Corporation||Method for coloring a polygon on a video display|
|US5416606||Sep 23, 1994||May 16, 1995||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method and apparatus for encoding or decoding an image in accordance with image characteristics|
|US5421028||Mar 31, 1994||May 30, 1995||Hewlett-Packard Company||Processing commands and data in a common pipeline path in a high-speed computer graphics system|
|US5422997||Jul 9, 1993||Jun 6, 1995||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Texture address generator, texture pattern generator, texture drawing device, and texture address generating method|
|US5432895||Oct 1, 1992||Jul 11, 1995||University Corporation For Atmospheric Research||Virtual reality imaging system|
|US5432900||Jun 16, 1994||Jul 11, 1995||Intel Corporation||Integrated graphics and video computer display system|
|US5438663||Nov 12, 1993||Aug 1, 1995||Toshiba America Information Systems||External interface for a high performance graphics adapter allowing for graphics compatibility|
|US5448689||Apr 28, 1994||Sep 5, 1995||Hitachi, Ltd.||Graphic data processing system|
|US5457775||Sep 15, 1993||Oct 10, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||High performance triangle interpolator|
|US5461712||Apr 18, 1994||Oct 24, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Quadrant-based two-dimensional memory manager|
|US5467438||May 24, 1993||Nov 14, 1995||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for compensating for color in color images|
|US5467459||Aug 2, 1993||Nov 14, 1995||Board Of Regents Of The University Of Washington||Imaging and graphics processing system|
|US5469535||May 4, 1992||Nov 21, 1995||Midway Manufacturing Company||Three-dimensional, texture mapping display system|
|US5473736||Apr 26, 1993||Dec 5, 1995||Chroma Graphics||Method and apparatus for ordering and remapping colors in images of real two- and three-dimensional objects|
|US5475803||Jul 10, 1992||Dec 12, 1995||Lsi Logic Corporation||Method for 2-D affine transformation of images|
|US5487146||Mar 8, 1994||Jan 23, 1996||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Plural memory access address generation employing guide table entries forming linked list|
|US5490240||Jul 9, 1993||Feb 6, 1996||Silicon Graphics, Inc.||System and method of generating interactive computer graphic images incorporating three dimensional textures|
|US5495563||Jan 15, 1991||Feb 27, 1996||U.S. Philips Corporation||Apparatus for converting pyramidal texture coordinates into corresponding physical texture memory addresses|
|US5504499||Jun 29, 1993||Apr 2, 1996||Hitachi, Ltd.||Computer aided color design|
|US5504917||Jan 14, 1994||Apr 2, 1996||National Instruments Corporation||Method and apparatus for providing picture generation and control features in a graphical data flow environment|
|US6163319 *||Mar 9, 1999||Dec 19, 2000||Silicon Graphics, Inc.||Method, system, and computer program product for shading|
|US6392655 *||May 7, 1999||May 21, 2002||Microsoft Corporation||Fine grain multi-pass for multiple texture rendering|
|US6452600 *||Nov 28, 2000||Sep 17, 2002||Nintendo Co., Ltd.||Graphics system interface|
|US6618048 *||Nov 28, 2000||Sep 9, 2003||Nintendo Co., Ltd.||3D graphics rendering system for performing Z value clamping in near-Z range to maximize scene resolution of visually important Z components|
|US6639595 *||Nov 28, 2000||Oct 28, 2003||Nintendo Co., Ltd.||Achromatic lighting in a graphics system and method|
|US6717576 *||Aug 20, 1999||Apr 6, 2004||Apple Computer, Inc.||Deferred shading graphics pipeline processor having advanced features|
|US6771264 *||Dec 17, 1998||Aug 3, 2004||Apple Computer, Inc.||Method and apparatus for performing tangent space lighting and bump mapping in a deferred shading graphics processor|
|1||"5.13.1 How to Project a Texture," from web site: www.sgi.com, 2 pages.|
|2||"ATI Radeon Skinning and Tweening," from ATI.com web site, 1 page (2000).|
|3||"Cartoon Shading, Using Shading Mapping," 1 page, http://www.goat.com/alias/shaders.thm#toonshad.|
|4||"Developer Relations, ATI Summer 2000 Developer Newsletter," from ATI.com web site, 5 pages (Summer 2000).|
|5||"Developer's Lair, Multitexturing with the ATI Rage Pro," (7 pages0 from ati.com web site (2000).|
|6||"Hardware Technology," from ATI.com web site, 8 pages (2000).|
|7||"HOWTO: Animate Textures in Direct3D Immediate Mode," printed from web site support.microsoft.com, 3 pages (last reviewed Dec. 15, 2000).|
|8||"OpenGL Projected Textures," from web site:HTTP:// reality.sgi.com, 5 pages.|
|9||"Renderman Artist Tools, PhotoRealistic RenderMan Tutorial," Pixar (Jan. 1996).|
|10||"Skeletal Animation and Skinning," fron ATI.com web site, 2 pages (Summer 2000).|
|11||10.2 Alpha Blending, http://www.sgi.com/software/opengl/advaned98/notes/node146.html.|
|12||10.3 Sorting, http://www.sgi.com/software/opengl/advanced98/notes/node147.html.|
|13||10.4 Using the Alpha Function, http://www.sgi.com/software/opengl/advanced98/notes/node148.html.|
|14||Akeley, Kurt, "Reality Engine Graphics", 1993, Silicon Graphics Computer Systems, pp.109-116.|
|15||Alpha (transparency) Effects, Future Technology Research Index, http://www.futuretech.vuurwerk.n1/alpha.html.|
|16||Arkin, Alan, email, subject: "Texture distortion problem," from web site: HTTP://reality.sgi.com (Jul. 1997).|
|17||Blythe, David, 5.6 Transparency Mapping and Trimming with Alpha, http://toolbox.sgi.com/TasteOfDT/d...penGL/advanced98./notes/nodes41.html, Jun. 11, 1998.|
|18||Cambridge Amino-Scene III, infor Sheet, Cambridge Animation Systems, 2 pages, http://www.cam-ani.co.uk/casweb/products/software/Scenelll.htm.|
|19||Computer Graphics World, Dec. 1997.|
|20||Datasheet, SGS-Thomson Microelectronic, nVIDIA(TM), RIVA 128(TM) 128-Bit 3D Multimedia Accelerator (Oct. 1997).|
|21||Debevec, Paul, et al., "Efficient View-Dependent Image-Based Rendering with Projective Texture-Mapping," University of California at Berkeley.|
|22||Decaudin, Philippe, "Cartoon-Looking Rendering of 3D Scenes," Syntim Project Inria, 6 pages , http://www-syntim.inria.fr/syntim/recherche/decaudin/cartoon-eng.html.|
|23||Digimation Inc., "The Incredible Comicshop," infor sheet, 2 pages, http://www.digimation.com/asp/product/asp?product<SUB>-</SUB>id=33.|
|24||Efficient Command/Data Interface Protocol For Grahics, IBM TDB, vol. 36, issue 9A, Sep. 1, 1993, pp. 307-312.|
|25||Elber, Gershon, "Line Art Illustrations of Parametric and Implicit Forms," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, No. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1998.|
|26||Feth, Bill, "Non-Photorealistic Rendering," firstname.lastname@example.org, CS490-Bruce Land, 5 pages (Spring 1998).|
|27||Gibson, Simon, et al., "Interactive Rendering with Real-World Illumination," Rendering Techniques 2000; 11th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pp. 365-376 (Jun. 2000).|
|28||Hachigian, Jennifer, "Super Cel Shader 1.00 Tips and Tricks,"2 pages, wysiwyg://thePage.13/http://members.xoom.com/<SUB>-</SUB>XMCM.jarvia/3D/celshade.html.|
|29||Haeberli, Paul et al., "Texture Mapping as a Fundamental Drawing Primitive," Proceedings of the Fourth Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, 11 pages, Paris, France (Jun. 1993).|
|30||Hart, Evan et al., "Grahpics by rage," Game Developers Conference 2000, from ATI.com web site (2000).|
|31||Hart, Evan et al., "Vertex Shading with Direct3D and OpenGL," Game Developers Conference 2001, from ATI.com web site (2001).|
|32||Heidrich et al., "Applications of Pixel Textures in Visualization and Realistic Image Synthesis," Proceedings 1999 Symposium On Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 127-134 (Apr. 19990.|
|33||Hook, Brian, "An Incomplete Guide to Programming DirectDraw and Direct3D Immediate Mode (Release 0.46)," printed from web site: www.wksoftware.com, 42 pages.|
|34||Hoppe, Hugues, "Optimization of Mesh Locality for Transparent Vertex Caching," Proceedings of Siggraph, pp. 269-276 (Aug. 8-13, 1999).|
|35||Hourcade et al, "Algorithms for Antialised Cast Shadows", Computers and Graphics, vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 260-265 (19850.|
|36||INFO: Rendering a Triangle Using an Execute Buffer, printed from web site support.microsoft.com, 6 pages (last reviewed Oct. 20, 2000).|
|37||Markosian, Lee et al., "Real-Time Nonphotorealistic Rendering," Brown University site of the NSF Science and Technology Center for Computer Graphics and Scientific Visualization, Providence, RI, 5 pages (undated).|
|38||Michael McCool, "Shadow Volume Reconstruction from Depth Maps", ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 19, No. 1, Jan. 2000, pp. 1-26.|
|39||Mitchell et al., "Multitexturing in DirectX6", Game Developer, Sep. 1998, www.gdmag.com.|
|40||Moller, Tomas et al., "Real-Time Rendering," pp. 179-183 (AK Peter Ltd., 1999).|
|41||Mulligan, Vikram, Toon, info sheet, 2 pages, http://digitalcarversguild.com/products/toon/toon.thml.|
|42||NVIDIA.com, technical presentation, "Advanced Pixel Shader Details" (Nov. 10, 2000).|
|43||NVIDIA.com, technical presentation, "AGDC Per-Pixel Shading" (Nov. 15, 2000).|
|44||NVIDIA.com, technical presentation, Introduction to DX8 Pixel Shaders (Nov. 10, 2000).|
|45||Peter J. Kovach, Inside Direct 3D, "Alpha Testing," pp. 289-291 (19990.|
|46||Photograph of Nintendo 64 System.|
|47||Photograph of Sega Dreamcast System.|
|48||Photograph of Sony PlayStation II System.|
|49||Press Releases, "ATI's Radeon family of products delivers the most comprehensive support for the advance graphics features of DirectX 8.0," Canada, from ATI.com web site, 2 pages (Nov. 9, 20000.|
|50||Product Presentation, "RIVIA128(TM) Leadership 3D Accelaration," 2 pages.|
|51||Raskar, Ramesh et al., "Image Precision Silhouette Edges," Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics 1999, Atlanta, 7 pages (Apr. 26-29, 1999).|
|52||Render Man Artist Tools, Using Arbitrary Output Variable in Photorealistic Renderman (With Applications(, PhotoRealistic Renderman Application Note #24, 8 pages, Jun. 1998, http://www.pixar.com/products/renderman/toolkit/Toolkit/AppNotes/appnote.24.html.|
|53||RenderMan Artist Tools, PhotoRealistic RenderMan 3.8 User's Manual, Pixar (Aug. 19980.|
|54||RenderMan Interface Version 3.2 (Jul. 2000).|
|55||Reynolds, Craig, "Stylized Depiction in Computer Graphics, Non-Photorealistic, Painterly and 'Toon Rendering," and annotated survey of online resources, 13 pages, last update May 30, 2000, http://www.red.com/cwr/painterly.html.|
|56||Schlechtweg, Stefan et al., "Emphasising in Line-drawings," Norsk samarbeid innen grafisk databehandling: NORSIGD Info, medlemsblad for NORSIGD, Nr 1/95, pp. 9-10.|
|57||Schlechtweg, Stefan et al., Rendering Line-Drawings with Limited Resources, Proceedings of GRAPHICON '96, 6th International Conferenceand Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Visualization in Russia, (St. Petersburg, Jul. 1-5, 1996) vol. 2, pp. 131-137.|
|58||Search Results for: skinning, from ATI.com web site, 5 pages (May 24, 2001).|
|59||Segal, Mark, et al., "Fast Shadows and Lighting Effects Using Texture Mapping," Computer Graphics, 26, 2, pp. 249-252 (Jul. 1992).|
|60||Shade, Jonathan et al., "Layered Depth Images," Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, pp. 231-242 (1998).|
|61||Singh, Karan et al., "Skinning Characters using Surface-Oriented Free-Form Deformations," Toronto Canada.|
|62||Slide Presentation, Sébastien Dominé, "nVIDIA Mesh Skinning, OpenGI".|
|63||Softimage/3D Full Support, "Toon Assistant," 1998 Avid Technology, inc., 1 page, http://www.softimage.com/3dsupport/techn...uments/3.8/features3.8/rel<SUB>-</SUB>notes.56.html.|
|64||Technical Brief: What's New With Microsoft DirectX7, posted Nov. 10, 1999, www.nvidia.com.|
|65||Technical Brief; Transform and Lighting, Nov. 10, 1999, www.nvidia.com.|
|66||The RenderMan Interface Version 3.1, (Sep. 1989).|
|67||Thompson, Nigel, "Rendering with Immediate Mode," Microsoft Interactive Developer Column: Fun and Games, printed from web site msdn.microsoft.com, 8 pages (Mar. 97).|
|68||Thompson, Tom, "Must-See 3-D Engines," Byte Magazine, printed from web site www.byte.com, 10 pages (Jun. 1996).|
|69||Toony Shaders, "Dang I'm tired of photorealism," 4 pages, http://www.visi.com/~mcdonald/toony.html.|
|70||U.S. Appl. No. 09/337,293, filed Jun. 21, 1999, Multi-Format Vertex Data Processing Apparatus and Method [issued as U.S. Patent No. 6,501,479 B1 on Dec. 31, 2002].|
|71||Videum Conference Pro (PCI) Specification, product of Winnov (Winnov), published Jul. 21, 1999.|
|72||VIDI Presenter 3D Repository, "Shaders." 2 pages, http://www.webnation.com/vidirep/panels/renderman/shaders/toon.phtml.|
|73||web site information, CartoonReyes, http://www.zentertainment.com/zentropy/review/cartoonreyes.html.|
|74||Web site materials, "Renderman Artist Tools, PhotoRealistic RenderMan 3.8 User'r Manual," Pixar.|
|75||White paper, Dietrich, Sim, "Cartoon Rendering and Advanced Texture Features of the GeForce 256 Texture Matrix, Projective Textures, Cube Maps, Texture Coordinate Generation and DOTPRODUCT3 Texture Blending" (Dec. 16, 1999).|
|76||White paper, Huddy, Richard, "The Efficient Use of Vertex Buffers," (Nov. 1, 2000).|
|77||White paper, Kilgard, Mark J., "Improving Shadows and Reflections via the Stencil Buffer" (Nov. 3, 1999).|
|78||White paper, Rogers, Douglas H., "Optimizing Direct3D for the GeForce 256" (Jan. 3, 2000).|
|79||White paper, Spitzer, John, et al., "Using GL<SUB>-</SUB>NV<SUB>-</SUB>array<SUB>-</SUB>range and GL<SUB>-</SUB>NV<SUB>-</SUB>Fence on GEForce Products and Beyond" (Aug. 1, 2000).|
|80||Whitepaper: "Z Buffering, Interpolation and More W-Buffering", Doug Rogers, Jan. 31, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|81||Whitepaper: 3D Graphics Demystified, Nov. 11, 1999, www.nvidia.com.|
|82||Whitepaper: Anisotropic Texture Filtering in OpenGL, posted Jul. 17, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|83||Whitepaper: Color Key in D3D, posted Jan. 11, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|84||Whitepaper: Cube Environment Mapping, posted Jan. 14, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|85||Whitepaper: Dot Product Texture Blending, Dec. 3, 1999, www.nvidia.com.|
|86||Whitepaper: Implementing Fog in Direct3D, Jan. 3, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|87||Whitepaper: Mapping Texels to Pixels in D3D, posted Apr. 5, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|88||Whitepaper: Optimizing Direct3D for the GeForce 256, Jan. 3, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|89||Whitepaper: Using GL<SUB>-</SUB>NV<SUB>-</SUB>vertex<SUB>-</SUB>array and GL<SUB>-</SUB>NV<SUB>-</SUB>fence, posted Aug. 1, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|90||Whitepaper: Vertex Blending Under DX7 for the GeForce 256, Jan. 5, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|91||Whitepaper; Guard Band Clipping, posted Jan. 31, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|92||Whitepaper; Technical Brief: AGP 4X with Fast Writes, Nov. 10, 1999, www.nvidia.com.|
|93||Whitepapers: "Texture Addressing," Sim Dietrich, Jan. 6, 2000, www.nvidia.com.|
|94||Williams, Lance, "Casting Curved Shadows on Curved Surfaces," Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '78 Proceedings), vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 270-274 (Aug. 1978).|
|95||Winner, Stephanie, et al., "Hardware Acceleraed Rendering Of Antialiasing Using A Modified A-buffer Algorithm," Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1997, pp. 307-316.|
|96||Woo et al., "A Survey of Shadow Algorithms," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 10, No. 6, pp.13-32 (Nov. 1990).|
|97||ZDNet Review, from PC Magazine, "Screen Shot of Alpha-channel Transparency," Jan. 15, 1999, wysiwyg://16/http://www4.zdnet.com...ies/reviews/0,4161,2188286,00.html.|
|98||ZDNet Reviews, from PC Magazine, "Othe Enhancements," Jan. 15, 1999, wysiwyg://16/http://wwzdnet.com...ies/reviews/0,4161,2188286,00.html.|
|99||Zeleznik, Robert et al."SKETCH: An Interface for Sketching 3D Scenes," Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series 1996, pp. 163-170.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8134551||Feb 29, 2008||Mar 13, 2012||Autodesk, Inc.||Frontend for universal rendering framework|
|US8212806||Apr 8, 2008||Jul 3, 2012||Autodesk, Inc.||File format extensibility for universal rendering framework|
|US8479150 *||Aug 13, 2009||Jul 2, 2013||Accenture Global Services Limited||Compositional modeling of integrated systems using event-based legacy applications|
|US8560957||Oct 13, 2008||Oct 15, 2013||Autodesk, Inc.||Data-driven interface for managing materials|
|US8584084||Nov 12, 2008||Nov 12, 2013||Autodesk, Inc.||System for library content creation|
|US8601398||Oct 13, 2008||Dec 3, 2013||Autodesk, Inc.||Data-driven interface for managing materials|
|US8620635||Jun 27, 2008||Dec 31, 2013||Microsoft Corporation||Composition of analytics models|
|US8667404||Aug 6, 2008||Mar 4, 2014||Autodesk, Inc.||Predictive material editor|
|US8692826||Jun 19, 2009||Apr 8, 2014||Brian C. Beckman||Solver-based visualization framework|
|US8788574||Jun 19, 2009||Jul 22, 2014||Microsoft Corporation||Data-driven visualization of pseudo-infinite scenes|
|US8866818||Jun 19, 2009||Oct 21, 2014||Microsoft Corporation||Composing shapes and data series in geometries|
|US8970584||Jun 24, 2011||Mar 3, 2015||Nvidia Corporation||Bounding box-based techniques for improved sample test efficiency in image rendering|
|US9142043||Jun 24, 2011||Sep 22, 2015||Nvidia Corporation||System and method for improved sample test efficiency in image rendering|
|US9147270||Jun 24, 2011||Sep 29, 2015||Nvidia Corporation||Bounding plane-based techniques for improved sample test efficiency in image rendering|
|US9153068||Jun 24, 2011||Oct 6, 2015||Nvidia Corporation||Clipless time and lens bounds for improved sample test efficiency in image rendering|
|US9159158||Jul 19, 2012||Oct 13, 2015||Nvidia Corporation||Surface classification for point-based rendering within graphics display system|
|US9171394||Jul 19, 2012||Oct 27, 2015||Nvidia Corporation||Light transport consistent scene simplification within graphics display system|
|US9269183||Sep 29, 2011||Feb 23, 2016||Nvidia Corporation||Combined clipless time and lens bounds for improved sample test efficiency in image rendering|
|US9305394||May 3, 2012||Apr 5, 2016||Nvidia Corporation||System and process for improved sampling for parallel light transport simulation|
|US9330503||Jun 19, 2009||May 3, 2016||Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc||Presaging and surfacing interactivity within data visualizations|
|US9342901||Oct 27, 2008||May 17, 2016||Autodesk, Inc.||Material data processing pipeline|
|US9342904||Sep 25, 2014||May 17, 2016||Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc||Composing shapes and data series in geometries|
|US9460546||Mar 30, 2011||Oct 4, 2016||Nvidia Corporation||Hierarchical structure for accelerating ray tracing operations in scene rendering|
|US9471996 *||Feb 29, 2008||Oct 18, 2016||Autodesk, Inc.||Method for creating graphical materials for universal rendering framework|
|US20090219284 *||Feb 29, 2008||Sep 3, 2009||Jerome Maillot||Frontend for universal rendering framework|
|US20090222469 *||Feb 29, 2008||Sep 3, 2009||Jerome Maillot||Method for creating graphical materials for universal rendering framework|
|US20090251478 *||Apr 8, 2008||Oct 8, 2009||Jerome Maillot||File Format Extensibility For Universal Rendering Framework|
|US20100037205 *||Aug 6, 2008||Feb 11, 2010||Jerome Maillot||Predictive Material Editor|
|US20100095230 *||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 15, 2010||Jerome Maillot||Data-driven interface for managing materials|
|US20100095247 *||Oct 13, 2008||Apr 15, 2010||Jerome Maillot||Data-driven interface for managing materials|
|US20100103171 *||Oct 27, 2008||Apr 29, 2010||Jerome Maillot||Material Data Processing Pipeline|
|US20100122243 *||Nov 12, 2008||May 13, 2010||Pierre-Felix Breton||System For Library Content Creation|
|US20100321391 *||Jun 19, 2009||Dec 23, 2010||Microsoft Corporation||Composing shapes and data series in geometries|
|US20100325564 *||Jun 19, 2009||Dec 23, 2010||Microsoft Corporation||Charts in virtual environments|
|US20100325578 *||Jun 19, 2009||Dec 23, 2010||Microsoft Corporation||Presaging and surfacing interactivity within data visualizations|
|US20110041117 *||Aug 13, 2009||Feb 17, 2011||Accenture Global Services Gmbh||Compositional modeling of integrated systems using event-based legacy applications|
|U.S. Classification||345/584, 345/582, 345/427, 345/419|
|International Classification||G06T15/04, G06T3/00, G06T1/20, G09G5/00|
|May 23, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|May 27, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8