US 7308158 B2
Imaging methods and systems are provided for indicating at least one preferred output form for an area within a digital image. In accordance with the method, a selection area is determined within the digital image and a preferred output image form is determined for rendering an image comprising the selected area of the digital image, with the determination being based upon an image resolution of the digital image, the determined selection area and an output resolution associated with each output form. The preferred output image form is indicated.
1. A method for indicating a preferred output form for an area of a digital image:
determining a selection area within the digital image;
determining a compression setting for the image;
determining a preferred output image form for rendering an image comprising the selected area of the digital image, with the determination being based upon an image resolution of the digital image, the determined selection area and an output resolution associated with each output form; and,
indicating the preferred output image form;
wherein the step of determining the preferred output image form is based in part upon the determined compression setting.
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15. A computer program product comprising a computer readable medium encoded with a computer program for performing the method of
16. A method for indicating preferred output form for a portion of a digital image:
receiving a digital image having an image resolution;
receiving an initial selection area designation within the digital image;
determining a preferred output image form for rendering an image containing portions of the digital image that are within the initial selection area based upon the image resolution, the selection area designated and a predetermined resolution of at least one image output form; and,
indicating the preferred output image form for the initial selection area of the image,
receiving subsequent selection area designations within the digital image;
determining a preferred output image form for rendering an image containing portions of the digital image that are within each subsequently designated selection area based upon the image resolution, the selection area and a predetermined resolution of at least one image output form; and,
indicating the preferred output image form for each subsequent area designation.
17. The method of
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21. A computer program product comprising a computer readable medium encoded with a computer program for performing the method of
22. An imaging system comprising:
a source of a digital image having an image resolution;
an indicating system having human detectable indications of preferred image output forms;
a user interface system; and
a controller operable to receive, from the source, a digital image having an image resolution, to receive an initial selection area designation within the digital image from the user interface system and to determine a preferred output image form for rendering an image containing portions of the digital image that are within the initial selection area based upon the image resolution, the selection area designated and a predetermined resolution of at least one image output form and to operate the indicating system to present an indication of the preferred output image form for the initial selection area of the image;
said controller further being operable to receive subsequent selection area designations within the digital image and to determine a preferred output image form for rendering an image containing portions of the digital image that are within each subsequently designated selection area based upon the image resolution, the selection area and a predetermined resolution of at least one image output form and to operate the indicating system to present to indicate the preferred output image form for each subsequent area designation.
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Cross Reference is made to Commonly Assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/028,644 filed Dec. 21, 2001, in the name of Belz, et al.
The present invention relates to imaging methods and systems.
Digital images are becoming an increasingly popular form of infoimaging. One reason for this popularity is the ease with which users can manipulate, edit, alter and enhance such digital images. For example, users often use manual digital imaging and editing tools, such as the crop and zoom tools provided in the Kodak Picture CD software sold by Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A., to improve the appearance of digital images. These image editing tools allow a user to limit the image content of an image to emphasize important elements in the image. This is known in the art as cropping an image. The cropped image incorporates less image data than the original image. It will be appreciated however, that a digital image, once captured, has a fixed amount of image data associated therewith. When such a digital image is cropped, some of this data is discarded.
Accordingly, when cropped and non-cropped images are rendered for example in a photographic print of the same image quality, the non-cropped images will appear to be larger than the cropped images. Many consumers find the appearance of such images unsatisfying and also elect to re-enlarge the selected portions of cropped images so that they have the appear to have been captured at an image size that is consistent with non-cropped images. Because this re-enlargement simulates what would have happened had the photographer zoomed her camera in toward the subject using a telephoto lens, most digital imaging algorithms provide an automatic “zoom and crop” function which allows a user to designate a selection area in a digital image and that automatically adjusts the selection area to match the area of a non-cropped image.
Accordingly, when the enlargement portion of the process occurs on an image with a reduced amount of data, the image that results from the zoom and crop processing has a reduced image resolution as compared to images that have not been subject to the same process. Where only small portions of the original image are cropped, this reduction in resolution is not always significant. However, as the cropping becomes more aggressive with greater amounts of data being discarded, the effective image resolution of the processed image can degrade noticeably. This effect can reduce consumer satisfaction with the zoom and crop processed image.
Often, zoom and crop functions are performed using image processing systems such as cameras, personal computers, kiosks, personal digital assistants, network centric systems, other devices. These devices commonly have a display for presenting a digital image and a user interface to permit a user to designate a selection area within an image for use in forming a zoom and crop processed image. The digital image data contained the selection area is processed using a zoom and crop algorithm to form a zoom and crop processed image and an evaluation image representing the zoom and crop processed image is formed for presentation on the display. Users often rely upon the appearance of the evaluation image as presented in the display in order to determine whether the zoom and crop processed image represented by the evaluation image has a preferred appearance. Where the evaluation image has an acceptable appearance, users will often elect to store the zoom and cropped processed image, or use a printer or like device to render the zoom and cropped processed image on a film fabric or paper.
However, the limited display resolution of conventional electronic displays and, in particular, small sized displays of the type commonly used in conjunction with digital cameras can mask the loss of resolution in a zoom and crop processed image. Accordingly, users can designate a selection area that comprises only a fraction of the original image without realizing that such aggressive use of the zoom and crop algorithm can reach a point where so much of the data comprising the originally captured digital image has been discarded that the zoom and crop processed image does not have a minimum amount of data necessary to permit the zoom and crop processed image to have a preferred appearance when presented on a high resolution display or rendered by printers or other image forming devices that have relatively high levels of image resolution.
In some cases, this problem can be addressed by the use of image processing algorithms that the attempt to increase the effective resolution him of a low resolution images him by interpolating data from the low resolution image to create a high resolution image. One example of such an algorithm can be found in U.S. Pat. No. 6,058,248 entitled “Computerized Method for Improving Data Resolution” filed by Atkins et al. on May 25, 1999. However, it will be appreciated that such interpolation techniques can introduce unanticipated artifacts in an image which themselves can reduce the acceptability of the image.
Some image processing algorithms, printers, kiosks, and commercial image rendering establishments examine each digital image submitted for high resolution display or rendering to determine whether the image has adequate image resolution to permit a print formed therefrom to have a preferred appearance. For example, OFOTO, Inc. of Emeryville, Calif., is an online photography service that provides top-quality silver halide prints for digital and film camera users. Ofoto's Web site, www.ofoto.com, gives photographers a new and easier way to store and share digital images on line. Once online, these images can be easily edited, cropped, or enhanced with borders and special effects, by using Ofoto's free online tools. Ofoto provides a print image resolution warning when a user submits a digital image for printing that does not meet minimum resolution requirements for a selected type of printed output. While the approach of providing such a warning usefully alerts users that an image submitted for printing does not have sufficient image resolution, it is not always convenient for the user to adjust the image at the time that the warning is received.
Alternatively, zoom and crop image editing algorithms are known that require a user to designate a size that they anticipate that a rendered output image will have and that provide predefined selection area templates that a user can move about an image in order to make a selection area designation. For example, commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 5,619,738 entitled “Pre-Processing Image Editing” filed by Petruchick et al. on Apr. 8, 1997 describes a film camera including an electronic display and a driver for presenting movable markers to frame and edit an electronically displayed image. Electronic manipulation of the markers provides for zooming and cropping the image as well as changing the image formation and horizontal and vertical orientation. The camera includes an input for selecting a print format from a predetermine set of print formats each having a predetermined size and aspect ratio. Once that a print format is selected, having a predetermined aspect ratio, cropping is limited to selections that are consistent with that aspect ratio and the standard widths for photographic paper. Further, after a print size and aspect ratio selection is made, markers are formed in the display of the digital image that conform to the size and aspect ratio selected. These markers can be maneuvered within the evaluation image to designate the selected area.
Commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 6,018,397, entitled “Digital Image Processing With Indication to User of Hardcopy Output Image Quality” filed by Cloutier et al. on Feb. 13, 1998 describes a digital image processor that establishes a boundary level of acceptable hardcopy print quality level based on selected image print size and printing magnification and provides a warning to a user prior to generation of the hardcopy print that alerts the user when the determine print image quality will be unsatisfactory. This system receives inputs including digital image data representative of an image to be reproduced in hardcopy at a user-selected size, hardcopy image quality information being representative of acceptable and unacceptable levels of hardcopy image quality produced with said hardcopy image reproduction and information representative of the desired magnification and user selected size of the hardcopy image to be output and indicates whether this combination will generate images having an acceptable appearance. The '397 patent provides a warning to a user when the user selects a combination that may not yield acceptable results prior to submitting the image for hard copy image formation. While useful and commercially valuable, this approach requires a user to designate a selection area within the image and indicate a desired output before providing the warning.
However, there viable approaches are needed for helping a user to make selection area designations for zoom and crop processing of an image, without requiring the user to decide in advance what hardcopy outputs or other forms of output use that the user may make of the image. In particular, what is needed is an image processing algorithm that allows a user to make flexible selection area designations for use in zoom and crop processing and yet provides real-time feedback from which a user can appreciate the potential impact of such selections on the use of a zoom and crop processed image based upon a selected area.
In one aspect of the invention, an imaging method is provided for indicating at least one preferred output form for an area within a digital image. In accordance with the method, a selection area is determined within the digital image and a preferred output image form is determined for rendering an image comprising the selected area of the digital image, with the determination being based upon an image resolution of the digital image, the determined selection area and an output resolution associated with each output form. The preferred output image form is indicated.
In another aspect of the invention, an imaging method is provided for indicating preferred output form for a portion of a digital image. In accordance with the method a digital image having an image resolution is received and an initial selection area designation within the digital image is received. A preferred output image form for rendering an image containing portions of the digital image that are within the initial selection area is determined based upon the image resolution, the selection area designated and a predetermined resolution of at least one image output form. The preferred output image form for the initial selection area of the image is indicated. Subsequent selection area designations within the digital image are received and a preferred output image form for rendering an image containing portions of the digital image from within each subsequently designated selection area is determined based upon the image resolution, the subsequently designated selection area and a predetermined resolution of a least one output image form. The preferred output image form for each subsequently designated selection area is indicated.
In still another aspect of the invention, a method is provided for using a first digital image to form a second digital image. In accordance with the method, the first digital image is presented and a selection of a portion of the first digital image is received. A determination made as to which of a plurality of output forms is preferred for use with the selected portion of the first digital image and an indication of each determined output form is presented. A second image is formed based upon the selected portion. Wherein the second image is formed only after an indication of each determined output form is presented.
In other aspects of the invention, computer program products are provided for performing the methods claimed.
In still another aspect of the invention, an imaging system is provided. The imaging system has a source of a digital image having an image resolution, an indicating system having human detectable indications of preferred image output forms and a user interface system. A controller is provided and is operable in an image editing mode wherein the controller is adapted to cause the digital image to be presented on the display, to determine a selection area within the digital image based upon signals from the user interface system, to determine preferred output image forms for rendering an image including the selected area of the digital image wherein the determination is based upon the image resolution of the digital image, the determined selection area and an output resolution associated with each output form. The controller causes the indicating system to indicate at least one preferred output image form.
Light from the scene that is focused by lens system 23 onto image sensor 24 is converted into image signals representing an image of the scene. Image sensor 24 can comprise a charge couple device (CCD), a complimentary metal oxide sensor (CMOS), or any other electronic image sensor known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Image signals I can be in digital or analog form.
Signal processor 26 receives image signals I from image sensor 24 and transforms the image signal into a digital image in the form of digital data. The digital image can comprise one or more still images, multiple still images and/or a stream of apparently moving images such as a video segment. Where the digital image data comprises a stream of apparently moving images, the digital image data can comprise image data stored in an interleaved or interlaced image form, a sequence of still images, and/or other forms known to those of skill in the art of digital video.
Signal processor 26 can apply various image processing algorithms to the image signals when forming a digital image. These can include but are not limited to color and exposure balancing, interpolation and compression. Where the image signals are in the form of analog signals, signal processor 26 also converts these analog signals into a digital form.
A controller 32 controls the operation the imaging system 10, including but not limited to image capture system 22, display 30 and memory such as memory 40 during imaging operations. Controller 32 causes image sensor 24, signal processor 26, display 30 and memory 40 to capture, store and display images in response to signals received from a user input system 34, data from signal processor 26 and data received from optional sensors 36. Controller 32 can comprise a microprocessor such as a programmable general purpose microprocessor, a dedicated micro-processor or micro-controller, or any other system that can be used to control operation of imaging system 10.
Controller 32 cooperates with a user input system 34 to allow imaging system 10 to interact with a user. User input system 34 can comprise any form of transducer or other device capable of receiving an input from a user and converting this input into a form that can be used by controller 32 in operating imaging system 10. For example, user input system 34 can comprise a touch screen input, a touch pad input, a 4-way switch, a 6-way switch, an 8-way switch, a stylus system, a trackball system, a joystick system, a voice recognition system, a gesture recognition system or other such systems. In the embodiment shown in
In the embodiment of imaging system 10 shown in
Sensors 36 are optional and can include light sensors, range finders and other sensors known in the art that can be used to detect conditions in the environment surrounding imaging system 10 and to convert this information into a form that can be used by controller 32 in governing operation of imaging system 10. Sensors 36 can also include biometric sensors adapted to detect characteristics of a user for security and affective imaging purposes.
Controller 32 causes an image signal and corresponding digital image to be formed when a trigger condition is detected. Typically, the trigger condition occurs when a user depresses shutter trigger button 60, however, controller 32 can determine that a trigger condition exists at a particular time, or at a particular time after shutter trigger button 60 is depressed. Alternatively, controller 32 can determine that a trigger condition exists when optional sensors 36 detect certain environmental conditions.
Controller 32 can also be used to generate metadata M in association with each image. Metadata is data that is related to a digital image or a portion of a digital image but that is not necessarily observable in the image data itself. In this regard, controller 32 can receive signals from signal processor 26, camera user input system 34 and other sensors 36 and, optionally, generates metadata based upon such signals. The metadata can include but is not limited to information such as the time, date and location that the archival image was captured, the type of image sensor 24, mode setting information, integration time information, taking lens unit setting information that characterizes the process used to capture the archival image and processes, methods and algorithms used by imaging system 10 to form the archival image. The metadata can also include but is not limited to any other information determined by controller 32 or stored in any memory in imaging system 10 such as information that identifies imaging system 10, and/or instructions for rendering or otherwise processing the digital image with which the metadata is associated. The metadata can also comprise an instruction to incorporate a particular message into digital image when presented. Such a message can be a text message to be rendered when the digital image is presented or rendered. The metadata can also include audio signals. The metadata can further include digital image data. The metadata can also include any other information entered into imaging system 10.
The digital images and optional metadata, can be stored in a compressed form. For example where the digital image comprises a sequence of still images, the still images can be stored in a compressed form such as by using the JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) ISO 10918-1 (ITU-T.81) standard. This JPEG compressed image data is stored using the so-called “Exif” image format defined in the Exchangeable Image File Format version 2.2 published by the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association JEITA CP-3451. Similarly, other compression systems such as the MPEG-4 (Motion Pictures Export Group) or Apple Quicktime™ standard can be used to store digital image data in a video form. Other image compression and storage forms can be used.
The digital images and metadata can be stored in a memory such as memory 40. Memory 40 can include conventional memory devices including solid state, magnetic, optical or other data storage devices. Memory 40 can be fixed within imaging system 10 or it can be removable. In the embodiment of
In the embodiment shown in
Signal processor 26 and controller 32 also cooperate to generate other images such as text, graphics, icons and other information for presentation on display 30 that can allow interactive communication between controller 32 and a user of imaging system 10, with display 30 providing information to the user of imaging system 10 and the user of imaging system 10 using user input system 34 to interactively provide information to imaging system 10. Imaging system 10 can also have other displays such as a segmented LCD or LED display (not shown) which can also permit signal processor 26 and/or controller 32 to provide information to user. This capability is used for a variety of purposes such as establishing modes of operation, entering control settings, user preferences, and providing warnings and instructions to a user of imaging system 10. Other systems such as known systems and actuators for generating audio signals, vibrations, haptic feedback and other forms of signals can also be incorporated into imaging system 10 for use in providing information, feedback and warnings to the user of imaging system 10.
Typically, display 30 has less imaging resolution than image sensor 24. Accordingly, signal processor 26 reduces the resolution of image signal or digital image when forming evaluation images adapted for presentation on display 30. Down sampling and other conventional techniques for reducing the overall imaging resolution can be used. For example, resampling techniques such as are described in commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,831 “Electronic Still Camera Providing Multi-Format Storage Of Full And Reduced Resolution Images” filed by Kuchta et al., on Mar. 15, 1990, can be used. The evaluation images can optionally be stored in a memory such as memory 40. The evaluation images can be adapted to be provided to an optional display driver 28 that can be used to drive display 30. Alternatively, the evaluation images can be converted into signals that can be transmitted by signal processor 26 in a form that directly causes display 30 to present the evaluation images. Where this is done, display driver 28 can be omitted.
Imaging system 10 can receive digital images for processing in a variety of ways. For example, imaging system 10 can capture digital images using image sensor 24 as described above. Imaging operations that can be used to obtain digital images from image capture system 22 include a capture process and can optionally also include a composition process and a verification process. During the optional composition process, controller 32 causes signal processor 26 to cooperate with image sensor 24 to capture digital images and present a corresponding evaluation images on display 30. In the embodiment shown in
The capture process is executed in response to controller 32 determining that a trigger condition exists. In the embodiment of
During the verification phase, the corresponding evaluation image is supplied to display 30 and is presented for a period of time. This permits a user to verify that the digital image has a preferred appearance.
Digital images can also be received by imaging system 10 in ways other than image capture. For example digital images can by conveyed to imaging system 10 when such images are recorded on a removable memory that is inserted into memory interface 50. Alternatively digital images can be received by way of communication module 54. For example, where communication module 54 is adapted to communicate by way of a cellular telephone network, communication module 54 can be associated with a cellular telephone number or other identifying number that for example another user of the cellular telephone network such as the user of a telephone equipped with a digital camera can use to establish a communication link with imaging system 10 and transmit images which can be received by communication module 54. Accordingly, there are a variety of ways in which imaging system 10 can receive images and therefore it is not essential that imaging system 10 have an image capture system so long as other means such as those described above are available for importing images into imaging system 10.
The image processing features of imaging system 10 of
In the following description, an image processing method will be described that can be performed using imaging system 10. However, in another embodiment, the methods described hereinafter can take the form of a computer program product for performing the methods described. The computer program product for performing the described methods can be stored in a computer readable storage medium. This medium may comprise, for example: magnetic storage media such as a magnetic disk (such as a hard drive or a floppy disk) or magnetic tape; optical storage media such as an optical disc, optical tape, or machine readable bar code; solid state electronic storage devices such as random access memory (RAM), or read only memory (ROM); or any other physical device or medium employed to store a computer program. The computer program product for performing the described methods may also be stored on a computer readable storage medium that is connected to imaging system 10 by way of the internet or other communication medium. Those skilled in the art will readily recognize that the equivalent of such a computer program product can also be constructed in hardware.
In describing the following methods, it should be apparent that the computer program product embodiment can be utilized by any well-known computer system, including but not limited to the computing systems incorporated in the embodiment of imaging system 10 of
Turning now to
An evaluation image that corresponds to the appearance of the obtained digital image is then displayed on display 30 (step 102). Where the digital image is a video image or otherwise contains a set of more than one image, a representative still image can be presented as the evaluation image. For example the first image frame in a stream of video image data can be presented.
An image processing mode is then selected (step 104). In the embodiment shown in
In the embodiment of
Controller 32 then monitors the condition of selected user inputs 34 to receive a user designation of a selection area for use in forming an area of interest selection by a user of imaging system 10 (step 106). In the embodiment shown in
As is shown in
A simple threshold test can be applied that compares the image data available within the selection area of the digital image and the requirements of the output form with the available image capacity of the image. This threshold test is applied to each output form displayed in the status display area 124 and a determination is made for each output form. This threshold test can take the form of a truth table or like logical structure. The step of determining the preferred output image size can also be based in part upon the determined compression settings for the digital input file with adjustments being made for conditions where compressions settings have the effect of reducing the apparent resolution of the compressed digital image.
An indication is then made as to which output forms are preferred for rendering an image formed based upon the image data within the currently defined selection area of the image (step 112). For example, as is illustrated in
Imaging system 10 can then receive a choice election from user controls 34 (step 114). An election can be made indicating that the zoom and crop algorithm is to be applied to form an image based upon the imaging information in area of the digital image in designated selection area in which case the zoom and crop algorithm is applied to the selection area so that an image is formed that contains imaging information that is within the selection area and that is sized consistently the size of the original digital image or otherwise sized to conform with a preferred image size (step 116). This election can be made for example by moving joystick 66 so that a cursor appears over the accept button 150 on editing screen 120 and depressing the “select-it” button. In this embodiment, when the apply button is selected the digital image itself is modified by the zoom and crop algorithm. Image information from areas that are outside of the selection area is extracted from the digital image and the remaining areas are enlarged. The extracted image information can be discarded saving memory space in imaging system 10. Alternatively the extracted image information can be preserved by storing the extracted image information as metadata in association with the zoom and crop processed digital image.
In still another alternative the zoom and crop algorithm can be used to create a new digital image that is separate from the digital image obtained in step 102. In the embodiment shown in
In another alternative, controller 32 can receive a signal from user controls 34 indicating the user does not want to apply the zoom and crop algorithm to this image. This indication can be made for example, where joystick 66 is moved so that a cursor appears over the “close” button 154 on screen 120 and the select it button 68 is pressed.
Alternatively an election can be received by controller 32 from user input system 34 indicating that the user desires to select a new selection area in which case the process returns to step 108. This indication can comprise signals received by controller 32 indicating that the user has adjusted one of points 130 or 134, has selected a different, selection area shape, has elected to go to free form selection area designation, or has otherwise taken action indicating that a new selection area is to be selected.
Accordingly, the user of imaging system 10 has an immediate indication as to how the relative size of the selection area 132 can influence whether the image information in selection area 132 will be useful for rendering an image at a particular output image size. Importantly, this indication can be received before the user has made an election as to whether to proceed with executing a zoom and crop algorithm on the designated selection area.
The image resolution capabilities of different output devices used to render images in the predetermined forms can influence whether a particular zoom and crop processed image will have a preferred appearance when the zoom and crop processed image is used. Generic standards that have applicability to a broad cross section of possible devices can be used for the purposes of the method. However, in an alternative embodiment of the present invention, controller 32 is adapted to receive information from user interface 34 or communication module 54 from which controller 32 can determine what kind of output capabilities are associated with an image rendering device to which an image is likely to be sent so that more specific imaging resolution information can be used in performing the determining step 110.
For example, many imaging devices are used by consumers and business people in conjunction with a set of image rendering devices such as a home computer, a home printer, and a preferred on line photo rendering service such as Ofoto, and imaging devices and systems to which digital images on imaging system 10 may be shared. Accordingly, in one embodiment of the invention, controller 32 can determine image rendering capabilities of each such likely image rendering destination and can adjust the determining step 110 and the indicating step 112 so that determinations can be made on a device by device or recipient by recipient basis with multiple status indicator and output formats displayed in status display area 124, each indexed by recipient as shown in table I.
It will be appreciated that using such tables it is quickly possible to ascertain whether a particular output source will render a zoom and crop processed image with a preferred appearance. In an alternative embodiment, an additional step in the method of
The step of providing an indication can take forms other than displaying information on display 30. For example, the indication can comprise at least one of a video, text, printed, audio or tactile signal. In this regard, a textual warning can be provided by a separate LCD display, or an audio synthesizer that generates an audio indication of preferred image quality. Warnings can be printed by an associated printer or other device. Further, known actuators can be used to generate tactile signals such as haptic feedback or vibrations or other tactile information output when a non-preferred output form is selected.
In the above described embodiments, the arrangement of the selection area has been described as arranging a set of points within a digital image from which some shaped selection area can be determined. However, other approaches are possible. For example, in one useful embodiment, when imaging device 10 of
As is noted above, the selection area designation can be applied to a digital image comprising a single digital image, multiple digital images or motion image information such as a video image. Where a digital image comprises more than one image or a stream of video image information, the selection area can optionally be applied to all of the set of images or stream of images or only to selected ones or portions thereof. In this regard, a user of imaging system 10 can use user input system 34 to select which portions of the more than one image or stream of image information are to be zoom and crop processed in accordance with a selection area. Further, a user can designate different selection areas to allow for different zoom and crop processing of separate images or separate portions of a stream of image information.
The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to certain preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.