|Publication number||US7310286 B1|
|Application number||US 11/183,308|
|Publication date||Dec 18, 2007|
|Filing date||Jul 11, 2005|
|Priority date||Jul 11, 2005|
|Publication number||11183308, 183308, US 7310286 B1, US 7310286B1, US-B1-7310286, US7310286 B1, US7310286B1|
|Inventors||Susan M. Jarvis, Fletcher A. Blackmon, Ronald R. Morrissey, Nixon Pendergrass, Dean J. Smith, Kevin C. Fitzpatrick|
|Original Assignee||The United States Of America Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (13), Classifications (7), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefore.
(1) Field of the Invention
This invention generally relates to bi-directional communication systems and more specifically to communication systems capable of conducting bi-directional communications in an undersea environment.
(2) Description of the Prior Art
Acoustic communications in undersea applications are subject to multi-path effects in the water. Multi-path effects are produced by acoustic propagations from a transmission point that travel either directly to an underwater receiver or may reflect from the ocean surface and ocean floor or even areas of different temperature and density to create cancellation and distortion of the directly propagated transmission.
Some suggest that these multi-path effects can be overcome by the transmission of data over a number of different transmission frequencies. This improves the chances of clear communications as one or more of the transmitted signals may ultimately be received without severe multi-path distortion. However, such systems tend to be complex and difficult to implement. They also make certain assumptions about transmissions that may not be accurate in an actual operating environment.
There are a number of other approaches for undersea acoustic communications that vary with different applications. United States Letters Patent No. 4,563,758 (1986) to Paternostor discloses an underwater communicator device that permits acoustic communications between divers by using a voice synthesizer and an acoustic transducer. A display is provided to visually communicate a message. The diver can communicate stored messages by activating a single key or by keying in an actual message. Other preset messages can also be sent based on different sensors.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,018,114 to Mackelburg et al. (1991) discloses another type of acoustic communication system in which an operator has adjustable frequency diversity so data rates can be tailored to specific multi-path environments. Transmitted messages are sent with precursor transmission/reception synchronization data and transmission parameter data so the receiving communication end can recognize when message data starts by means of tone length as well as frequency diversity in the transmitted message. Timing is extracted from the data to compensate for Doppler shift.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,303,207 to Brady et al. (1994) discloses an acoustic local area network for oceanographic observation and data acquisition. A network node has telemetry equipment for transporting data to a final destination. Each of a plurality of sensors has an acoustic modem to transmit information to the network node. Transmissions are in the form of BPSK input signals. The data channels occupy a bandwidth of about 5-10 kHz while control channels occupy a frequency bandwidth of about 1 KHz.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,523,982 to Dale (1996) discloses communication apparatus for diver-to-diver communications. This system uses ultra-acoustic transmission means and reception means. When the transmission means is activated, a predetermined signal is transmitted that is suitable by reception at another diver's apparatus.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,469,403 to Young et al. (1995) discloses a digital sonar system that identifies multi-frequency underwater activating sonar signals received from a remote sonar transmitter. A transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. This signal converts to a digital receipt signal that is cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multi-frequency sonar signal.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,058,071 to Woodall et al. (2000) discloses a magneto-inductive submarine communications systems and buoy to provide two-way signal communication between a submerged craft, such as a submarine, and a remote command station that may be airborne, on the surface or on land. A buoy released from the submarine and floating on the surface of the ocean and a satellite are included to complete bi-directional communications. Messages and commands between the submerged craft and the buoy are communicated by magneto-inductive messages signals and magneto-inductive command signals in an extremely low frequency to very low frequency ranges. Messaging command communications between the buoy and the satellite to the station are transferred via radio frequency signals or laser emissions.
Each of the foregoing techniques provides some method of undersea communication, but not a system that provides reliable undersea communications. United States Letters Patent Nos. 5,469,403 and 5,303,207 disclose bi-directional acoustic systems, however they do not use incoherent signal processing. What is needed is a system that provides reliable undersea communications at reasonable data rates
Therefore it is an object of this invention to provide an acoustic bi-directional undersea communication system.
Another object of this invention is to provide an acoustic bi-directional undersea communication system that overcomes many of the problems of multi-path effects.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an acoustic undersea bi-directional communication system that provides high telemetry rates.
Yet still another object of this invention is to provide an acoustic undersea bi-directional communications system that provides reliable communications in both deep water and shallow water environments.
In accordance with one aspect of this invention an undersea communications system includes a transmitter at a transmitting location and a receiver at a receiving location. The transmitter includes a transmitting module for transmitting as an output signal a modulated signal in a given frequency band and for generating a continuous wave pilot signal having a frequency adjacent said given frequency band. The receiver includes a receiver for processing the pilot signal, a demodulator, a cross correlator that processes the received pilot signal and modulated signal to produce a cross-correlated demodulated signal. A decoder converts the cross correlated demodulated signal into a received message signal.
The appended claims particularly point out and distinctly claim the subject matter of this invention. The various objects, advantages and novel features of this invention will be more fully apparent from a reading of the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals refer to like parts, and in which:
In this specific embodiment the shore site 21 includes a transceiver 23 that receives inputs from a receiving acoustic transducer 24 and that transmits acoustic signals from a transmitting acoustic transducer 25. The transceiver 23 is computer-based and transmits signals in response to messages input at a terminal 26 and displays messages on that same terminal 26.
Site 22 has a similar organization with a transceiver 27 that receives signals from a receiving acoustic transducer 30 and transmits signals from a transmitting acoustic transducer 31. A terminal 32 serves as an input device for messages to be transmitted and a display for received messages.
Incorporating transceivers, such as the transceivers 23 and 27 at each of two sites along with separate transmitting and receiving acoustic transducers enables bi-directional or full duplex communications. It will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that the system 20 in
Each site has the same basic construction so
For full duplex operations the receiving acoustic transducer 25 receives signals 40 in an analog form for transfer to an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter 41. The A/D converter 41 generates signals that are compatible with a receiver module 42 that, with the CPU 34, provides decoding and message display at the terminal 26.
Thus, messages generated at the keyboard of terminal, such terminal 26, are encoded and transmitted as the signals 37. Incoming signals 40 are converted and displayed on a display unit with the terminal 26. The specific handling of the incoming messages at either terminal 26 or 32 is not important to this invention and could take any of several known implementations.
In one embodiment of this invention, a data message is encoded into a pair of redundant, fixed-length data packets, such as shown in
Each packet includes a leading synchronizing signal or pulse 51(0) or 51(1) that could be a phase shift keyed (PSK) target identification signal. The duration and form of the synchronizing pulse can be varied and generally will be determined by outside characteristics that form no part of this invention.
Dead time intervals 52(0) and 52(1) follow the synchronizing pulses 51(0) or 51(1). Each dead time interval allows any reverberation to dissipate before data is sent.
Next the packet includes a quadrature phase shift key (QPSK)or like modulated data block that includes a sequence of symbols, like characters, organized as training symbols 53(0) and 53(1), data symbols 54(0) and 54(1) and padding symbols 55(0) and 55(1). In one specific embodiment each data packet has 200 training symbols. The balance comprises 1800 symbols with a symbol duration of 400 microseconds and a QPSK modulating signal of 5 kHz. Of these 1800 symbols, the padding symbols 55(0) and 55(1) provide a full number of data bytes even though the actual message may require fewer symbols.
Now referring to
Once these steps are complete, step 64 represents a process by which the CPU 34 in
After the first data packet 50(0) is processed, step 70 returns control to step 65 to transmit data packet 50(1).
Step 71 represents the simultaneous transmission of a continuous wave (CW) pilot signal at a frequency that is at the edge of the QPSK signal band. As described later, a receiver module, such as the receiver module 42 in
The transmitted signal from the transmitter module 35 is in digital form. The D/A converter 36 in
Referring now to
In order to properly decode the incoming signal, the detection of the synchronizing signal must be generated from the first threshold crossing at the synchronization pulse detector 74.
The incoming signal is then demodulated in the complex demodulator 77 with the sine and cosine functions with a demodulating frequency that is twice the Doppler shifted frequency. This demodulator is represented as two demodulators 86 and 87 that operate at a frequency fd. A low pass filter 90 and a “divide-by-16” circuit 91 process the output from the demodulator 86. A low pass filter 92 and “divide-by-16” circuit 93 process the output from the demodulator 87. The outputs from the circuits 91 and 93 drive summing circuits 94 and 95 that connect to correlators 96 and 97, respectively. Absolute values are then obtained from each correlator in circuits 100 and 101 before being coupled through threshold detectors 102 and 103.
The threshold circuits 102 and 103 provide a detect signal for the decision feed back equalizer 80 to preserve time diversity pairing of the data packets. Specifically, two synchronization pulses are used for data transmission, one from each packet. The complex demodulator 77 does not accept a detection flag from the synchronization pulse detector 74 unless both synchronizations are present. The complex demodulator also blocks any further signals if the synchronization detectors do not produce the synchronization pulses at the appropriate repetition rate. This minimizes the potential for missed packet detections and false alarms.
As previously indicated, at step 71 in
The Doppler estimator 76 in
As shown in
The complex demodulator 77 in
The advantage of using the Doppler compensated continuous wave tone as a demodulating signal becomes apparent in terms of analyzing a specific signal. Assume that the transmitted signal has a bit duration of 400 microseconds with a nominal bandwidth of 2500 Hz. If the Doppler shift is ±0.1%, the Doppler shifted signal has a bandwidth of 2502.5 Hz and its duration is 0.999 t0. Assume further that both the original signal and the Doppler shifted signal are sampled at a Nyquist rate of 5 kHz, so t0 equal 800 milliseconds. All the power and information in the original analog signal is contained within 4000 samples. However, all the information in the Doppler shifted signal is contained in only 3,996 samples. Now it will become apparent that once a signal has been sampled, the time axis assigned to the samples is arbitrary. If the clock of the A/D converter 42 in
Referring again to
This circuitry approximates the previously described methodology but uses a fixed sampling rate. In this case, the sampling rate is set to 50 KHz so that the original signal has 40,000 samples. For the above-identified Doppler shift, the Doppler shifted signal contains only 39,960 samples. If the original signal were then decimated by 10, the resulting sequence would again contain 4,000 samples with two samples per QPSK symbol to create 4,000 samples in the Doppler shifted sample, the signal would have to be decimated by 10/d=9.99. The compensators 110 and 111 do not decimate by an integer value. Instead they find the most evenly spaced 4,000 samples within the 39960 samples. No interpolation between samples occurs. For example, the fifth entry in the decimated Doppler shifted sequence should have an index in the over sampled sequence of five times 9.999 or 49.95. No such sample exists. The fiftieth sample in the oversampled sequence would be used. For the 57th decimated sample, 57×9.99 equals 569.4 so sample 569 would be used. This process assumes that the difference between the closest sample in the oversampled sequence and the actual value at the fractional index is small and that the closest sample is a good approximation of the actual value. However, this assumption is only valid when the original fixed sampling rate is much greater than the desired decimated rate. Oversampling by a factor of 10 appears sufficient, but obviously other oversampling factors might be used.
A summing junction 114 receives all these input signals along with a feedback signal from a feedback section 115. A decision rule circuit 116 provides an output signal (os symbol sequence) 117 that is conveyed to the de-interleaver circuit 81 in
Such an adaptive equalizer forms an effective receiver component because it has the ability to reduce severe time varying intersymbol interference. The feedforward sections 112 use fractional spacing to compensate for any packet synchronization misalignments as well as delay and amplitude distortion. Diversity inputs are included to offset the significant performance degradation that can occur in a single input receiver due to fading. The digital phase locked loop section that includes the feedback section 115 provides adaptive carrier phase recovery and maintains receiver performance in the underwater acoustic environment where rapid phase shifts can introduce errors. The phase shifts are often too rapid to be tracked by only adapting filter coefficients that are required in other circuits. Without implicit phase correction, where θr(k) is the phase estimate for the rth channel, the decision feedback equalizer would fail in most underwater applications.
More specifically, the estimate of the received symbol can be written as:
Z(k)=W h(k)U(k) (1)
W(k)=[w 1,m(k) . . . w i,−M(k) . . . W R,M(k) . . . W R,−M(k)h 1(k) . . . h L(k)]T (2)
U(k)=[x1(2 k+M)e −jθ 1 (k) . . . x 1(2 k+M)e −jθ1(k) . . . x 1(2 k−M)e −jθ1(k) . . . x R(2 k+M)e−j1(k) . . .x R(2 k+M)e−jθ1( k)Z(k−1) . . . Z(k−L)]T (3)
Adaptive decision feedback equalizers for processing signals in accordance with equations (1) through (3) are well within the skill of a person of ordinary skill in the art. In some applications a standard recursive least squares algorithm adjusts the weight factor W(k) with input U(k) to produce minimum mean-square error in the symbol estimate Z(k). However, standard RLS algorithms introduce complexities and make it undesirable for this particular application. Consequently
Referring again to
As will now be apparent, a system constructed in accordance with this invention meets several objectives of this invention. Specifically, a communications system constructed in accordance with this invention provides an acoustic bi-directional undersea communication system. The system overcomes or minimizes many of the problems introduced by multi-path effects. As a result, the system provides high telemetry rates and provides reliable communications in both deep water and shallow water environments.
This invention has been disclosed in terms of certain embodiments. It will be apparent that many modifications can be made to the disclosed apparatus without departing from the invention. Therefore, it is the intent of the appended claims to cover all such variations and modifications as come within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
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|U.S. Classification||367/134, 340/850|
|Cooperative Classification||H04B13/02, H04B11/00|
|European Classification||H04B13/02, H04B11/00|
|Aug 5, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NAVY, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY T
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:JARVIS, SUSAN M.;PENDERGRASS, NIXON;BLACKMON, FLETCHER A.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016612/0641;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050328 TO 20050607
|Feb 3, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jul 31, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Dec 18, 2015||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Feb 9, 2016||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20151218