|Publication number||US7310360 B2|
|Application number||US 10/973,072|
|Publication date||Dec 18, 2007|
|Filing date||Oct 25, 2004|
|Priority date||Oct 25, 2004|
|Also published as||EP1810379A1, EP1810379B1, US20060088067, WO2006046995A1|
|Publication number||10973072, 973072, US 7310360 B2, US 7310360B2, US-B2-7310360, US7310360 B2, US7310360B2|
|Inventors||Jan Vetrovec, William C Elliott|
|Original Assignee||The Boeing Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (47), Non-Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (4), Classifications (13), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to cooling techniques for optical elements employed in laser systems, and more particularly, to conductive face-cooled optical elements for use in optical systems which are required to process/handle the output of High Average Power (HAP) laser systems.
Transmissive optical components used in high-average power (HAP) lasers experience significant heat load due to absorption of optical energy and other processes. This heat must be removed (often in real time) for the transmissive optical component to operate correctly and efficiently. For example, the process of frequency conversion in a nonlinear laser material generates heat within the nonlinear material medium due to absorption. This heat must be removed if the frequency converter is to operate efficiently at a significant power level. Also, the process of storing energy in a solid state laser amplifier material also generates heat within the laser medium that must be removed, especially if the amplifier is to operate at a significant input power. Other transmissive optical components subjected to heat load and requiring cooling include crystals used in Pockels cells and glass used in Faraday rotators.
Traditional Methods of Heat Removal
A traditional method of heat removal from solid state crystalline materials employed in laser systems is to remove the heat from the sides of the materials, in a direction transverse to the direction of laser energy propagation. The removal of heat in a transverse direction causes thermal gradients in this direction. This creates several problems. In general, temperature gradients generate thermal-optical stress and index variations, which in turn cause thermal aberrations that distort the laser beam. More specifically, in most frequency conversion materials, the temperature variation in a direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the laser beam must be maintained to within a very small tolerance range. The presence of a thermal gradient in this direction severely limits the aperture size and the power loading allowed in a laser system design. Transverse cooling is described in a paper entitled “The Potential of High-Average-Power Solid State Lasers,” by J. L. Emmett et al., Document No. UCRL-53571, dated Sep. 25, 1984, available from the National Technical Information Service, and hereby incorporated by reference into the present application.
Conventional beam shaping techniques have been used to cool crystals whereby the laser beam is optically flattened in one transverse direction. This allows the crystal to be cooled along a greater length, and reduces the path from the center of the beam to the edge of the crystal where it is cooled. However, this method is not practical in all applications and requires a relatively high degree of complexity in the associated optics.
In some crystalline materials, and in particular beta-barium borate (BBO), the direction of greatest thermal conductivity in the material is also aligned closely with the direction of optical propagation. In order to efficiently remove heat from materials with this property, the heat must therefore be removed from the optical faces. One method of face cooling is a convective process, normally achieved using a flowing gas. In this method a gas is forced at high velocity across the faces of the crystal. The chief disadvantage of this method is that it requires a complex, active cooling system, and is therefore less suitable for applications requiring low cost, weight and volume, and a high degree of reliability. Also the engineering to implement this method is complex because the gas flow across the optical surfaces must be very uniform to avoid optical distortion.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,363,391, entitled “Conductive Face-Cooled Laser Crystal”, and issued to Steven C. Matthews et al on Nov. 8, 1994 and hereby incorporated by reference, discloses and claims techniques for passively removing heat from an optical element in a laser system through its optically transmissive faces (
U.S. Pat. No. 6,330,256, entitled “Method and apparatus for non-dispersive face-cooling of multi-crystal nonlinear optical devices”, and issued to Robert W. Byren et, al on Dec. 11, 2001 and incorporated by reference herein, teaches how to use the face-cooling method taught in U.S. Pat. No. 5,363,391 with multiple nonlinear crystal formats used primarily for second harmonic generation without the need for air-path rephasing between the crystals (
The above-described systems and methods rely on heat transfer from the transmissive optical component to a heat sink by means of conduction due to a mechanical contact, optical contact, bonded joint, or a narrow gas-filled gap. It is well known, however, that transmissive optical components exposed to thermal load tend to warp significantly. Unless an external force is provided, the effective contact area in mechanically and optically contacted joints is, therefore, significantly reduced, which typically leads to increased temperatures and warpage. Bonded joints typically use organic adhesive which has a low thermal conductivity and, therefore, impedes effective heat transfer. In addition, bonded joints cause increased stresses in the transmissive optical component since its transverse thermal expansion is now constrained by attachment to a heat sink. Finally, heat conduction through narrow gas-filled gaps is rather limited even when gasses with high thermal conductivity are used. Because of the above limitations, there is a need for an improved method for cooling transmissive optical components in HAP lasers.
The present invention is directed to a heat sink assembly ideally suited for face cooling a optical transmissive component (TOC) receiving a laser beam in a high average power (HAP) laser system. The heat sink assembly enables cooling of the TOC without introducing temperature gradients along the TOC in a direction normal to the direction of propagation of the laser beam. The heat sink assembly of the present invention further accomplishes this without the need for physically bonding the TOC to the heat sink assembly.
The heat sink assembly includes a transparent heat conductor (THC) that has one face thereof held closely adjacent a face of the TOC such that a seal is formed between the two faces. The seal may be formed by an independent sealing member interposed between the two faces. In one preferred embodiment, the heat sink assembly includes a THC having an O-ring groove formed in a face portion thereof, while the THC comprises a disk having parallel planar faces, with at least one, and preferably both, of the surfaces being formed as optically flat surfaces.
The THC may also include an O-ring seated in the O-ring groove, and a vacuum pump-out groove formed in the same surface as the O-ring groove, and radially inwardly of the O-ring groove. The vacuum pump-out groove includes a channel that opens onto an exterior surface of the THC to enable a vacuum to be applied to the pump-out groove. The vacuum urges the TOC against the THC, thus compressing the O-ring to form a sealed cavity defined by the O-ring and the facing surfaces of the TOC and the THC. Advantageously, no bonding or adhesives are required to maintain the faces of the TOC and the THC in contact with one another; the pressure differential between the cavity and the ambient environment performs this “holding” function. The heat sink assembly also includes a heat sink member in thermal contact with a peripheral portion of the THC.
In operation, heat generated in the TOC by a laser beam is conductively transmitted to the THC via the above-described contact, and then to the heat sink member. Since no physical bonding of the facing surfaces of the TOC and THC is needed, there is no tendency for the heat sink to cause stresses in the TOC to develop by impeding its transverse thermal expansion during operation. Avoiding a mechanically formed thermal coupling between the facing surfaces eliminates the possibility of excessive warpage of the face of the TOC, during operation, from degrading the transfer of thermal energy from the TOC to the THC.
In one alternative preferred embodiment, the TOC is sandwiched between a pair of THCs. Each THC is otherwise constructed as described above. Face cooling of both opposing surfaces of the TOC can be accomplished.
In another alternative preferred embodiment, a plurality of TOCs are disposed adjacent one another, but separated by a plurality of THCs. Thus, each TOC is sandwiched between a pair of THC. Each THC is constructed as described above and includes an associated heat sink component. Face cooling is achieved on both opposing faces of every TOC.
In another alternative preferred embodiment, the TOC includes a reflective coating on the face in contact with the THC of the heat sink assembly. The THC can include a plurality of pump-out channels formed to open onto the face of the THC that faces the TOC. The THC can also incorporate the O-ring groove and O-ring as described previously. The pump-out channels are in communication with a portion that opens onto an exterior surface of the THC so that an external means can be used to form a pressure force for holding the TOC in intimate thermal contact with the THC. The pressure force is applied by the pressure differential between the ambient atmosphere and the coolant.
The features, functions, and advantages can be achieved independently in various embodiments of the present inventions or may be combined in yet other embodiments.
The present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
The following description of the preferred embodiment(s) is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the invention, its application, or uses.
The invention discloses a method for cooling optical components of a high average power, solid state laser (HAPSSL), and thus increasing the power-handling capability of the optical components. The various preferred embodiments enable many tactical and strategic laser systems which would otherwise be too costly to manufacture.
The THC 24 is a flat member having two large and generally parallel surfaces. It is made of optical material having good thermal conductivity and is substantially transparent at the optical wavelengths of the laser beams 26 and 26′. Suitable materials for THC 24 include sapphire, single crystal diamond, polycrystalline diamond, yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) in a single crystal or polycrystalline form, and gallium gadolinium garnet (GGG) in a single crystal or polycrystalline form. The perimeter of the THC 24 is preferably circular, elliptical, oval or polygonal in shape. At least some portions of the THC 24 perimeter are attached to and in thermal communication with the heat sink 28. Heat sink 28 provides both mechanical support and heat removal for THC 24. For the latter purpose, the heat sink 28 is cooled either by conduction or by convection. For example, a conductively cooled heat sink 28 can be thermally attached to a solid-state cooler operating in accordance with the Peltier effect. A convectively cooled heat sink 28 may, for example, include a liquid or gas-cooled heat exchanger.
The large THC surfaces 42 and 42′ receive and transmit laser beams and, for this purpose, can be equipped with appropriate optical coatings. THC surface 42 includes an O-ring groove 46 and pump-out grove or channel 34. The pump-out groove 34 is connected to a vacuum pump using a pump-out hole 36. In addition, THC surface 42 is machined to optical flatness. The cooled optical assembly 10 is formed when the O-ring grove 46 in the heat sink assembly 48 is equipped with an appropriate vacuum-sealing O-ring 32, the THC surface 42 is mated with the TOC surface 52′, and vacuum suction is applied to the pump-out hole 36 in the presence of atmosphere 38. The pressure differential between the pressure of atmosphere 38 and the reduced pressure in the pump-out groove 34 generated by the vacuum suction forces the TOC surface 52′ and THC surface 42 to contact. Over time, gas molecules trapped between the surfaces 52′ and 42 migrate to the pump-out groove 34 and are removed. As a result, good thermal communication is established between the TOC 22 and THC 24.
When the cooled optical assembly 10 is operated with laser beam 26 and waste heat is generated inside the TOC 22, this heat is conducted to the THC 24. During this process the temperature gradient inside the TOC 22 is very nearly parallel to the direction of the laser beam 26. This means that a given phase front of the laser beam exposes TOC 22 material of the same temperature. As a result, the TOC 22 does not perturb phase fronts of the laser beam 26. The pressure differential that clamps the TOC 22 on to THC 24 can be further increased if the cooled optical assembly 10 is operated in a pressure chamber and atmosphere 38 is at or above ambient atmospheric pressure. In particular, if the pressure of atmosphere 38 is substantially above ambient atmospheric pressure, the pump-out hole 36 can be connected to ambient atmosphere rather than a vacuum pump.
Referring now to
Referring now to
Referring now to
The cooled optical assembly 13 also includes a clamp 292 that gently presses the TOC 222 towards the surface 280, thereby squeezing the O-ring 232. When the pressure in the microchannels 274 is reduced below the pressure of atmosphere 38, the TOC 222 experiences a hydrostatic pressure forcing its reflectively coated surface 252′ into contact with the surface 280, thereby establishing good thermal communication between the TOC 222 and the rigid body 288. Waste heat produced in the TOC 222 by the laser beam 26 is then conducted through the high-reflectivity optical coating 272 a on the surface 252′ into surface 280 of the rigid body 288. Preferably, the heat exchanger 276 is placed in close proximity to the microchannels 274, thereby reducing the thermal gradient inside the rigid body 288. The heat exchanger 276 is cooled by a coolant 282 entering the rigid body through a header 284 and drained through a header 286.
Referring now to
While various preferred embodiments have been described, those skilled in the art will recognize modifications or variations which might be made without departing from the inventive concept. The examples illustrate the invention and are not intended to limit it. Therefore, the description and claims should be interpreted liberally with only such limitation as is necessary in view of the pertinent prior art.
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|Cooperative Classification||H01S3/0401, G02F1/3501, H01S3/07, H01S3/0405, H01S3/0407, G02F2203/60, G02F1/0102, H01S3/042|
|European Classification||H01S3/04B, G02F1/01A, G02F1/35A|
|Oct 25, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BOEING COMPANY, THE, ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:VETROVEC, JAN;ELLIOTT, WILLIAM CARTER;REEL/FRAME:015937/0808;SIGNING DATES FROM 20041018 TO 20041019
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