US 7314441 B2
A method for separating particulate matter from a fluid includes feeding a fluid containing a particulate matter into a chamber of a vessel through an inlet, the chamber being at least partially bounded by a peripheral wall and the chamber also communicating with a first outlet and a second outlet. The vessel is rotated such that at least a portion of the particulate matter settles out of the fluid against at least a portion of the peripheral wall. At least a portion of the particulate matter settled against the peripheral is subsequently disturbed so that at least a portion of the particulate matter is resuspend within the fluid. The method further includes removing at least a portion of the fluid having the resuspended particulate matter therein through the first outlet and removing through the second outlet the fluid from which the particulate material has settled out.
1. A method for separating particulate matter from a fluid in which the particulate matter is suspended, the method comprising:
feeding a fluid containing particulate matter into a chamber of a vessel through an inlet, the chamber being at least partially bounded by a peripheral wall and the chamber also communicating with a first outlet and a second outlet;
rotating the vessel about a rotational axis extending through the vessel such that at least a portion of the particulate matter settles out of the fluid and against at least a portion of the peripheral wall of the vessel;
disturbing at least a portion of the particulate matter settled against the peripheral wall so that at least a portion of the particulate matter settled against the peripheral wall is resuspended within the fluid;
removing at least a portion of the fluid having the resuspended particulate matter therein from the vessel through the first outlet; and
removing through the second outlet of the vessel the fluid from which the particulate material has settled out.
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This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 10/821,562, filed Apr. 9, 2004, U.S. Pat. No. 7,060,017 B2, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 10/056,190, filed Jan. 25, 2002, U.S. Pat. No. 6,719,681B2, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/441,598, filed Nov. 17, 1999, U.S. Pat. No. 6,346,069 B1, which claims priority to Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/147,669, filed Aug. 6, 1999. application Ser. No. 10/056,190 is incorporated herein by specific reference.
1. The Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to methods for separating particulate matter from a fluid stream using a centrifugal separator.
2. The Relevant Technology
Water purification is an age-old activity that has been pursued to achieve both potable water and water for industrial use. With the rise of industrialization, water purification took on a new importance because industrial water usage generally involved discharging contaminated water into the environment. As concerns about the environment have increased, water discharged into the environment has been subjected to increasingly higher standards. Thus, increased efforts have been undertaken to identify methods of processing water to substantially reduce both dissolved and particulate pollutants.
One aspect of water purification that is particularly time consuming and/or equipment intensive is liquid-solid separation. Traditionally, settling ponds, or thickeners, have been used in which a large volume of particulate-containing water is allowed to reside in a quiescent state. With the force of gravity acting on the mixture, the particulate, even those in the Stokes flow regime, will separate from the liquid.
One disadvantage to the use of thickeners is that they have to be extremely large to have any significant flow capacity. Thus, their use is not practical in crowded urban areas where the need for such water purification systems is often the greatest. Consequently, thickeners have been developed that allow for a continuous flow of particulate-containing liquid into the center of the thickener, producing a clarified supernatant liquid and a compacted sludge. The compacted sludge, exiting from the bottom of the thickener, typically has a water content that amounts to between 10 and 30 percent of total water being fed to the thickener.
Traditional thickeners have been improved in the last decade or so with the advent of the high-rate thickener. The high-rate thickener has a center feed well that extends below the mud line of the underflow material. Accordingly, all water entering the thickener must pass through the sludge which acts as a filter medium. By using the sludge as a filter, solid-liquid separation rates are increased, albeit only incrementally over that of traditional thickeners. Additionally, high-rate thickeners also must be very large and, consequently, also have large footprints, rendering their use impractical in many situations.
Another aspect of separation includes liquid-liquid systems such as separating the oil and water from a sump in a machine shop or in a washing bay for trains or buses, etc. Other liquid-liquid separation systems are utilized in the food industry where oil and water need separation. One of the problems in the prior art is the effect of load disturbances such as a surge of oil or water in a cleaning operation that upsets the balance of the oil/water feed ratio to the separator. Although the separator may be controlled to prevent one component from entering the wrong exit stream, a catastrophic surge of one component or the other cannot be controlled.
Various embodiments of the present invention will now be discussed with reference to the appended drawings. It is appreciated that these drawings depict only typical embodiments of the invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope.
The present invention relates to systems and corresponding apparatus for clarifying and/or separating components of a fluid stream. For example, in one embodiment, the system can be used for clarifying water or other liquids that have been contaminated with particulate matter, including organic and inorganic contaminants. The system can also be used for separating immiscible liquids such as an oil/water mixture or separating liquids of different density. Reference is now made to the drawings wherein like reference numbers refer to like unit operations or structures. The drawings are understood to be diagrammatic and/or schematic and are not necessarily drawn to scale nor are they to be limiting of the spirit and scope of the present invention.
Feed stream 12 may consist of a variety of different compositions, such as water which includes pollutants like oil, bacterial contaminants, dissolved metals and minerals, and colloidally suspended solids. Feed stream 12 may originate, by way of example and not by limitation, from industrial facilities, animal product processing facilities, sewage treatment, municipal water treatment, the petroleum industry, and any other type of facility or system that has a fluid product or waste that needs to be clarified and/or separated.
Feed stream 12 is initially fed to surge tank 14 which acts as a holding tank to store a large inflow of fluid. Surge tank 14 may include any commercially available surge tank, an earthen pond, or other liquid holding vessel. In other embodiments, surge tank 14 is not required and can be eliminated from the system. From surge tank 14, the fluid follows a flow path 16 to a trash strainer 18 for removing trash and oversized particles which could clog the system. Exiting from trash strainer 18, the fluid follows flow path 20 into oil-water separator 22 that divides an oil stream 24 from a water stream 26. As will be discussed below in greater detail, oil-water separator 22 can also be periodically flushed to clean out particulate matter collected within separator 22. The particulate matter is flushed out through a solids line 21 to a filter 46 discussed below.
While a variety of oil-water separators may be employed, in one embodiment oil-water separator 22, as will be discussed below in greater detail, is comprised of a separator having many of the same inventive features as will be discussed below with regard to solid-liquid separator 10. Alternatively, oil-water separator 22 can comprise an oil-water separator such as those separators disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,387,342, 5,582,724 and 5,464,536.
Water stream 26 may be combined with a filter water stream 28 so as to form a feed stream 29 that is fed to an electrostatic coagulator 32. Electrostatic coagulator 32 operates to electrically sterilize the water by killing any living organisms, breaking down colloidal suspensions of impurities, and coalescing impurities into a flocculent. Such systems are available from Scott Powell Water Systems, Inc. of Denver, Colo.
A coagulated effluent stream 34 supplies a development tank 36 that typically has a residence time of from about one to five minutes or longer. While in development tank 36, the particle size of the flocculent grows. Effluent stream 38 from development tank 36 supplies solid-liquid separator 10 which will be discussed below in greater detail. Solid-liquid separator 10 generates an particulate stream 40 constituting the particulate matter and gas that has been removed from the effluent stream 38, and a clarified stream 42 constituting the clarified water or other liquid. The clarified water in clarified stream 42 is discharged either directly or through a post filter 45 to the environment or other designed destination. Particulate stream 40 is supplied to filter 46 from which filter water stream 28 and a filter cake 48 are generated.
In one embodiment, gas and residual oil collected in the top of development tank 36 can be directly drawn off through line 49 to filter 46. It is also appreciated that oil-water separator 22, electrostatic coagulator 32, development tank 36, solid-liquid separator 10, and filter 46 can each be operated under an elevated pressure, such as by the application of a pump, so as to facilitate desired flows through the system. The pressure may vary in one or more of the components 22, 32, 36, 10 and 46 so as to control flow in desired directions.
Pressure vessel 60 is preferably mounted within a guard 64. Guard 64 merely provides a shroud or housing as a safety mechanism to keep people and objects away from spinning pressure vessel 60. In the illustrated embodiment, a frame assembly 66 is provided to which guard 64 is mounted via mounting fins 68. One of skill in the art will, of course, appreciate that guard 64 may be configured and attached to frame assembly 66 in a variety of ways.
Frame assembly 66 is further configured to provide support to the motor 62 and the bearing structure which supports pressure vessel 60. Solid-liquid separator 10 includes a stationary inlet housing 70 configured to receive an inlet line 72. Similarly, a stationary outlet housing 74 is provided on the opposite end of the pressure vessel 60 to which is attached an outlet removal line 76 and an outlet effluent line 78.
A pump 80 is used to receive and feed effluent stream 38 to solid-liquid separator 10 through inlet line 72. Pump 80 pressurizes effluent stream 38 in inlet line 72 such that solid-liquid separator 10 operates under such pressure. Hence, pump 80 must be capable of pumping effluent stream 38 at the flow rate capacity of the solid-liquid separator 10 while maintaining a desired pressure. In one embodiment, pump 80 maintains effluent stream 38 at a pressure in a range between about 1 psi (6.89×103 Pa) to about 600 psi (4.14×106 Pa) with about 30 psi (2.07×105 Pa) to about 125 psi (8.61×105 Pa) being more preferred. Pump 80 also produces flow rates in a range between about 3 liters/minute to about 1,000 liters/minute. Any commercially available pump which can create the above pressures and the desired flow rates will function for the desired purpose. Depending on the intended use, it is appreciated that the pressure range and flow rate can also be larger or smaller.
As illustrated in
Additionally, it is desirable, although not required, that the walls of pressure vessel 60 slope radially outward towards an equator 97 having a maximum diameter that encircles rotational axis 90. Thus, although a pressure vessel with spherical walls 92 is one desired embodiment because of its efficient pressure bearing qualities, other curved-wall vessels, such as those having an oval, elliptical, or symmetrically irregular shape may be employed. Furthermore, straight-line configurations such as two truncated cones with their wide ends affixed together can be used. Similarly, a vessel having a cylindrical configuration at the edges and a center which is formed by truncated cones connected together can be used. In yet other embodiments, vessel 60 need not have outwardly sloping walls. For example, vessel 60 can be cylindrical or have a polygonal transverse cross section.
Pressure vessel 60 may be made out of a variety of materials including stainless steel, plastics, composites, filament wound structures, and other conventional materials. In one embodiment, pressure vessel 60 is capable of withstanding pressures in a range between about 1 psi (6.89×103 Pa) to about 2,000 psi (1.38×107 Pa) with about 100 psi (6.89×105 Pa) to about 1,000 psi (6.89×106 Pa) being more preferred. In the embodiment depicted, pressure vessel 60 is made out of stainless steel and has two halves for ease of manufacture and construction. The two halves are secured together such as by welding, bolts, or other conventional methods such that a seam is formed at equator 97 of vessel 60.
As illustrated in
Drive shaft 94, hollow shaft 98, and inlet mounting collar 100 are thus all rigidly secured to each other and to vessel 60 by any of those methods known in the art, such as by welding or the use of bolts, such as mounting bolts 102 which engage an inlet mounting flange 104. These components comprise a drive assembly which is rigidly affixed to vessel 60 and, consequently, rotates with vessel 60.
The drive assembly is configured to engage inlet housing 70. Inlet housing 70 supports the drive assembly with an inlet bearing assembly 106 which, in this embodiment, engages the inlet mounting collar 100. Inlet bearing assembly 106 is a sealed ball bearing assembly resting in a pillow such as will be well known to one of skill in the art.
Inlet housing 70 is configured with a feed stream inlet 114 which is configured for receiving inlet line 72 (
With continued reference to
Outlet housing 74 and outlet mounting collar 124 are each configured with a hollow interior for receiving an exit tube 128 having a removal channel 130 therein. As illustrated in
An outlet end 129 of exit tube 128 is overfit with mechanical pump seal 138. The opposing end of mechanical pump seal 138 is rigidly affixed within a circular step configured in the interior end of outlet housing 74. Thus, mechanical pump seal 138 acts as a fluid barrier between removal channel 130 and effluent channel 132 and allows for relative rotational movement between exit tube 128 and outlet housing 74. The outlet end of outlet housing 74 is further configured with an exit orifice 140 which engages outlet removal line 76. Outlet removal line 76 is accessed through an exit valve 148 which may be a standard or solenoid valve, such as a ball valve that is commercially available.
Exit tube 128 also has an inlet end 131. In one embodiment, a plug 162 is received within the opening at inlet end 131. A gas escape orifice 164 extends through plug 162 so as to establish fluid communication between the center of chamber 95 and channel 130 extending through exit tube 128. Gas escape orifice 164 typically has a diameter in a range between about 0.02 inches (0.05 cm) to about 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) with about 0.02 inches (0.05 cm) to about 0.125 inches (0.3 cm) being more preferred. Depending on the intended use, this dimension can also be larger or smaller. In an alternative embodiment, inlet end 131 can simply be formed with a constricted orifice that communicates with removal channel 130, thereby precluding the need for plug 162.
With continued reference to
In yet another embodiment, extraction tubes 160 need not radially outwardly project from exit tube 128 such that extraction tubes 160 are perpendicular to exit tube 128. Rather, extraction tubes 160 can outwardly project from exit tube 128 at an angled orientation. For example, in one embodiment, the inside angle between each extraction tube 160 and exit tube 128 may be in a range between about 90° to about 160°. In the embodiments where the inside angle is greater than 90°, exit tube 128 can be shorter so that inlet end 131 of exit tube 128 couples with first end 161 of each extraction tube 160. In yet other embodiments, the inside angle between each extraction tube 160 and exit tube 128 can be less than 90°.
Extraction tubes 160 each extend outwardly an equal distance from the rotational axis 90 of solid-liquid separator 10. Each extraction tube 160 has an opening 166 at its second end 163 for receiving separated particulate matter and fluid. In operation, extraction tubes 160, as further explained below, assist in defining a boundary line between the collected particulate matter and the clarified liquid. Thus, the length of extraction tubes 160 is set to provide a predetermined boundary line within vessel 60. In one embodiment in which vessel 60 has a maximum inner diameter of 19 inches at equator 97, extraction tubes 160 are configured to leave a 0.25 inch (0.65 cm) space between opening 166 in tubes 160 and wall 92 of vessel 60. In alternative embodiments, including those of different sized vessels, the space between the opening 166 in extraction tubes 160 and wall 92 of vessel 60 is typically in a range between about 0.125 inches (0.3 cm) to about 2 inches (5 cm) with about 0.25 inches (0.6 cm) to about 1 inch (2.5 cm) being more preferred. In other embodiments, the space can be smaller or larger.
Vessel 60 is also configured with a plurality of fins and discs for channeling fluid flow through vessel 60. One embodiment of solid-liquid separator 10 includes a center disc 170, positioned in the center of vessel 60 and oriented perpendicular to rotational axis 90, as illustrated in
The depicted embodiment also includes four additional discs 176, 178, 202 and 204. Discs 176 and 202 are positioned on the inlet side of vessel 60 with discs 178 and 204 positioned on the outlet side. Discs 176, 178, 202 and 204 are used in part to facilitate assembly of the solid-liquid separator 10 and to provide structural support during operation thereof. Alternatively, the solid-liquid separator 10 can be assembled with fewer or greater numbers of assembly discs. It is also envisioned that the inventive solid-liquid separator 10 can be constructed without discs by securing the fins, as discussed below, directly to exit tube 128 and/or wall 92 of vessel 60.
As illustrated in
Referring now to
In the embodiment illustrated in
As illustrated in
An alternative fin 215 is illustrated in
Fins 184 are positioned within chamber 95 of vessel 60 perpendicularly to discs 170, 176, 178, 202 and 204 as best illustrated in
The fin and disc assembly within vessel 60 is thus assembled as illustrated in
In the depicted embodiment, twenty four fins 184 are utilized in vessel 60, as illustrated in
To accommodate the eight radial extraction tubes 160, trimmed fins 212 are modified with a central notch 216 as illustrated in
In an alternative embodiment, it is appreciated that fins 184 need not radially outwardly project in alignment with rotational axis 90. Rather, inside edge 186 of each fin 184 can be offset from alignment rotational axis 90 and still be retained in position by the discs. As used in the specification and appended claims, the phrase, “fin projecting from toward the rotational axis” is broadly intended to include embodiments where an inside edge of a fin is disposed in a plane that is either aligned with or offset from the rotational axis, where at least a portion of the inside edge is directly disposed along the rotational axis or is radially spaced outward from the rotational axis, and/or where the inside edge is parallel with or angled relative to the rotational axis.
With the fins and discs assembled about exit tube 128 as illustrated in
Specifically, as depicted in
It is of course envisioned that fins 184 can be formed in a variety of different configurations to facilitate underflow passage 190 between flow channels 218. For example, trimmed fins 212 can be replaced with alternative fins 215. In this embodiment, holes 196 facilitate underflow passage 190. In yet other embodiments, notches, slots, holes, grooves, and the like can be formed in a fin 184 to facilitate underflow passage 190.
Notch 194 (
Once the internal assembly is enclosed within vessel 60, the inlet and outlet mounting collars 100, 124, the bearing assemblies, and housings assembled as described above are bolted or otherwise secured to vessel 60 using conventional methods known to those skill in the art.
In operation, as illustrated in
In addition to the hydraulic pressure applied to vessel 60 by stream 38, a centrifugal force is applied to stream 38 and vessel 60 as a result of the rotation of vessel 60. This centrifugal force increases as the distance away from rotational axis 90 increases. As such, the total force at the perimeter of vessel 60 may be several times that of the hydraulic pressure.
Stream 38 may include virtually any liquid which has been contaminated with a particulate component having a density greater than the liquid. For most applications, however, the liquid will be water. Thus, although water is referred to herein as the liquid being clarified, it will be understood that solid-liquid separator 10 of the present invention may be used to clarify a variety of liquids.
As illustrated in
Flow channels 218 help eliminate the Coriolis effect. That is, if fins 184 were removed, as the fluid enters vessel 60, the fluid would swirl in a vortex. Such swirling produces a turbulent flow that suspends particles within the fluid. As discussed below, in one embodiment solid-liquid separator 10 operates by settling the particulate matter against or adjacent to wall 92 of vessel 60 from where it is subsequently removed. By passing the fluid through discrete flow channels 218, swirling of the fluid is substantially eliminated. The fluid travels in a substantially laminar flow wherein the fluid rotates at the same speed as vessel 60. As a result, the potential for settling particulate within the liquid is maximized.
As stream 38 enters the vessel, it is forced around disc 176 along the direction of arrows B. Within vessel 60, the stream is subjected to the tremendous centrifugal forces imposed on it due to the rotation of vessel 60. Thus, the more dense component of the stream, i.e., the particulate matter, flows radially outwardly while the less dense component flows radially inwardly or stays on top. In one embodiment, the centrifugal forces present in solid-liquid separator 10 produce an average of approximately 500 g□s to about 2,000 g's on the fluid mixture. The centrifugal force rapidly clarifies the fluid producing a low liquid content of the more dense particulate matter. Solid-liquid separator 10 can thus achieve in minutes or seconds the amount of separation that a static tank separator takes hours to achieve.
As discussed above, the particulate matter in stream 38 is forced by the rotation of vessel 60 to accumulate against wall 92 at equator 97. The accumulated particulate matter is identified as collected solids 224. A boundary line 228 is defined between collected solids 224 and the clarified water 226 radially inwardly disposed therefrom. Collected solids 224 are allowed to accumulate and boundary line 228 rise until boundary line 228 is located radially inward of opening 166 of extraction tubes 160 (a condition illustrated in
Water flowing around the edge of disc 170 through axial flow passage 174 can stir up collected solids 224 that have settled at the largest dimension radius or equator 97 of pressure vessel 60. Although not always, in one embodiment this stirring caused by eddy effects works in opposition to the purpose of solid-liquid separator 10. Therefore, notches such as v-notches 210 previously discussed with regard to
Apart from functioning to support fins 184, the various discs, particularly disc 170, function to assist in the removal of the particulate matter. That is, all fluid that enters vessel 60 must flow either to or around the outer edge of disc 170 before it can exit vessel 60. By forcing all of the fluid to flow to the outer edge of disc 170 at equator 97, all of the fluid is subject to the greatest centrifugal force produced by the rotation of vessel 60, thereby ensuring that the highest concentration of particulate matter is removed from the incoming fluid. Discs 176 and 178 also function for this purpose. Furthermore, by positioning discs 176 and 178 on opposing sides of disc 170, the fluid flows radially inward and outward as it moves between the discs. This radial movement of the fluid increases the retention time of the fluid within the vessel, thereby subjecting the fluid to the centrifugal force of the vessel for a longer period of time. As a result, a larger portion of the particulate matter is removed. In an alternative embodiment, however, the inventive solid-liquid separator can be operated without the use of the discs, particularly disc 170.
Because gases may occasionally be found in fed stream 38, a gas layer 230 may form about axis 90 on the inlet side of vessel 60. Disc 170 effectively serves as a barrier between the inlet side and the outlet side of vessel 60. Hence, gases found within the feed stream will generally be found only on the inlet side of vessel 60 because they are likely to be separated before the liquid passes through axial flow passage 174.
As feed stream 38 continues to flow into the vessel 60, the fluid passes around the outer perimeter of center disc 170 and into the outlet side of vessel 60. Clarified water 226, which can be other fluids in other embodiments, fills the outlet side of vessel 60 and then flows out through effluent channel 132. Clarified water 226 subsequently exits solid-liquid separator 10 through effluent outlet 134 and pressure relief valve 136. Pressure relief valve 136 only opens when the back pressure in effluent outlet 134 overcomes the spring force for the valve, thereby ensuring that a predetermined pressure is maintained inside vessel 60. In an alternative embodiment, pressure relief valve 136 can be replaced with other operating systems that perform the same function. For example, pressure relief valve 136 can be replaced with an electronically operated valve and a pressure sensor. The valve is electronically opened when the pressure sensor senses a predetermined pressure within vessel 60 or outlet 134. In other embodiments, valve 136 can be self-adjusting so as to allow clarified water 226 to continually flow therethrough at a given pressure. Should the flow increase or decrease, valve 136 automatically opens or closes a proportional amount so that the pressure is held substantially constant.
Boundary line 228 is maintained at a desired level by periodically opening valve 148 and allowing collected solids 224 to be extracted through extraction tubes 160. When valve 148 is opened, a pressure gradient is created between the interior of vessel 60 and outlet removal line 76. Flow of collected solids 224 proceeds from the higher pressure environment within vessel 60 to the lower pressure through extraction tubes 160. This pressure differential may be created a number of ways, such as by operating vessel 60 at ambient pressure and imposing a negative pressure on extraction tubes 160, or, as is presently depicted, operating vessel 60 under pressure and imposing extraction tubes 160 to a near ambient pressure.
Recognizing that the eight extraction tubes 160 only extend into eight of the flow channels 218 (
When exit valve 148 is opened, any gas which has built up inside vessel 60 to form a gas layer 230 will immediately begin escaping through orifice 164 of plug 162 which is in fluid communication with removal channel 130. Thus, orifice 164 should preferably be sized such that any anticipated gas buildup may be removed through the periodic opening of valve 148. Orifice 164, however, should be sufficiently small so as to enable sufficient draw on extraction tubes 160 to remove collected solids 224. Thus, the size of orifice 164 depends in part upon the constituency and nature of the fluid flow. In one embodiment, orifice 164 has a threaded diameter of approximately 0.375 inch (1 cm). This 0.375 inch (1 cm) orifice is threaded to allow an insert whereby the orifice diameter may be reduced or even totally occluded, depending upon the insert selected. An insert may be threaded into orifice 164 even after construction of the pressure vessel 60 because orifice 164 remains accessible through exit orifice 140 and removal channel 130. The adjustable nature of this orifice diameter allows orifice 164 to be tailored for different fluid flows while using the same solid-liquid separator 10.
In one embodiment of the present invention, spherical vessel 60 has an inside diameter of about 19 inches (48 cm) and is capable of processing approximately 38 liters of water each minute. This provides a residence time of approximately 1.5 minutes in solid-liquid separator 10 while subjecting the water to an average of approximately 700 g forces. This is roughly the equivalent of 2 hours of residence time in a static clarifier having the same capacity. In one embodiment, the solid-liquid separator is capable of clarifying water to remove at least 99% of solids. In alternative embodiments, the present invention envisions that typical vessels can be formed having a maximum inside diameter in a range between about 6 inches (15 cm) to about 120 inches (300 cm) with about 12 inches (30 cm) to about 60 inches (150 cm) being more preferred. Such vessels can be designed to process fluid at a rate in a range from about 0 liters/minute to about 4,000 liters/minute with about 1 liter/minute to about 1,000 liters/minute being more preferred. It is appreciated that in other embodiments, the above variables can be larger or smaller.
The resulting particulate stream 40 is passed through a bag filter, filter press, and/or belt filter to remove remaining water and to “cake” the solids. The “caked” solids may then be disposed of by composting or other method known in the art. Ultimately, the disposal method will depend upon the composition of the “caked” solids. For instance, solids containing heavy metals cannot be composted and other appropriate disposal methods will be used.
To shut down solid-liquid separator 10, the pump and motor are turned off, then vessel 60 is drained and flushed. Alternatively, fluid may simply be left within the vessel 60 during non-use.
In one embodiment, depending on the operating parameters and the particle matter being collected, collected solids 224 can be difficult to fully extract from vessel 60 through extraction tubes 160. For example, collected solids 224 can be caked on wall 92 to such an extent that they do not freely flow into extraction tubes 160. In one approach to more easily and fully removing collected solids 224, the inflow of stream 38 to vessel 60 and the outflow of clarified water 226 from vessel 60 can be momentarily stopped. While vessel 60 continues to rotate, a removal stream can be pumped into removal channel 130 of exit tube 128 so that the removal stream passes down through extraction tubes 160 and into vessel 60.
As the removal stream passes into vessel 60, the removal stream resuspends the caked solids into surrounding fluid. The centrifugal force, however, keeps the particulate matter substantially adjacent to perimeter wall 92. Once the particulate matter is resuspended in a less dense phase, extraction tubes 160 can return to their original operation where the fluid containing the resuspended particulate matter is drawn out of vessel 60 through extraction tubes 160 and exit tube 128. Once a desired amount of the particular matter is removed, flow through extraction tubes 160 can be closed while rotating vessel 60 resettles the particulate matter against peripheral wall 92. Once the particulate matter is sufficiently settled, feed stream 38 and clarified water can again flow into and out of vessel 60.
As will be discussed below in greater detail different forms of nozzles can be placed at the end of extraction tubes 160 for more efficiently resuspending the particulate matter. Furthermore, a separate tube can be used to deliver the removal stream into vessel 60.
As depicted in
Liquid-liquid separator 244 also operates in a manner similar to solid-liquid separator 10. For example, with vessel 60 rotating, the mixed liquid is pumped into inlet 114 so as to flow down hollow shaft 98 along arrow A. Upon reaching the entrance to vessel 60, the mixed liquid enters one of the flow channels 218 (
The mixed liquid includes a heavy component 241 and a light component 243 which are defined by their relative densities. It is appreciated that heavy component 241 may also include comprise particulate matter. Where the mixed liquid includes more than two immiscible liquids, heavy component 241 or light component 243 can be defined to include more than one liquid. The drawn off liquid that includes more than one liquid can subsequently be processed through a second liquid-liquid separator 244 so as to separate the liquids therein.
As a result of the applied centrifugal force, heavy component 241 flows toward wall 92 at equator 97. Light component 243 flows toward the center or rotational axis 90 of vessel 60. As a result, a boundary line 245 is formed between heavy component 241 and light component 243. Boundary line 245 is maintained within a range of radial distances away from rotational axis 90. This liquid-liquid boundary line 245 is analogous to boundary line 228 depicted in
As a result of perforations 238 extending through discs 236 and 240, light component 243 and gas 230 can flow through discs 236 and 240 and out effluent channel 132. Since gas 230 exits with light component 243, there is no need for a gas escape orifice at inlet end 131 of exit tube 128. In this embodiment, discs 236 and 240 function primarily as supports for fins 184 and thus can be any desired configuration. Alternatively, discs 236 and 240 can be removed.
Heavy component 241 is removed from vessel 60 through extraction tubes 160 and exit tube 128. Where there are fewer extraction tubes 160 than discrete flow channels 218, underflow passages 190 are formed between discrete flow channels 218 so that boundary line 245 is constant for all flow channels 218. Since boundary line 245 is typically closer to rotational axis 90 than boundary line 189, second end 163 of extraction tubes 160 can be moved closer to rotational axis 90.
In one embodiment of the present invention, means are provided for pressurizing the fluid within pressure vessel 60 so as to automatically control the position of boundary line 245 within pressure vessel 60 as the ratio of light component and heavy component of the fluid entering pressure vessel 60 changes. Several alternative examples of such means are described below. By way of example and not by limitation, depicted in
According to the present invention, a pressure differential is maintained between first valve 248 and second valve 256. The pressure differential is needed to maintain boundary line 245 at a defined radial distance from rotational axis 90 such that only light component 243 exits through effluent channel 132 and effluent line 78 and only heavy component 241 exits through extraction tubes 160, exit tube 128, and removal line 76. Failure to establish and maintain a pressure differential between valves 248 and 256 can result in boundary line 245 extending beyond extraction tubes 160 such that a portion of light component 243 exits with heavy component 241 through extraction tubes 160 or can result in boundary line extending into effluent channel 132 such that a portion of heavy component 241 exits with light component 243 through effluent channel 132.
The pressure differential is based on the operating properties of separator 244, such as rotational velocity, and the material properties of supply stream 30, such as the density and viscosity of the at least two immiscible liquids contained within supply stream 30. The pressure differential is also based on the desired location of boundary line 245 within vessel 60. It is appreciated that in some embodiments the pressure differential can be zero or substantially zero so as to maintain boundary line 245 at the desired location.
In practice, the pressure differential can be empirically determined. For example, initially first valve 248 is set to operate at a first pressure. That is, first valve 248 maintains the exiting light component 243 at the first pressure while enabling exiting light component 243 to continually flow through first valve 248. Accordingly, if the flow of exiting light component 243 decreases, first valve 248 automatically closes a corresponding amount so as to maintain the first pressure. In this regard, first valve 248 can comprise a back-pressure regulator such as a Fisher 98L made by Fisher Controls International, Inc., out of Marshall Town, Iowa. Alternatively, first valve 248 can comprise a piloted or controlled back-pressure regulator, also available from by Fisher Controls International, Inc., which operates in communication with a pressure sensor 246 coupled effluent line 78. In either the above embodiments or other alternative valve configurations, first valve 248 is configured to automatically adjust so as to maintain a desired pressure on exiting light component 243 as the flow rate thereof changes. Where the flow rate is substantially constant, first valve 248 can be configured for manual rather than automatic adjustment.
The amount of first pressure is in some regards arbitrary since it is the pressure differential that controls the position of boundary line 245. In one embodiment, however, first pressure is typically in a range between about 1 psi (6.89×103 Pa) to about 600 psi (4.14×106 Pa) with about 30 psi (2.07×105 Pa) to about 125 psi (8.61'105 Pa) being more preferred. In other embodiments, the pressure can be greater or smaller.
Once the first pressure for first valve 248 is set, second valve 256 is initially set to operate at the same pressure. Liquid-liquid separator 244 is then operated at a flow rate for supply stream 30 and at a defined rotational velocity for vessel 60. The operating pressure for second valve 256 is then incrementally varied in opposite directions so as to determine the extreme operating pressures for second valve 256. For example, the operating pressure for second valve 256 can be incrementally decreased and then incrementally increased so as to determine the pressures for second valve 256 at which light component 243 first starts to flow out of removal line 76 with heavy component 241 and heavy component 241 first starts to flow out of effluent line 78 with light component 243.
Once the two extreme operating pressures for second valve 256 are determined, second valve 256 is set to operate at a pressure between the two extreme pressures. This places boundary line 245 substantially centrally between the opening to effluent channel 132 and opening 166 to extraction tubes 160. Alternatively, second valve 256 can be set to operate at any desired pressure between the two extreme pressures. The resulting pressure difference between first valve 248 and second valve 256 defines the pressure differential. Second valve 256 can comprise the same type of valves as discussed above with regard to first valve 248. As such, in one embodiment, second valve 256 can operate in conjunction with a pressure sensor 252 coupled with removal line 76.
One of the unique benefits of the inventive system is its ability to compensate for changes in the ratio of the two immiscible liquids in supply stream 30. For example, assuming an oil/water supply stream 30 feeds liquid-liquid separator 244 at a 50/50 mixture. At a given time, the 50/50 mixture suddenly experiences a load change to 10% oil and 90% water. Where the rotational velocity of liquid-liquid separator 244 remains substantially constant, an increased amount of water (heavy component 241) will tend to cause boundary line 245 to move toward rotational axis 90. Accordingly, the pressure sensed at first valve 248 will decrease while the pressure sensed at second valve 256 will increase. As a result, second valve 256 will automatically close slightly and first valve 248 will automatically open slightly. As a result, the operating pressures for valves 248 and 256 and the pressure differential between valves 248 and 256 are continually held relatively constant even though the ratio of liquids in supply stream 30 may continually change. As such, the position of boundary line 245 is held relatively constant within vessel 60.
A 100% water supply stream 30 or a 100% oil supply stream 30 may also be controlled by maintaining boundary line 245 within the preferred distance range from rotational axis 90. For example, where a 100% oil supply stream 30 is fed to liquid-liquid separator 244, second valve 256 will eventually shut entirely in order to maintain the liquid-liquid interface within the preferred distance range away from rotational axis 90. Accordingly, where all liquid in supply stream 30 is oil, the oil will move through liquid-liquid separator 244 substantially without any mixing with the water that, under this situation, would be substantially stagnant therein.
Another embodiment of a control system 294 is depicted in
In yet another embodiment, it is appreciated that first valve 248 in control system 294 can be configured such that it does not adjust the pressure on effluent line 78 as the flow rate of fluid passing therethrough changes. For example, first valve 248 can be configured such that as the amount of exiting light component 243 passing therethrough decreases, the fluid pressure within effluent line 78 can also be allowed to decrease. However, since second valve 256 is set to operate at a pressure relative to the pressure of effluent line 78, the operating pressure of second valve 256 also decreases, thereby maintaining the desired pressure differential between valves 248 and 256.
In yet another embodiment depicted in
According to the present invention, when a load disturbance occurs within supply stream 30, first pressure sensor 246 and second pressure sensor 252 detect a change in respective pressures between exiting heavy component 241 passing through removal line 76 and exiting light component 243 passing through effluent line 78. According to the present invention, such a load disturbance will be noted by controller 260 and respective valves 248 and 256 will be adjusted in order to maintain boundary line 245 at a preferred distance range away from rotational axis 90. According to this embodiment of the present invention, the pressure differential is maintained by the control of first valve 248 and second valve 256. Accordingly, the location of boundary line 245 may be maintained within the preferred distance range away from rotational axis 90.
In another configuration for operation, the embodiments depicted in
Control system 295 also includes a valve 297, such as a solenoid valve, that is designed to selectively fully open and fully close. Valve 297 is electrically coupled with a sensor 298 that can be coupled with removal line 76 or effluent line 78. Valve 297 is set to fully open and close over a pressure range. For example, during one mode of operation valve 296 is always left open a defined amount while valve 297 is initially closed. When the pressure sensed by sensor 298 reaches a defined upper limit, as a result of the heavy component collecting within vessel 60, valve 297 is opened allowing the heavy component to exit therethrough. Valve 297 remains open until the pressure sensed by sensor 298 drops to a lower limit at which time valve 297 is closed and the process is repeated. By controlling valve 297 over a narrow pressure range, boundary line 245 remains relatively constant. In alternative embodiments, it is appreciated that valves 296 and 297 can be switched between lines 76 and 78. Furthermore, valve 297 can be set to open and close over a defined time range and/or pressure range.
One feature of one embodiment of the present invention relating to control of the liquid-liquid separation system is the ability to separate immiscible liquids that have a specific gravity difference of less than about 5% of each other. The present invention is useful for separating immiscible liquids that have a specific gravity difference in a range from about 5% to about 0.5%, more preferably from about 4% to about 0.5%, and most preferably from about 3% to about 0.5%. Of course, the present invention is useful for separating immiscible liquids that have a specific gravity difference greater than 5%. Where a given liquid-liquid system is provided such that the specific gravities of the two liquids are known, control of such systems is achieved by the present invention. Calibration may be conducted for a given rotating pressurized vessel as disclosed herein. A first rpm may be established and various pressure differences noted for different ratios of the two liquids. A curve may be fitted to these data. Similarly, other rpm amounts may be tested in order to calibrate the rotating pressure vessel. By use of standard control methods such as a PID controller, the rpm amount of the rotating pressure vessel may be tracked and the liquid-liquid system separated by maintaining the boundary layer 245 within a desired range.
One application of liquid-liquid separator 244 is depicted in
An exiting heavy component stream 250, which can comprise water in an oil/water system, is fed to a liquid-liquid hydrocyclone 270. Hydrocyclone 270 accomplishes a separation therein that removes more of the light component liquid from a concentration above about 100 ppm down to a concentration of less than about 10 ppm.
For example, where an oil/water system is provided, exiting heavy component stream 250 comprising the water may have an oil content of about 100 ppm. Liquid-liquid hydrocyclone 270 provides a purified heavy component liquid stream 272 that has an oil content in a range from about 0.1 to about 100 ppm, preferably from about 1 to about 10 ppm, and more preferably from about 2 to about 5 ppm. A recycle light component liquid stream 274 is drawn off liquid-liquid hydrocyclone 276 and is blended with flow path 20 to form supply stream 30. Typically, in a 50/50 oil/water flow path 20, the content of water within recycle light component liquid stream 274 will be in a range from about 50% water to about 80% water. Hydrocyclone 276 can comprise any hydrocyclone know to those skilled in the art. One example of a hydrocyclone is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,133,861.
Accordingly, a method of separating a liquid-liquid mixture by use of separator 244 depicted in
Another embodiment of the present invention is depicted in
In yet another embodiment, it is envisioned that a single separator can be configured to simultaneously separate both two or more immiscible liquids and particulate matter from a fluid steam. The separator can be configured substantially identical to those disclosed in
Attached to and extending below base plate 304 is a stationary inlet housing 314. As discussed below in greater detail, a fluid inlet line 311 and a fluid delivery line 313 are each fluid coupled with inlet housing 314. Fluid inlet line 311 is used to deliver the fluid that is to be separated, clarified, and/or otherwise treated. Accordingly, depending on the configuration and intended use of separator 300, fluid inlet line 311 can comprise flow path 20 or effluent stream 38 of
A stationary outlet housing 315 is attached to head plate 306 and upwardly extends therefrom. Fluid coupled with outlet housing 315 is a removal line 347 and an effluent line 348. Removal line 347 is used for the removal of solids and heavier fluids while effluent line 348 is used for removal of the clarified and/or lighter fluids. Shut off valves 349 and 351 are coupled with removal line 347 and effluent line 348, respectively.
Rotatably disposed within compartment 310 is a pressure vessel 316 having an inlet end 318 and an opposing outlet end 320. As depicted in
A shaft assembly 322, which is also configured to rotate about rotational axis 466, extends through and is rigidly coupled with pressure vessel 316. Shaft assembly 322 includes an inlet end 324 that is rotatably supported within inlet housing 314. Shaft assembly 322 also includes an outlet end 326 that is rotatably supported within outlet housing 315.
Encircling shaft assembly 322 and attached to pressure vessel 316 at inlet end 318 is an annular pulley 328. Returning to
An end wall 353 extends across flange 344 on the outlet side of channels 346 so as to bound one side of compartment 339. An annular mouth 355 projects from end wall 353 and flange 344 toward outlet end 342. Extending between mouth 355 and collar 337 so as to communicate with second channel portion 343 of each channel 346 is an annular slot 357.
As depicted in
Coupling port 373 extends into inlet housing 314 and connects with cavity 374 at an orientation tangential to cavity 374. In turn, fluid inlet line 311, as previously discussed with regard to
As depicted in
A plurality of radially spaced apart removal ports 394 extend through outer shaft 392 at or toward second end 380. Formed between inner shaft 390 and outer shaft 392 and longitudinally running from annular slot 357 formed on manifold 336 to removal ports 394 is an annular channel 395. Channel 395 and annular slot 357 combine to form a removal channel 396 that extends from each channel 346 on manifold 336 to removal ports 394.
As depicted in
As depicted in
An annular sidewall 450 forwardly projects from the outer edge of flange 448. In turn, an annular lip 452 forwardly projects from the terminal end of sidewall 450. Secured inside of annular lip 452 so as to bias against sidewall 450 is an end cap 454. In this configuration, a disk shaped compartment 456 is encircled by sidewall 448 and bounded between end cap 454 and flange 448. Compartment 456 is in fluid communication with supply duct 430.
As illustrated in
As with pressure vessel 60, pressure vessel 316 is also configured with a plurality of fins and discs for channeling fluid through vessel 316. An annular first disc 478 encircles input shaft 350, and is secured, such as by pins, bolts, welding and the like, to inlet end 340 of manifold 336. Similarly, an annular second disc 480 encircles output shaft 376 and is secured to outlet end 342 of manifold 336. Each of discs 478 and 480 is positioned perpendicular to rotational axis 466.
Intersecting with discs 478 and 480 are a plurality of fins 482. As depicted in
As depicted in
Perimeter edge 490 of each fin 480 also comprises a second cut out portion 496 at second end 488. Second cut out portion 496 is formed radially out from transfer tubes 400. As a result, an annular outflow equalizing channel 498 circles shaft assembly 322 within chamber 472 and is partially bounded by second cutout portion 496 of each fin 482, interior surface 470 of pressure vessel 316, and output shaft 376.
Extending from inside edge 484 of each fin 482 are a pair of spaced apart disc receive slots 500. Complementary radially spaced apart slots are also formed on the outside edge of discs 478 and 480 so, as depicted in
As further depicted in
Depending on its intended use, the operation of separator 300 is similar to the operation of separator 10 and separator 244 as previously discussed. As such, the operating parameters previously discussed with regard to separators 10 and 244 are also applicable to separator 300. Returning to
With discs 478 and 480 having openings 504 therein (
As illustrated in
As depicted in
As feed stream 506 travels within flow channels 502 toward transfer tubes 400, the stream is subjected to the tremendous centrifugal forces imposed on it due to the rotation of vessel 316. Thus, the more dense component of the stream flows radially outwardly while the less dense component flows radially inwardly toward rotational axis 466. A boundary line 508, disposed parallel to rotational axis 320, is thus formed within chamber 472 denoting the separation between heavy component 241 and light component 243.
Light component 243 continues to travel within flow channels 502 to transfer tubes 400. The formation of outflow equalizing channel 498 allows fluid communication between each stream of light component 243 leaving its corresponding flow channel 502, thereby helping to ensure a common inflow through each of transfer tubes 400. As a result, there can be fewer transfer tubes 400 than flow channels 502. Alternatively, a transfer tube 400 can be provided for each flow channel 502, thereby eliminating the need for outflow equalizing channel 498.
Returning back to
In one embodiment, it is appreciated that an extraction tube 410 can be provided for each flow channel 502. In an alternative embodiment, an extraction tube 410 can be provided in every other flow channel 502 or in any other desired placement. Where an extraction tube 410 is not provided in each channel 502, some form of opening or gap is provided at the separating fin so that fluid communication of the heavy component 241 is provided between two or more flow channels 502. Such openings or gaps can be formed by underflow passage 190 as previously discussed.
It is appreciated that most fluids for which separation of the components is desired will also include some form of particulate matter. The particulate matter which is initially suspended within feed stream 506 enters flow channels 502 where under the gravitational force produced by separator 300 is forced to the interior of wall 468 primarily about equator 474. Periodically the collected particulate matter is removed from vessel to prevent an overbuild up within vessel 316.
By way of example, at periodic intervals valves 317 and 351 on fluid inlet line 311 and effluent line 348, respectively, are closed. Subsequently, valves 319 and 349 on delivery line 313 and removal line 347, respectively, are opened. Next, with vessel 316 still rotating, a cleaning stream 510 is pumped into delivery line 313. Cleaning stream 510 travels down delivery channel 362 where it subsequently passes into supply duct 430 of each extraction tube 410. Finally, cleaning stream 510 passes through flush ports 464 into chamber 472 of pressure vessel 316. As a result of the orientation of flush ports 464, the exiting cleaning stream 510 produces a swirling vortex around nozzle 436. The swirling vortex resuspends the particulate matter that has caked or otherwise deposited against the interior of wall 468. Simultaneously with delivering cleaning stream 510 into chamber 472, heavier component 241 now having the particulate matter suspended therein is drawn out through removal ducts 432 in extraction tubes 410 as previously discussed.
Once a desired amount particulate matter and heavy component 241 is removed, valves 319 and 349 on delivery line 313 and removal line 347, respectively, are closed. Valves 317 and 351 on fluid inlet line 311 and effluent line 348, respectively, continue to remain closed for a sufficient period of time to enable the resuspended solids to again settle against the interior of wall 468 as a result of the rotation of pressure vessel 316. Although not required, this act helps to ensure that resuspended solids are not drawn out with the lighter component. Once the solids have again settled, valves 317 and 351 are opened and the process is continued. In yet another method of operation, it is appreciated that feed stream 506 and cleaning stream 510 can feed simultaneously for concurrently removing both the heavier component and the lighter component.
In alternative embodiments, it is appreciated that extraction tube 410 can have a variety of different configurations. For example, flush ports 464 can be positioned at any orientation including radially outward. Furthermore, flush ports 464 can be positioned to exit through end cap 454. Any of a number of other configurations for nozzle 436 in which fluid can be ejected therefrom for resuspension of the particulate matter can also be used.
In yet another embodiment as depicted in
Second end 526 of each of tubes 516 and 520 are openly exposed as opposed to being coupled with nozzle 436. As such, fluid simply exits through supply duct 518 at second end 526 to resuspend the solids settled against pressure vessel 316 while the heavier component with the resuspended solids therein enters into removal duct 522 at second end 526. In this embodiment, outer tube 520 can be formed without slots 445. If desired, however, a support collar (not shown) having holes extending therethrough can be positioned between inner tube 516 and outer tube 520 to maintain spacing between the tubes. It is also appreciated that the system can be manipulated so that cleaning stream 510 flows out of removal duct 522 into pressure vessel 316 while the heavy component 241 with the resuspended particulate matter is removed through supply duct 518.
Further alternative embodiments of extraction tubes are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,853,266, entitled Fluidising Apparatus, which drawings thereof and disclosure set forth in the Detailed Description of the Invention are incorporated herein by specific reference. Various forms of extraction tubes can also be obtained from Merpro Limited out of Nailsea, Bristol, United Kingdom.
Although the above described embodiment of separator 300 can be used for the removal of some particulate matter, the configuration is primarily designed for separation of mixed liquids, i.e., separating oil and water. As previously discussed, however, separator 300 can also function primarily as a solid-liquid separator. Under this embodiment it is desirable to maximize the application of the centrifugal force on the particulate matter within the fluid. Accordingly, depicted in
Any gas which enters vessel 316 passes through gas ports 542 and exits with the clarified liquid. Alternatively, the gas can be removed from the feed stream before it enters the separator by passing the stream through a commercially available needle valve or other device designed to remove gases from fluid streams. In this embodiment, gas ports 542 are not required.
One of the benefits of having disc 540 solid, thereby requiring all of the fluid to pass around the outer perimeter thereof, is that it extends the retention time of the fluid within pressure vessel 316. In general, the longer the retention time the more particulate matter is separated from the fluid. In alternative embodiments, however, first disc 538 can be solid while second disc 540 can have openings 540 formed therein.
The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from its spirit or essential characteristics. The described embodiments are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description. All changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.