|Publication number||US7315147 B2|
|Application number||US 11/070,406|
|Publication date||Jan 1, 2008|
|Filing date||Mar 1, 2005|
|Priority date||Mar 2, 2004|
|Also published as||CN1926758A, CN100559698C, CN101277088A, CN101277088B, US7573226, US7956562, US20050194918, US20070241706, US20070247102, WO2005083879A1, WO2005083879B1|
|Publication number||070406, 11070406, US 7315147 B2, US 7315147B2, US-B2-7315147, US7315147 B2, US7315147B2|
|Original Assignee||Seiko Epson Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (2), Classifications (15), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority to Japanese Patent Application No. 2004-058064 filed Mar. 2, 2004 which is hereby expressly incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to various motors constituted to rotate a rotor or move a slider formed from a permanent magnet or ferromagnetic material by linearly arranging coils that generate magnetic poles and sequentially switching the current to be applied to the coil, a magnetic structure to be employed in such a motor, and a power driver employing this motor as its drive source. The present invention may be employed in the likes of an electric vehicle, electric cart and electric wheelchair, as well as an electric toy, electric airplane, small electronic appliances and MEMS as the foregoing power driver.
2. Description of the Related Art
An AC motor driven with a frequency signal such as an alternating current can be broadly classified into two types; namely, a synchronous motor and an induction motor. A synchronous motor is a motor that uses a layered core of a permanent magnet or a ferromagnetic material such as iron in the rotor, and rotates at a rotation speed that is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field determined based on the power supply frequency.
Depending on the type of rotor, there are various types of motors such as a magnetic type which uses a permanent magnet, a coil type with a coil wound thereto, and a reactance type which uses a ferromagnetic material such as iron. Among the above, with the magnetic type motor rotates by the permanent magnet of the rotor being pulled with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. Meanwhile, the induction motor is a motor that rotates by generating a separate magnetic field with the electromagnetic induction effect to a rotor having a box-shaped conduction wire.
Among the foregoing motors, there is a motor that does not rotate, but rather moves linearly or moves freely on a flat surface. This kind of motor is generally referred to as a linear motor, and moves the permanent magnet or ferromagnetic material mounted thereon by linearly arranging coils that generate magnetic poles and sequentially switching the current to be applied to the coil. The linearly disposed coil array is the stator, and the rotor corresponds to a flat slider that slides thereabove.
As a magnetic synchronous motor, for instance, there is a small synchronous motor described in the gazette of Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. H8-51745 (Patent Document 1). This small synchronous motor, as shown in FIG. 1 of Patent Document 1, is constituted by comprising a stator core 6 wound with an excitation coil 7, and a rotor 3 having a rotor core 2 having a magnet 1 build therein and in which the NS poles are aligned in even intervals around the peripheral face thereof.
Nevertheless, when a rectangular wave is supplied to the coil of the motor explained in the foregoing conventional technology, the present inventors newly discovered that the operation efficiency of the motor deteriorates significantly. Thus, an object of the present invention is to provide a motor superior in operation efficiency by controlling the excitation signal to be supplied to the coil of the motor. Another object of the present invention is to provide a motor superior in the generated torque characteristics. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a drive circuit of such a motor. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a drive control method of the motor superior in operation efficiency. Still another object of the present invention is to provide various power drivers employing such a motor.
In order to achieve the foregoing objects, the present invention provides a motor having a combination of a plurality of coil pairs and a permanent magnet, wherein these coil pairs are supplied with an excitation signal from a drive circuit so as to be excited at alternate opposite poles, and the permanent magnet is constituted such that the plurality of polar elements is disposed to become alternating opposite poles; the drive circuit is constituted to supply an excitation signal having a prescribed frequency to the coil pairs, and relatively move the coil pairs and permanent magnet with the magnetic attraction-repulsion between the coils and permanent magnet; and the drive circuit is constituted to supply to the coil pairs a waveform signal corresponding to the pattern of the back electromotive voltage to be generated in accordance with the relative movement between the coil pairs and permanent magnet.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the drive circuit comprises a hall element sensor for detecting the magnetic variation of the permanent magnet, this hall element sensor is used for outputting a waveform; for example, a sinusoidal waveform or a triangular waveform, corresponding to the magnetic change, and the drive circuit is constituted to directly supply the output of this hall sensor to the coil pairs. The motor further comprising a plurality of phases as the coil pairs, and a hall element sensor is disposed for each phase. The disposition of coils between the coil pairs of the plurality of phases is mutually shifted, and the disposition of the hall element sensor between the plurality of phases is also shifted. The shift amount of the coil position of the coil pairs of the plurality of phases is determined so as to enable the rotation of the permanent magnet when the output from the hall element is supplied to the coil pairs of the plurality of phases upon supplying power to the drive circuit. A rotor formed from the permanent magnet is disposed between the plurality of coil phases arranged circularly. The drive circuit supplies a rectangular wave to each of the phase coils when the motor is started, and the drive circuit supplies the back electromotive voltage waveform to each of the phase coils while the motor is in a state of operational stability.
Further, the present invention also provides a drive system of an AC motor, wherein the AC motor excites the electromagnetic coil with a waveform that is identical to the back electromotive force waveform inherent in the AC motor. Preferably, the waveform is formed with a hall element sensor. More preferably, the waveform formed with the hall element sensor is formed via PWM control means.
FIG. 3(1) is an equivalent circuit diagram of coil pairs in which a plurality of coils is connected serially; and
FIG. 3(2) is an equivalent circuit diagram in a case of such coils being connected in parallel;
A first coil pair 10 comprises a constitution in which the coils 16 alternately excitable to the opposite poles are sequentially aligned in a prescribed spacing, preferably an even spacing.
As shown in FIG. 3(1), a plurality of electromagnetic coils 16 (magnetic unit) to be alternately excited at opposite poles is connected serially in even spacing. Reference numeral 18A is a block showing the drive circuit for applying a frequency pulse signal to these magnetic coils. When an excitation signal for exciting the coils is sent from the excitation circuit to the electromagnetic coils 16, the respective coils are pre-set to be excited such that the direction of the magnetic poles will alternate between the adjacent coils. As shown in FIG. 3(2), the electromagnetic coils 16 may also be connected in parallel. The structure of these coils are the same for both A and B phase coils.
When a signal having a frequency for alternately switching, in prescribed cycles, the direction of the polarity of the supplied excitation current is applied from the excitation circuit 18A to the electromagnetic coils 16, as shown in
Although the structure of the B phase coil pair is the same as the A phase coil pair, the electromagnetic coils 18 of the B phase coil pair differs with respect to the point that it is aligned by being positionally shifted in relation to the [electromagnetic coils] 16 of the A phase coil pair. In other words, the array pitch of the coil in the A phase coil pair and the array pitch of the B phase coil pair are disposed in an offset so as to have a prescribed pitch difference (angular difference). This pitch difference is preferably the (single rotation) of the angle in which the permanent magnet 14 moves corresponding to 1 cycle (2π) of the excitation current frequency in relation to the coils 16, 18; for instance π/6 (π(2/M): M is the number of sets of permanent magnet (N+S) where M=3).
The permanent magnet is now explained. As depicted in
The A phase coil pair 10 and B phase coil pair 12 are disposed via equal spacing, and a third magnetic body 14 is disposed between the A phase coil pair and B phase coil pair. The array pitch of the permanent magnet 20 is roughly the same as the array pitch of the magnetic coil in the A phase coil 10 and B phase coil 12.
Next, the operation of the magnetic structure in which the foregoing third magnetic body is disposed between the first magnetic body 10 and second magnetic body 12 is explained with reference to
Here, a magnetic pole in the pattern of →S N→S→N→S→ is generated in the respective coils 16 on the surface facing the side of the permanent magnet 14 of the A phase coil 10, and a magnetic pole in the pattern of →N→S→N→S→N→ is generated in the coil 18 on the surface facing the side of the permanent magnet 14 of the B phase coil 12. In the diagrams, the magnetic relation between the permanent magnet and the respective phase coils is illustrated, and a repulsive force will arise between the same poles and an attractive force will arise between opposite poles.
The next instant, as shown in FIG. 1(2), when the polarity of the pulse wave applied to the A phase coil via the drive circuit 18 is reversed, a repulsive force will arise between the magnetic pole generated to the coils 16 of the A phase coil 10 and the magnetic pole of the permanent magnet 20. Meanwhile, since an attracting force is generated between the magnetic pole generated to the coils 18 of the B phase coil 12 and the magnetic pole on the surface of the permanent magnet, as shown in FIG. 1(1) to FIG. 2(5), the permanent magnet 14 will sequentially move rightward in the diagram.
A pulse wave having a phase lag in comparison to the exciting current of the A phase coil applied to the coils 18 of the B phase coil 12, and, as shown in FIG. 2(6) to (8), the magnetic pole of the coils 18 of the B phase coil 12 and the magnetic pole on the surface of the permanent magnets 20 repel against each other, and move the permanent magnet 14 further rightward. FIG. 1(1) to FIG. 2(8) illustrate a case where the rotor 14 engages in a rotation corresponding to π, and FIG. 3(9) onward illustrate a case where such rotor 14 engages in a rotation corresponding to π→2π. As described above, the rotor will rotate by supplying a drive current (voltage) signal of a prescribed frequency with a shifted phase to the A phase coil array and B phase coil array.
When the A phase coil array, B phase coil array and the permanent magnet are formed in an arc, the magnetic structure depicted in
According to this magnetic structure, since the permanent magnet is able to move upon being subject to the magnetic force from the A phase coil and the B phase coil, the torque upon moving the permanent magnet will increase, and, since the torque/weight balance will become superior, a small motor capable of driving at a high torque can be provided thereby.
Reference numeral 34 is a sensor (i.e., a hall element sensor for detecting the magnetic field change of the permanent magnet as described later) for generating a position detection signal corresponding to the rotational speed of the rotor 14 formed from the permanent magnet. Reference numeral 34A is an A phase side sensor for supplying a detection signal to the driver circuit of the A phase electromagnetic coil, and reference numeral 34B is a B phase side sensor for supplying a detection signal to the driver circuit of the B-phase electromagnetic coil.
The detection signals from these sensors 34A, 34B are respectively output to the driver 32 for supplying an exciting current to the respective phase coil arrays. Reference numeral 33 is a CPU and outputs a prescribed control signal to the M-PLL circuit 31 and the driver 32. The driver 32 is constituted to supply the detection signal from the sensor directly, or via PWM control, to the electromagnetic coil. Reference numeral 31A is a control unit for supplying a PWM control reference wave to the driver. Although the magnetic sensor 34A for the A phase coil array and the magnetic sensor 34B for the B phase coil array are respectively detecting the magnetic field of the permanent magnet by establishing a phase difference, the detection signal is phase-controlled as necessary and supplied to the driver 32. Reference numeral 35 is a
The motor comprises a pair of A phase coil array 10 and B phase coil array 12 corresponding to a stator, as well as the permanent magnet 14 constituting the rotor described above, and the rotor 14 is rotatably disposed around the axis 37 and between the A phase coil array and B phase magnetic body. The rotating axis 37 is fitted into an opening in the center of the rotor such that the rotor and rotating axis can rotate integrally. As shown in FIG. 5(2), (4) and (5), six permanent magnets are provided to the rotor in even spacing around the circumferential direction thereof, polarities of the permanent magnets are made to be mutually opposite, and six electromagnetic coils are provided to the stator in even spacing around the circumferential direction thereof.
The A phase sensor 34A and B phase sensor 34B are provided to the inner side wall of the case of the A phase coil array via a phase shift (distance corresponding to π/6). The A phase sensor 34A and B phase sensor 34B are subject to mutual phase shifts for providing a prescribed phase different to the frequency signal to be supplied to the A phase coil 16 and the frequency signal to be supplied to the B phase coil 18.
As the sensor, it is preferable to use a hall element employing the hall effect and which is capable of detecting the position of the permanent magnet from the change in the magnetic pole pursuant to the movement of the permanent magnet. As a result of employing this sensor, when the S pole of the permanent magnet to the subsequent S pole is set to 2π, the hall element will be able to detect the position of the permanent magnet regardless of where the permanent magnet is located.
The principal of the present invention is now explained.
FIG. 6(1) is a diagram showing the potential change at both ends of the coil when a rectangular wave is supplied to the coil. FIG. 6(2) is a diagram showing the back electromotive voltage waveform of both ends of the coil. FIG. 6(3) is a diagram showing the current consumption waveform of both ends of the coil.
The back electromotive voltage (V) is defined with Bh*Cl*P, Bh[T] is the horizontal magnetic flux density (center of coil), CL(m) is the coil length, and P[m/s] represents the movement speed of the coil. A sinusoidal back electromotive voltage waveform represented with 8-1 is generated in the A phase coil 16, and a sinusoidal back electromotive voltage waveform represented with 8-2 having a phase difference based on the alignment of the A phase coil array and the alignment of the B phase coil array is generated in the B phase coil 18.
The double-ended voltage in the TT area of FIG. 6(3) will have an increased current since the potential difference is significant due to the difference between the applied voltage and the back electromotive force. Thus, although the generated torque of the motor will increase, the efficiency of the motor will deteriorate. Efficiency (η) is defined by:
η=(mechanical output/input voltage)*100(%).
Meanwhile, FIG. 8(1) is a diagram showing the voltage waveform of both ends of the coil when a sinusoidal signal (supplied voltage waveform) that is identical to the back electromotive force waveform is applied to both ends of the coil. FIG. 8(2) is a diagram showing the voltage consumption waveform of the coil. Only the waveform distortion is generated in the voltage at both ends of the coil shown in area TT of FIG. 8(2) based on the difference between the supplied voltage waveform and the back electromotive voltage waveform, and the current consumption waveform of both ends of the coil will become an extremely small current value as evident from the vertical axis scale of FIG. 6(2) and the vertical axis scale of FIG. 8(2). Thus, the efficiency can be considerably improved. By improving the waveform distortion, the efficiency can be further improved. The analog output-type hall element is able to output a waveform corresponding to the back electromotive voltage waveform. As a result of exciting the coil with a waveform that is the same as the back electromotive force waveform, the efficiency will improve two-fold or three-fold in comparison to exciting the coil with a rectangular wave. Therefore, when this motor is employed in the load, the simultaneous pursuit of the drive characteristics and efficiency motor can be sought by supplying a rectangular waveform to the coil in a situation of emphasizing the start-up torque upon starting or accelerating the operation of the load, and supplying a sinusoidal wave to the coil during a stable drive.
Accordingly, even with electric motors of other methods, the motor itself can be driven at a high efficiency by exciting the coil of the motor with a waveform that is the same as the waveform of the back electromotive force generated from the electric motor, where the efficiency (work/power ratio) is not inherent in the electric motor. In other words, according to the present invention, a highly efficient motor, drive system and drive method can be realized.
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|U.S. Classification||318/723, 318/721, 318/809, 318/779|
|International Classification||H02K21/24, H02P1/00, H02K37/00, H02P27/06, H02P6/00, H02M7/48, H02K1/27|
|Cooperative Classification||H02P6/16, H02P6/10|
|European Classification||H02P6/10, H02P6/16|
|Mar 1, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TAKEUCHI, KESATOSHI;REEL/FRAME:016341/0006
Effective date: 20050222
|Jun 1, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Jun 17, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8