|Publication number||US7330535 B2|
|Application number||US 11/164,121|
|Publication date||Feb 12, 2008|
|Filing date||Nov 10, 2005|
|Priority date||Nov 10, 2005|
|Also published as||US7336769, US7706508, US8199883, US20070104320, US20070116181, US20080043924, US20100195802|
|Publication number||11164121, 164121, US 7330535 B2, US 7330535B2, US-B2-7330535, US7330535 B2, US7330535B2|
|Inventors||Jerome S. Arenson, David Ruimi, Oded Meirav, Robert H. Armstrong|
|Original Assignee||General Electric Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (20), Referenced by (66), Classifications (8), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to radiographic imaging and, more particularly, to a beam chopper for a radiographic imaging system. The invention is also directed to an x-ray filter. The present invention is particularly related to photon counting and/or energy discriminating radiation detectors.
Typically, in radiographic systems, an x-ray source emits x-rays toward a subject or object, such as a patient or a piece of luggage. Hereinafter, the terms “subject” and “object” may be interchangeably used to describe anything capable of being imaged. The x-ray beam, after being attenuated by the subject, impinges upon an array of radiation detectors. The intensity of the radiation beam received at the detector array is typically dependent upon the attenuation of the x-rays through the scanned object. Each detector element of the detector array produces a separate signal indicative of the attenuated beam received by each detector element. The signals are transmitted to a data processing system for analysis and further processing which ultimately produces an image. Generally, the x-ray source and the detector array are rotated about the gantry within an imaging plane and around the subject. X-ray sources typically include x-ray tubes, which emit the x-ray beam at a focal point. X-ray detectors typically include a collimator for collimating x-ray beams received at the detector, a scintillator for converting x-rays to light energy adjacent the collimator, and photodiodes for receiving the light energy from the adjacent scintillator and producing electrical signals therefrom.
In a similar fashion, radiation detectors are employed in emission imaging systems such as used in nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems. In these systems, the source of radiation is no longer an x-ray source, rather it is a radiopharmaceutical introduced into the body being examined. In these systems each detector of the array produces a signal in relation to the localized intensity of the radiopharmaceutical concentration in the object. Similar to conventional x-ray imaging, the strength of the emission signal is also attenuated by the inter-lying body parts. Each detector element of the detector array produces a separate signal indicative of the emitted beam received by each detector element. The signals are transmitted to a data processing system for analysis and further processing which ultimately produces an image.
In most computed tomography (CT) imaging systems, the x-ray source and the detector array are rotated about a gantry encompassing an imaging volume around the subject. X-ray sources typically include x-ray tubes, which emit the x-rays as a fan or cone beam from the anode focal point. X-ray detector assemblies typically include a collimator for reducing scattered x-ray photons from reaching the detector, a scintillator adjacent to the collimator for converting x-rays to light energy, and a photodiode adjacent to the scintillator for receiving the light energy and producing electrical signals therefrom. Typically, each scintillator of a scintillator array converts x-rays to light energy. Each photodiode detects the light energy and generates a corresponding electrical signal. The outputs of the photodiodes are then transmitted to the data acquisition system and then to the processing system for image reconstruction.
Conventional CT imaging systems utilize detectors that convert x-ray photon energy into current signals that are integrated over a time period, then measured and ultimately digitized. A drawback of such detectors is their inability to provide independent data or feedback as to the energy and incident flux rate of photons detected. That is, conventional CT detectors have a scintillator component and photodiode component wherein the scintillator component illuminates upon reception of x-ray photons and the photodiode detects illumination of the scintillator component, and provides an integrated electrical current signal as a function of the intensity and energy of incident x-ray photons. While it is generally recognized that CT imaging would not be a viable diagnostic imaging tool without the advancements achieved with conventional CT detector design, a drawback of these integrating detectors is their inability to provide energy discriminatory data or otherwise count the number and/or measure the energy of photons actually received by a given detector element or pixel. Accordingly, recent detector developments have included the design of an energy discriminating detector that can provide photon counting and/or energy discriminating feedback. In this regard, the detector can be caused to operate in an x-ray counting mode, an energy measurement mode of each x-ray event, or both.
These energy discriminating detectors are capable of not only x-ray counting, but also providing a measurement of the energy level of each x-ray detected. While a number of materials may be used in the construction of an energy discriminating detector, including scintillators and photodiodes, direct conversion detectors having an x-ray photoconductor, such as amorphous selenium or cadmium zinc telluride, that directly convert x-ray photons into an electric charge have been shown to be among the preferred materials. A drawback of photon counting detectors, however, is that these types of detectors have limited count rates and have difficulty covering the broad dynamic ranges encompassing very high x-ray photon flux rates typically encountered with conventional CT systems. Generally, a CT detector dynamic range of 1,000,000 to one is required to adequately handle the possible variations in photon flux rates. In the very fast scanners now available, it is not uncommon to encounter x-ray flux rates of over 108 photons/mm2/sec when no object is in the scan field, with the same detection system needing to count only 10's of photons that manage to traverse the center of large objects.
The very high x-ray photon flux rates ultimately lead to detector saturation. That is, these detectors typically saturate at relatively low x-ray flux levels. This saturation can occur at detector locations wherein small subject thickness is interposed between the detector and the radiographic energy source or x-ray tube. It has been shown that these saturated regions correspond to paths of low subject thickness near or outside the width of the subject projected onto the detector array. In many instances, the subject is more or less cylindrical in the effect on attenuation of the x-ray flux and subsequent incident intensity to the detector array. In this case, the saturated regions represent two disjointed regions at extremes of the detector array. In other less typical, but not rare instances, saturation occurs at other locations and in more than two disjointed regions of the detector. In the case of a cylindrical subject, the saturation at the edges of the array can be reduced by the imposition of a bowtie filter between the subject and the x-ray source. Typically, the filter is constructed to match the shape of the subject in such a way as to equalize total attenuation, filter and subject, across the detector array. The flux incident to the detector is then relatively uniform across the array and does not result in saturation. What can be problematic, however, is that the bowtie filter may not be optimum given that a subject population is significantly less than uniform and not exactly cylindrical in shape nor centrally located in the x-ray beam. In such cases, it is possible for one or more disjointed regions of saturation to occur or conversely to over-filter the x-ray flux and unnecessarily create regions of very low flux. Low x-ray flux in the projection results in a reduction in information content which will ultimately contribute to unwanted noise in the reconstructed image of the subject.
Moreover, a system calibration method common to most CT systems involves measuring detector response with no subject whatsoever in the beam. This “air cal” reading from each detector element is used to normalize and correct the preprocessed data that is then used for CT image reconstruction. Even with ideal bowtie filters, high x-ray flux now in the central region of the detector array could lead to detector saturation during the system calibration phase.
A number of imaging techniques have been proposed to address saturation of any part of the detector. These techniques include maintenance of low x-ray flux across the width of a detector array, for example, by modulating tube current or x-ray voltage during scanning. However, this solution leads to increased scanned time. That is, there is a penalty that the acquisition time for the image is increased in proportion to the nominal flux needed to acquire a certain number of x-rays that meet image quality requirements. Other solutions include the implementation of over-range algorithms that may be used to generate replacement data for the saturated data. However, these algorithms may imperfectly replace the saturated data as well as contribute to the complexity of the CT system.
It would therefore be desirable to design an x-ray flux management device that is effective in reducing detector saturation under high x-ray flux conditions while not compromising data acquisition under low x-ray flux conditions.
The present invention is a directed an x-ray flux management device that overcomes the aforementioned drawbacks.
The impact of radiographic detector design on radiographic image quality is foremost an issue of properly handling low-flux conditions (to effectively measure the limited x-ray transmission through thicker imaging regions). At the same time, the higher flux areas in these scans (such as detector readings through air and partially within the subject contours) also need to be correctly evaluated. If insufficient detector dynamic range is available, these high-flux detector channels tend to over-range and enter a saturated state. Since these over-range areas are typically in air or in highly irradiated portions of the subject, the exact measurement of each photon in these high-flux regions is not as critical as for the low-flux areas where each photon contributes an integral part to the total collected photon statistics and improved imaging quality. Subsequently, the invention addresses the specific needs of low- and high-flux regions and thereby provides the opportunity to use low dynamic range detectors for radiographic imaging.
In this regard, the invention includes an x-ray flux management device that adaptively attenuates an x-ray beam to limit the incident flux reaching the subject and the radiographic detectors in the potentially high-flux areas while not affecting the incident flux and detector measurements in low-flux regions. While the invention is particularly well-suited for CT, the invention is also applicable with other x-ray imaging systems. In addition to reducing the required detector system dynamic range, the present invention provides an added advantage of reducing radiation dose.
Therefore, in accordance with one aspect, the invention includes an x-ray beam chopper for a radiographic imaging apparatus. The beam chopper has a rotatable frame and at least one x-ray transmission window disposed in the rotatable frame that allows a generally free transmission of x-rays. The chopper also has at least one x-ray filtering window disposed in the rotatable frame that filters x-rays.
In accordance with another aspect, the invention is directed to a radiographic imaging apparatus that includes an x-ray source and an x-ray detector. The apparatus further has a segmented filtering assembly having a generally annular frame with at least one low x-ray flux segment and at least one high x-ray flux segment, and a filtering assembly controller that causes the low x-ray flux segment to be in an x-ray beam path during a low x-ray flux data acquisition view and causes the high x-ray flux segment to be in the x-ray beam path during a high x-ray flux data acquisition view.
According to another aspect, the invention includes an x-ray filter having a 3D semi-cylindrical rotatable filter body formed of x-ray attenuating matter. The filter also has a semi-conical bore formed in the 3D semi-cylindrical rotatable filter. The semi-conical bore has an elliptically shaped base.
According to yet another aspect, the invention includes an x-ray filter assembly having a bowtie filter having an effective beam profile. The assembly further has a filter controller that tilts the bowtie filter during data acquisition to change the effective beam profile during data acquisition.
Various other features and advantages of the present invention will be made apparent from the following detailed description and the drawings.
The drawings illustrate one preferred embodiment presently contemplated for carrying out the invention.
In the drawings:
The operating environment of the present invention is described with respect to a four-slice computed tomography (CT) system. However, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the present invention is equally applicable for use with single-slice or other multi-slice configurations. Moreover, the present invention will be described with respect to the detection and conversion of x-rays. However, one skilled in the art will further appreciate that the present invention is equally applicable for the detection and conversion of other high frequency electromagnetic energy.
Rotation of gantry 12 and the operation of x-ray source 14 are governed by a control mechanism 26 of CT system 10. Control mechanism 26 includes an x-ray controller 28 that provides power and timing signals to an x-ray source 14 and a gantry motor controller 30 that controls the rotational speed and position of gantry 12. A data acquisition system (DAS) 32 in control mechanism 26 samples analog data from detectors 20 and converts the data to digital signals for subsequent processing. An image reconstructor 34 receives sampled and digitized x-ray data from DAS 32 and performs high speed reconstruction. The reconstructed image is applied as an input to a computer 36 which stores the image in a mass storage device 38.
Computer 36 also receives commands and scanning parameters from an operator via console 40 that has a keyboard. An associated cathode ray tube display 42 allows the operator to observe the reconstructed image and other data from computer 36. The operator supplied commands and parameters are used by computer 36 to provide control signals and information to DAS 32, x-ray controller 28, gantry motor controller 30, and filter controller 31. In addition, computer 36 operates a table motor controller 44 which controls a motorized table 46 to position patient 22 and gantry 12. Particularly, table 46 moves portions of patient 22 through a gantry opening 48.
The present invention is directed to an x-ray beam chopper that may be incorporated with the CT system described above or other radiographic systems, such as x-ray systems and the like.
Generally, high-sensitivity photon counting radiation detectors are constructed to have a relatively low dynamic range. This is generally considered acceptable for proton counting detector applications since high flux conditions typically do not occur. In CT detector designs, low flux detector readings through the subject are typically accompanied by areas of high irradiation in air, and/or within the contours of the scan subject requiring CT detectors to have very large dynamic range responses. Moreover, the exact measurement of photons in these high-flux regions is less critical than that for low-flux areas where each photon contributes an integral part to the total collected photon statistics. Notwithstanding that the higher flux areas may be of less clinical or diagnostic value, images reconstructed with over-ranging or saturated detector channel data can be prone to artifacts. As such, the handling of high-flux conditions is also important.
The present invention includes an x-ray flux management device designed to prevent saturation of photon counting x-ray systems having detector channels characterized by low dynamic range. Dynamic range of a detector channel defines the range of x-ray flux levels that the detector channel can handle to provide meaningful data at the low-flux end and not experience over-ranging or saturating at the high flux end. Notwithstanding the need to prevent over-ranging, to provide diagnostically valuable data, the handling of low-flux conditions, which commonly occur during imaging through thicker cross-sections and other areas of limited x-ray transmission, is also critical in detector design. As such, the x-ray flux management device described herein is designed to satisfy both high flux and low flux conditions.
Referring now to
In the exemplary embodiment of
As further illustrated in
As described above, the x-ray transmission windows 54 are placed in the x-ray beam path when the current data acquisition view is from a thicker subject cross-section. Conversely, the x-ray filtering windows 56 are placed in the x-ray beam path when the current data acquisition view is from a thinner subject cross-section. Accordingly, rotation of the chopper is dynamically controlled by controller 31,
Referring now to
Referring now to
Also, it is contemplated that the beam chopper 17 may be constructed such that every Nth view is attenuated. In this regard, it is contemplated that the beam chopper can be designed to have NX transmission windows, where N is a number greater than one and X is the number of filtering windows.
Referring now to
As described above, it is contemplated that detector saturation readings may be acquired for a given view and if the detector has saturated (or will saturate), the beam chopper can be caused to rotate to place x-ray filtering windows in the x-ray beam. Thus, it is contemplated that for a saturated or near-saturated view, data may be acquired with the x-ray filtering windows in the x-ray beam path and that data can be used not only for image reconstruction but to correct the otherwise saturated data.
Additionally, while the beam chopper has been described such that either two x-ray transmission windows or two x-ray filtering windows are in the x-ray beam at any given moment, it is contemplated that the beam chopper may be constructed such that only one transmission or only one filtering window is in the beam path. That is, it is contemplated that the windows may be formed on a hemispherical frame such that through pendulum-like translation, different attenuation profiles may be presented. In this regard, it is further contemplated that more than two types of windows may be supported by the frame. The invention contemplates that various windows of different attenuation power may be supported by the frame whereby the continuum of attenuation windows ranges from a free transmission window of zero attenuation to a maximum attenuation window. Moreover, it is contemplated that such a hemispherical frame could be caused to rotate clockwise as well as counter-clockwise and at a fixed or variable speed. Additionally, it is contemplated that a mechanical shutter of x-ray filtering material may be dynamically presented in the x-ray beam during high x-ray flux conditions.
The present invention also includes an inventive bowtie filter. Standard bowtie filters have a symmetrical, one-dimensional shape. To overcome limitations associated with these standard bowtie filters, the present invention is also directed to a 3D semi-cylindrical rotatatable bowtie filter. This multi-dimensional filter 60, shown in
Referring now to
Referring now to
As illustrated in
Referring now to
Therefore, in accordance with one embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray beam chopper for a radiographic imaging apparatus. The beam chopper has a rotatable frame and at least one x-ray transmission window disposed in the rotatable frame that allows a generally free transmission of x-rays. The chopper also has at least one x-ray filtering window disposed in the rotatable frame that filters x-rays.
In accordance with another embodiment, the invention is directed to a radiographic imaging apparatus that includes an x-ray source and an x-ray detector. The apparatus further has a segmented filtering assembly having a generally annular frame with at least one low x-ray flux segment and at least one high x-ray flux segment, and a filtering assembly controller that causes the low x-ray flux segment to be in an x-ray beam path during a low x-ray flux data acquisition view and causes the high x-ray flux segment to be in the x-ray beam path during a high x-ray flux data acquisition view.
According to another embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray filter having a 3D semi-cylindrical rotatable filter body formed of x-ray attenuating matter. The filter also has a semi-conical bore formed in the 3D semi-cylindrical rotatable filter. The semi-conical bore has an elliptically shaped base.
According to yet another embodiment, the invention includes an x-ray filter assembly having a bowtie filter having an effective beam profile. The assembly further has a filter controller that tilts the bowtie filter during data acquisition to change the effective beam profile during data acquisition.
While the present invention is applicable with a number of radiographic imaging systems, it is particularly well-suited for CT systems and, especially, those systems having detectors with relative small dynamic range, such as photon counting and energy discriminating detectors. In this regard, the present invention is believed to be a key enabler for the use of direct conversion and energy discriminating/photon counting detectors with conventional CT systems. Additionally, as the beam chopper and filters selectively limit radiation exposure, the invention advantageously reduces subject dose without sacrificing image quality.
The present invention has been described in terms of the preferred embodiment, and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.
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|U.S. Classification||378/158, 378/156|
|Cooperative Classification||G21K1/04, Y10T29/49002, G21K1/043|
|European Classification||G21K1/04C, G21K1/04|
|Nov 11, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ARENSON, JEROME S.;RUIMI, DAVID;MEIRAV, ODED;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016768/0018;SIGNING DATES FROM 20051020 TO 20051108
|Aug 12, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Aug 12, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8