|Publication number||US7343823 B2|
|Application number||US 11/356,814|
|Publication date||Mar 18, 2008|
|Filing date||Feb 17, 2006|
|Priority date||Feb 17, 2006|
|Also published as||CN101213427A, CN101213427B, CN102128657A, EP1994376A1, US20070193368, WO2007095528A1|
|Publication number||11356814, 356814, US 7343823 B2, US 7343823B2, US-B2-7343823, US7343823 B2, US7343823B2|
|Inventors||Jamie W. Speldrich|
|Original Assignee||Honeywell International Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (36), Referenced by (22), Classifications (11), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Embodiments are generally related to sensing devices and methods. Embodiments are also related to the field of fluid velocity measurement.
Many processes and devices make use of moving fluids. Some examples are heating and ventilating systems that make use of moving air, as well as manufacturing processes that rely on the use and flow of various gasses. Typically, for these processes and/or devices, it is important that the flowrate of the fluid be accurately determined. Accordingly, various techniques to determine the flowrate of a fluid have been developed.
One area where flow sensors find particular usefulness is in medical ventilators. Medical ventilator systems have been long used to provide supplemental oxygen support to patients unable to breathe normally on their own accord. Such devices typically comprise a source of pressurized air or oxygen-rich air which is fluidly connected to the patient through a fluid conduit.
Ventilators are used by patients in various health situations. A primary application of ventilators is to relieve breathing problems due to obstructive sleep apnea in which a patient benefits from positive air pressure applied to their breathing passage. Portable home ventilator machines provide a continuous pressure or modulated pressure to help open breathing passages during sleep. Other patients have weak physiological attributes that prevent them from breathing unassisted and require invasive ventilation. Invasive ventilatory support generally requires the patient having either a tracheotomy or endotracheal tube disposed into the trachea of the patient. Such treatment generally occurs in hospitals and is administered in acute care situations or post operative recovery situations.
Manufacturers of medical ventilator equipment require a low pressure drop to insure efficient blower operations. To monitor fluid flow in ventilators, products such as a Honeywell flow channel housing AWM720 can be utilized. An example of the AWM720 device is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,655,207, entitled “Flow Rate Module and Integrated Flow Restrictor,” which issued to Speldrich et al on Dec. 2, 2003 and is assigned to Honeywell International Inc. U.S. Pat. No. 6,655,207 is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The device disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,655,207 generally relates to a flow sensor having a restrictor to create a small pressure drop in parallel with a substrate having a sensing element and flow channel aligned over the sensing element. The sensing element senses at least one property of a fluid. The flow channel across the sensing area is accurately and precisely aligned facilitating reliable, low-cost, and consistent results among multiple flow sensors.
This type of technology, when utilized in the context of a medical ventilator, typically utilizes a low pressure drop restrictor in parallel with a bypass channel to drive a fraction of the flow in the main channel past the mass airflow sensor. This technique measures the mass flow rate of the main channel and volume flow rate can be inferred by knowing the density of the fluid. Although only a small pressure drop in the range of 2 in H2O is added to the system, it is undesirable in medical ventilator applications.
In order to address the needs of flow sensing in medical ventilator applications, it is believed that an improved flow sensor should be implemented. It is believed that the improved fluid velocity sensor disclosed herein can address these and other continuing needs.
The following summary is provided to facilitate an understanding of some of the innovative features unique to the embodiments disclosed and is not intended to be a full description. A full appreciation of the various aspects of the embodiments can be gained by taking the entire specification, claims, drawings, and abstract as a whole.
It is, therefore, one aspect of the present invention to provide for an improved sensor.
It is another aspect of the present invention to provide for a fluid velocity sensor with low pressure drop.
It is a further aspect of the present invention to provide for a bi-directional fluid velocity sensor with low pressure drop and methodology thereof.
The aforementioned aspects and other objectives and advantages can now be achieved as described herein. A fluid velocity sensor and method are disclosed, in accordance with one embodiment, which includes a sensor die for detecting a fluid property of a fluid flowing through a low resistance flow channel defined by a flow channel wall. At least one tap can be oriented facing into a direction of a flow stream of a fluid flowing through a flow channel defined by a flow channel wall, wherein the tap(s) leads to the low resistance flow channel, which directs the flow of fluid to the sensor die. At least one other tap can be located to face perpendicular to the direction of flow, such that the fluid after passing over the sensor die continues on a low resistance path to the other tap(s) facing perpendicular to the direction of flow in order to determine a velocity pressure based on a difference between pressures identified by the taps.
In accordance with an alternative embodiment, a flow straightener can be associated with the flow channel, wherein the flow straightener promotes a bi-directional flow of fluid through the flow channel. The flow straightener can be provided as a restrictor in the shape of a narrow, elongated protrusion that prevents flow eddies, which create pressure instability.
Sensing fluid velocity in one direction can be accomplished by orienting upstream tap(s) to face into the direction of the gas flow and a downstream tap(s) to face perpendicular to gas flow. The upstream tap senses stagnation pressure of the gas (i.e., the impact as the gas comes to a stop) and the down stream tap senses static pressure which is exerted in all directions in the flow channel. The difference between the pressures is the velocity pressure which drives flow through a bypass channel to a flow sensor. A Pitot tube, for example is based on this phenomena. Historically, though, a pitot tube generates such small pressure drop, it was traditionally used with an incline manometer which is not easily incorporated into electronic circuitry for efficient measurement. Using a flow sensor or ultra low pressure sensor, the velocity pressure can be sensed electronically. In addition, this technique of sensing velocity pressure eliminates the need to add pressure drop to the system to measure flow.
The fluid velocity sensor may also be configured to sense bi-directional flow by utilizing a tap or multiple taps which face into the direction of the flow stream that is measured. The taps lead to a low resistance flow channel which directs the flow to the flow sensor. The channel is designed to control and laminarize flow. After passing over the flow sensor, the channel continues on a low resistance path to an exhaust tap or multiple taps which face opposite the direction of the flow. Alternatively, the taps may be directed to a dead end channel to be measured by a differential type low pressure sensor. The orientation of the taps in this configuration produces the difference between stagnation pressure and drag pressure which can be correlated to the velocity of the fluid.
By using a sensor of this type to measure fluid velocity in a channel, the volume flow rate in the channel can be inferred.
The accompanying figures, in which like reference numerals refer to identical or functionally-similar elements throughout the separate views and which are incorporated in and form a part of the specification, further illustrate the embodiments and, together with the detailed description, serve to explain the embodiments disclosed herein.
The particular values and configurations discussed in these non-limiting examples can be varied and are cited merely to illustrate at least one embodiment and are not intended to limit the scope thereof.
Apparatus 100 additionally includes one or more downstream taps 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, and 130 that face perpendicular to the fluid flow. The downstream taps 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, and 130 can function as exhaust taps. The downstream taps 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, and 130 face perpendicular to the flow of fluid. The upstream taps 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 114, and 116 can sense the stagnation pressure of the fluid (i.e., the impact as the fluid comes to a stop) and the downstream taps 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, and 130 can sense the static pressure which is exerted in all directions in the flow channel 105. The difference between the stagnation pressure and the static pressure constitutes the velocity pressure, which drives the flow of fluid through a bypass channel 142 to a sensor die 144, which can be implemented as, for example, a MEMS type airflow sensor. It can be appreciated, of course, that the sensor die, may be configured in the context of other types of sensor designs, not merely MEMS-type configurations.
Note that as utilized herein the acronym “MEMS” refers generally to term “Micro-electro-mechanical Systems”. MEMS devices refer to mechanical components on the micrometer size and include 3D lithographic features of various geometries. They are typically manufactured using planar processing similar to semiconductor processes such as surface micromachining and/or bulk micromachining. These devices generally range in size from a micrometer (a millionth of a meter) to a millimeter (thousandth of a meter). At these size scales, a human's intuitive sense of physics do not always hold true. Due to MEMS' large surface area to volume ratio, surface effects such as electrostatics and wetting dominate volume effects such as inertia or thermal mass. MEMS devices can be fabricated using modified silicon fabrication technology (used to make electronics), molding and plating, wet etching (KOH, TMAH) and dry etching (RIE and DRIE), electro discharge machining (EDM), and other technologies capable of manufacturing very small devices. MEMS sometimes goes by the names micromechanics, micro machines, or micro system technology (MST).
The design of apparatus 100 thus requires one or more taps 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 114, and 116, which face into the direction of the flow stream that is to be measured. The taps 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 114, and 116 lead to one or more low resistance channels 107, 109, which can direct the flow of fluid to the sensor die 144 (e.g., MEMS sensor). The sensor die 144 and the channel 142 are located adjacent a housing component 140, which is protected by a housing area 137, which in turn is situated within a housing 139.
The low resistance channels 107, 109 can be designed to control and laminarize the flow of fluid. Note that the flow of fluid to channel 142 is indicated by arrow 136, while the flow of fluid out of channel 142 is indicated by arrow 138. Thus, the fluid flow from channel 107 into channel 142 and thereafter into channel 109 is represented by arrows 136 and 138. After passing over the sensor die 144, the fluid continues on a low resistance path to one or more of the exhaust taps 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, and 130, which face perpendicular to the direction of the fluid flow. Alternatively, the taps 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, and 130 may be directed to a dead end channel (not shown in
A flow channel 205 is also provided, which leads to the contact of fluid flowing through channel 205 with a flow sensor 244 (e.g., a MEMS flow sensor), that is similar to the sensor die 144 depicted in
It will be appreciated that variations of the above-disclosed and other features and functions, or alternatives thereof, may be desirably combined into many other different systems or applications. Also that various presently unforeseen or unanticipated alternatives, modifications, variations or improvements therein may be subsequently made by those skilled in the art which are also intended to be encompassed by the following claims.
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|U.S. Classification||73/861.65, 73/202|
|Cooperative Classification||G01F1/6845, G01F5/00, G01F1/46, G01F1/72|
|European Classification||G01F1/72, G01F1/684M, G01F1/46, G01F5/00|
|Feb 17, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SPELDRICH, JAMIE W.;REEL/FRAME:017581/0459
Effective date: 20060214
|Aug 24, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Aug 25, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8