|Publication number||US7345502 B1|
|Application number||US 11/333,927|
|Publication date||Mar 18, 2008|
|Filing date||Jan 17, 2006|
|Priority date||Jan 17, 2006|
|Publication number||11333927, 333927, US 7345502 B1, US 7345502B1, US-B1-7345502, US7345502 B1, US7345502B1|
|Inventors||Shankar Lakkapragada, Jesse H. Jenkins, IV|
|Original Assignee||Xilinx, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (11), Classifications (10), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to configurable devices, and more particularly, to methods and structures for securing configuration data of configurable devices.
Configurable devices are useful because they can be configured to perform various functions based on the needs of the user. One example of a configurable device is a programmable logic device (PLD). A programmable logic device (PLD) is a well-known type of digital integrated circuit that can be programmed to perform specified logic functions.
One type of PLD is the complex programmable logic device (CPLD). A CPLD generally includes two or more “function blocks” connected together and to input/output (I/O) resources by an interconnect switch matrix. Each function block of a CPLD typically includes a two-level AND/OR structure similar to those used in programmable logic arrays (PLAs) and programmable array logic (PAL) devices. In some CPLDs, configuration data is stored on-chip in non-volatile memory, then downloaded to volatile memory as part of an initial configuration sequence. The configuration data configures the function blocks and the interconnect switch matrix to implement the desired functionality.
Another type of PLD, the field programmable gate array (FPGA), typically includes an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) and programmable input/output blocks (IOBs). The CLBs and IOBs are interconnected by a programmable interconnect structure. Some FPGAs also include additional logic blocks with special purposes (e.g., DLLs, RAM, multipliers, transceivers, processors). The CLBs, IOBs, interconnect, and other logic blocks are typically programmed by loading a stream of configuration data (bitstream) into internal configuration memory cells that define how the CLBs, IOBs, and interconnect are configured. The configuration data can be read from memory (e.g., an external PROM) or written into the FPGA by an external device. For some FPGAs, the configuration data may be provided by a non-volatile memory, which may be internal or external to the FPGA. The collective states of the individual memory cells then determine the function of the FPGA.
Other configurable or programmable devices may include devices that are partially programmable. For example, an integrated circuit may include various configurable resources, along with non-configurable “fixed” logic circuits. For all of these configurable devices, the functionality of the device is generally controlled by data bits, also known as a bitstream or configuration data, provided to the device for that purpose. The data bits can be stored in volatile memory (e.g., static RAM cells, as in FPGAs and some CPLDs), in non-volatile memory (e.g., FLASH memory, as in some CPLDs), or in any other type of memory cell.
Thus, for example, a manufacturer may design a product using one or more configurable devices, such as a CPLD, by describing the desired functionality in various software tools, and then generating a bitstream to configure the device to perform the desired functions. Once design of the product is complete and the bitstream for configuring the configurable device has been finalized, the manufacturer may start selling the product including the configurable devices and the corresponding bitstream to customers and end users. One problem facing manufacturers is securing the configuration data. The bitstream represents valuable intellectual property for the manufacturer, and manufacturers often want to restrict access to the bitstream, thus preventing others from copying, reverse engineering, or otherwise misappropriating the bitstream. The manufacturer may also want to restrict other access to the configurable device in order to minimize the possibility that the data could be misappropriated through other indirect means.
Therefore, a need exists to secure the configuration data in a programmable device.
An integrated circuit and methods are described for securing configuration data. In one embodiment, an integrated circuit may include configuration memory for storing configuration data. Control logic may receive the configuration data. A configuration path coupled to the control logic may store the configuration data in the configuration memory. A bypass path may be coupled to the control logic. Select logic may select one of the configuration path and the bypass path, where the select logic selects the configuration path when the integrated circuit is in an unsecured mode, and the select logic selects the bypass path when the integrated circuit is in a secured mode.
In one embodiment, a method for securing configuration data in a configurable device is described. The method includes placing the configurable device in an unsecured state, providing the configuration data to the configurable device in the unsecured state via a configuration path, and placing the configurable device in a secured state. Placing the configurable device in the unsecured state may include enabling the configuration path. Placing the configurable device in the secured state may include disabling the configuration path and enabling a bypass path.
Additional novel aspects and embodiments are described in the detailed description below. The appended claims, and not this summary, define the scope of the invention.
The present invention is illustrated by way of example, and not by way of limitation, in the following figures, in which like reference numerals refer to similar elements.
Embodiments of the present invention are believed to be applicable to a variety of configurable devices, including programmable logic devices such as CPLDs and FPGAs. While the present invention is not so limited, an appreciation of embodiments the present invention is presented below by way of specific examples, and numerous specific details are set forth to provide a more thorough understanding of embodiments of the present invention. However, it will be apparent to one ordinarily skilled in the art that the present invention can be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known circuits and devices may be omitted or presented in abstract form in order to avoid obscuring the present invention.
The configuration information stored in configuration memory 135 may be used to configure various configurable resources 138. In some embodiments, integrated circuit 100 may be a programmable logic device such as a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) or a field programmable gate array. For instance in CPLD embodiments, configurable resources 138 may include function blocks and interconnecting switch logic. In some embodiments, configurable resources 138 may also include other configurable circuits, such as CLBs, configurable IOBs, soft or hard processors, FIFOs, transceivers, and multipliers, etc. Additional circuitry 140 may include other circuits that may be useful or necessary for integrated circuit 100. For instance, additional circuitry 140 may include ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) blocks or other non-configurable portions.
In general, control logic 120 functions as an interface to configuration memory 135 of programmable portion 130. Once a user has created or generated the configuration data (e.g., a bitstream), that data may be provided to integrated circuit 100 for configuring programmable portion 130 via control logic 120. That is, configuration data may be received and processed by control logic 120, and then provided and stored in configuration memory 135. In some embodiments, the bitstream may be downloaded directly to integrated circuit 100 by a programmer or a similar device, or from a memory or other storage. In some embodiments, the bitstream may be provided to integrated circuit 100 through any number of intermediary devices, such as additional interfaces or a chain of devices. It may be desirable for a designer to have control or other access to the device, such as to perform readback of downloaded configuration data or to exercise special commands, during development and production phases of a product. For example, a user may want to verify that the correct data was downloaded to a device by “reading back” the configuration data. It may also be useful or necessary to have readback functionality or to access other control features of the device, for instance, while testing or debugging a design. However, once the design is complete, the configuration data is finalized, and the device is ready for sale or distribution to customers (e.g., the configuration data has been stored in the device), the user may want to prevent readback of the configuration data stored in the device and disable other control features in order to secure the design. For example, a configured device with its readback and other control functions disabled may be sold to customers and other end users to provide the desired functionality with minimal risk that an unscrupulous user would be able to extract or otherwise misappropriate the configuration data. This allows the manufacturer to protect his investment in the valuable intellectual property embodied by the configuration data.
In an example system, programmer 350 may include storage for storing configuration data for each of programmable devices 300A-D. For instance, programmer 350 may be a computer having a disk or other storage containing configuration data generated from design files created by a user. The user may then instruct programmer 350 to configure one or more of devices 300A-D. Programmer 350 may download the appropriate configuration data by using the JTAG interface (e.g., TDI, TMS, and TCK). In some instances, the serial data may include header or other identifying and control information. Thus, it may be possible to download data to a particular device in a chain of devices by inserting a device identifier in a header. For example, the programmer may target device 300B for programming by inserting an identifier corresponding to device 300B in the data stream. Each of devices 300A-D may examine the header and see if there is a match to the identifier. If there is no match, the serial data stream may be passed on through the TDO output to the other devices in the chain.
Once the configuration memory has been programmed with the desired configuration data, the designer may want to perform a readback of the data in the configuration memory, for instance to verify that the correct data has been programmed or to perform debugging and testing on the design. This may be accomplished by transferring the data that is stored in configuration memory 435 row by row into configuration register 425. In some embodiments of configuration memory 435, this may require the use of one or more sense amplifiers 436, as is well-known. As each row is loaded into configuration register 425, that data may be scanned out through the TDO output port of the JTAG interface. The data may, for instance, be scanned out through the JTAG chain back to programmer 350 for
In some embodiments, the SECURE signal may be provided by the JTAG block, for instance by a register, such as a JTAG register, within the JTAG block as shown in
While the design is under development, the SECURE signal may remain unasserted, thereby placing the device in an unsecured state. In this state, the device may behave substantially the same as device 400 in
As noted above, in some embodiments the SECURE signal may be provided from a nonvolatile memory, either internal or external to the device. For example, the SECURE signal may be provided by one-time programmable memory or other permanent programming method to lock the device in secure mode once the design is finalized. In some embodiments, the SECURE signal may be provided by one or more nonvolatile memory bits, which may be included in memory 435. In particular, since asserting the SECURE signal enables the bypass path and disables any access to memory 435, it would be impossible for an attacker to de-assert SECURE in an attempt to gain access to the configuration data stored in memory 435. The SECURE signal may also be provided from a register within the JTAG block or elsewhere in the device, or from other logic or circuitry within the device. In some embodiments, block 580 for providing the SECURE signal may include an authentication block 585 for restricting access to the SECURE signal. The authentication scheme may require that anyone attempting to change the status of the SECURE signal to provide a secret key or other unique identifier known only to the designer, or to properly respond to a challenge or other query. In some instances, authentication block 585 may be coupled to a decryption engine (not shown) and only allow the secured status of the device to be altered if one or more decryption keys have been received. Other methods and structures for controlling and restricting access to the SECURE signal will be known to those of skill in the art. In general, it is desirable that once the device has been placed in the secured state, it is difficult or impossible to return the device to an unsecured state. That is, access to the SECURE signal should be restricted, and in particular, it should be difficult or impossible to de-assert the SECURE signal once it has been asserted. As noted above, this may be achieved through the use of one-time programmable bits, or otherwise removing the ability to change the value of SECURE once it has been asserted.
Some or all of the methods of the present invention can be performed in either hardware, software, or any combination thereof, as those terms are currently known in the art. In particular, the present methods can be carried out by software, firmware, or microcode operating on a computer or computers of any type. Additionally, software embodying the present invention can comprise computer instructions in any form (e.g., source code, object code, interpreted code, etc.) stored in any computer-readable medium (e.g., ROM, RAM, magnetic media, punched tape or card, compact disc (CD) in any form, DVD, etc.). Further, such software can also be in the form of a computer data signal embodied in a carrier wave, such as that found within the well-known Web pages transferred among computers connected to the Internet. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to any particular platform, unless specifically stated otherwise in the present disclosure.
Those having ordinary skill in the relevant arts of the invention will now perceive various modifications and additions that can be made as a result of the disclosure herein. For example, the above text describes the circuits and methods of embodiments the invention in the context of integrated circuits such as programmable logic devices. However, embodiments of the invention may also be implemented in other configurable systems.
Furthermore, components other than those described herein may be used to implement embodiments of the invention, and active-high signals may be replaced with active-low signals by making straightforward alterations to the circuitry, such as are well known in the art of circuit design. Logical circuits may be replaced by their logical equivalents by appropriately inverting input and output signals, as is also well known.
Moreover, some components are shown directly connected to one another while others are shown connected via intermediate components. In each instance, the method of interconnection merely establishes some desired electrical communication between two or more circuit nodes. Such communication can often be accomplished using a number of circuit configurations, as will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art.
Accordingly, all such modifications and additions are deemed to be within the scope of the invention, which is to be limited only by the appended claims and their equivalents.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5898618||Jan 23, 1998||Apr 27, 1999||Xilinx, Inc.||Enhanced blank check erase verify reference voltage source|
|US6525557 *||Nov 2, 2001||Feb 25, 2003||Xilinx, Inc.||Method for watermarking a register-based programmable logic device core|
|US6788097||Apr 30, 2003||Sep 7, 2004||Xilinx, Inc.||Security improvements for programmable devices|
|US6981153 *||Nov 28, 2000||Dec 27, 2005||Xilinx, Inc.||Programmable logic device with method of preventing readback|
|US6988232 *||Apr 9, 2002||Jan 17, 2006||Intellitech Corporation||Method and apparatus for optimized parallel testing and access of electronic circuits|
|US20020010853 *||Jun 6, 2001||Jan 24, 2002||Xilinx, Inc.||Method of time multiplexing a programmable logic device|
|1||Jenkins, Jesse, IV; CoolRunner-II CPLDs in Secure Applications, Nov. 19, 2002, pp. 1-21, v1.2, WP170, available from Xilinx, Inc., 2100 Logic Drive, San Jose, CA 95124.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7747916 *||Jun 29, 2010||Infineon Technologies Ag||JTAG interface|
|US8022724||Sep 20, 2011||Xilinx, Inc.||Method and integrated circuit for secure reconfiguration of programmable logic|
|US8056142 *||Dec 8, 2009||Nov 8, 2011||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Apparatus and method of authenticating joint test action group (JTAG)|
|US8593172||Aug 16, 2011||Nov 26, 2013||Xilinx, Inc.||Secure reconfiguration of programmable logic|
|US8719957||Apr 29, 2011||May 6, 2014||Altera Corporation||Systems and methods for detecting and mitigating programmable logic device tampering|
|US20080288823 *||May 14, 2007||Nov 20, 2008||Infineon Technologies Ag||JTAG Interface|
|US20100153797 *||Dec 8, 2009||Jun 17, 2010||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Apparatus and method of authenticating Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)|
|US20120173941 *||Mar 9, 2012||Jul 5, 2012||Chengdu Huawei Symantec Technologies Co., Ltd.||Method, system and processor for loading logical devices online|
|WO2012148707A2 *||Apr 13, 2012||Nov 1, 2012||Altera Corporation||Systems and methods for detecting and mitigating programmable logic device tampering|
|WO2012148707A3 *||Apr 13, 2012||Dec 27, 2012||Altera Corporation||Systems and methods for detecting and mitigating programmable logic device tampering|
|WO2013062844A1 *||Oct 18, 2012||May 2, 2013||Eastman Kodak Company||Safety component in a programmable components chain|
|U.S. Classification||326/8, 326/14, 326/37|
|Cooperative Classification||H03K19/17768, G01R31/318533, G06F17/5054|
|European Classification||H03K19/177H5, G06F17/50D4, G01R31/3185S|
|Jan 17, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: XILINX, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LAKKAPRAGADA, SHANKAR;JENKINS, JESSE H., IV;REEL/FRAME:017484/0381
Effective date: 20060112
|Sep 19, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Sep 18, 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8