|Publication number||US7348603 B2|
|Application number||US 11/369,895|
|Publication date||Mar 25, 2008|
|Filing date||Mar 7, 2006|
|Priority date||Oct 17, 2005|
|Also published as||US20070085083|
|Publication number||11369895, 369895, US 7348603 B2, US 7348603B2, US-B2-7348603, US7348603 B2, US7348603B2|
|Inventors||Alexei A. Erchak, Elefterios Lidorikis, Michael Lim, Nikolay I. Nemchuck, Jo A. Venezia|
|Original Assignee||Luminus Devices, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (70), Non-Patent Citations (20), Referenced by (10), Classifications (11), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/727,753, filed on Oct. 17, 2005, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/737,136, filed on Nov. 16, 2005, which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.
The invention relates generally to light-emitting devices, as well as related components, systems, and methods, and more particularly to light-emitting devices having patterned interfaces.
There are a variety of light-emitting devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, and optical amplifiers, which can emit light and which may be used in various applications. The emitted light may be characterized by numerous metrics, including light extraction, collimation, and azimuthal isotropy. Light extraction is a measure of the amount of light emitted as compared to the amount of light generated within the light-emitting device. Collimation is a measure of the angular deviation of emitted light with respect to the normal of the emission surface of the light-emitting device. Azimuthal isotropy (or uniformity) is a measure of the uniformity of light emitted versus an azimuthal angle, hereafter sometimes referred to simply as isotropy.
Each of the above-mentioned metrics of a light-emitting device may play an important role in determining the suitability of a particular light-emitting device for different applications. In general, light extraction relates to device efficiency, since any light generated by the device which is not extracted can result in decreased efficiency. Light collimation can be of importance if an application that incorporates the light-emitting device operates more efficiently, and/or with fewer optical components, as a result of the collimated light emission. Azimuthal isotropy may be of significance in applications where isotropic light emission is desired, and where isotropic light emission may reduce or eliminate the need for additional optical components.
As such, in many applications, it can be desirable to tailor light extraction, collimation, and/or azimuthal isotropy.
In some embodiments, the invention provides devices, such as light-emitting devices, as well as related components, systems and methods.
In one embodiment, a light-emitting device, designed to emit light, comprises an interface through which emitted light passes therethrough, wherein the interface has a dielectric function that varies spatially according to a pattern. The pattern is arranged to provide anisotropic light emission characterized by an emission pattern on a far-field projection plane substantially parallel to the interface, wherein a first total light intensity along a first axis on the projection plane is at least 20% greater than a second total light intensity along a second axis on the projection plane.
In another embodiment, a light-emitting device, designed to emit light, comprises an interface through which emitted light passes therethrough, wherein the interface has a dielectric function that varies spatially according to a pattern. The pattern is arranged to provide anisotropic light emission characterized by a first total light emission on a first plane that is at least 20% greater than a second total light emission on a second plane, wherein the first and second planes are perpendicular to the interface, and wherein the first and second planes are also perpendicular to each other.
Other aspects, embodiments and features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. The accompanying figures are schematic and are not intended to be drawn to scale. In the figures, each identical, or substantially similar component that is illustrated in various figures is represented by a single numeral or notation.
For purposes of clarity, not every component is labeled in every figure. Nor is every component of each embodiment of the invention shown where illustration is not necessary to allow those of ordinary skill in the art to understand the invention. All patent applications and patents incorporated herein by reference are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control.
Certain embodiments of the invention provide light-emitting devices and methods associated with such devices. The devices may include a pattern formed on an interface through which light passes through. For example, the interface can be an emission surface of the device, or an interface between layers within the device. As described further below, the pattern can be defined by a series of features having certain characteristics (e.g., feature size, depth, nearest neighbor distances) which may be configured to influence the characteristics of the light emitted from the device including, but not limited to, light extraction, collimation, and/or isotropy.
It should be appreciated that various modifications of LED 100 are possible. For example, in one variation, electrode 117 is absent, and electrical contact to layer(s) 113 is made via conductive layer 112 through a conductive submount (not shown) which is attached to conductive layer 112. It should be understood that other various modifications can be made to the representative LED structure presented, and that the invention is not limited in this respect.
The active region of an LED can include one or more quantum wells surrounded by barrier layers. The quantum well structure may be defined by a semiconductor material layer (e.g., in a single quantum well), or more than one semiconductor material layers (e.g., in multiple quantum wells), with a smaller band gap as compared to the barrier layers. Suitable semiconductor material layers for the quantum well structures include InGaN, AlGaN, GaN and combinations of these layers (e.g., alternating InGaN/GaN layers, where a GaN layer serves as a barrier layer).
The n-doped layer(s) 115 can include a silicon-doped GaN layer (e.g., having a thickness of about 300 nm thick) and/or the p-doped layer(s) 113 include a magnesium-doped GaN layer (e.g., having a thickness of about 40 nm thick). The conductive layer 112 may be a silver layer (e.g., having a thickness of about 100 nm), which may also serve as a reflective layer (e.g., that reflects upwards any downward propagating light generated by the active region 114). Furthermore, although not shown, other layers may also be included in the LED; for example, an AlGaN layer may be disposed between the active region 114 and the p-doped layer(s) 113. It should be understood that compositions other than those described herein may also be suitable for the layers of the LED.
As a result of openings 119, emission surface 118 of the LED can have a dielectric function that varies spatially according to a pattern which can influence the extraction efficiency, collimation, and/or isotropy of light emitted by the LED. In the illustrative LED 100, the pattern is formed of openings, but it should be appreciated that the variation of the dielectric function at an interface need not necessarily result from openings.
Any suitable way of producing a variation in dielectric function according to a pattern may be used. For example, the pattern may be formed by varying the composition of layer 115 and/or emission surface 118. The pattern may be periodic (e.g., having a simple repeat cell, or having a complex repeat super-cell), periodic with de-tuning, or non-periodic. As referred to herein, a complex periodic pattern is a pattern that has more than one feature in each unit cell that repeats in a periodic fashion. Examples of complex periodic patterns include honeycomb patterns, honeycomb base patterns, (2×2) base patterns, ring patterns, and Archimidean patterns. As discussed below, in some embodiments, a complex periodic pattern can have certain openings with one diameter and other openings with a smaller diameter. As referred to herein, a non-periodic pattern is a pattern that has no translational symmetry over a unit cell that has a length that is at least 50 times the peak wavelength of light generated by active region 114. Examples of non-periodic patterns include aperiodic patterns, quasi-crystalline patterns, Robinson patterns, and Amman patterns.
In certain embodiments, an interface of a light-emitting device is patterned with openings which can form a photonic lattice. Suitable LEDs having a dielectric function that varies spatially (e.g., a photonic lattice) have been described in, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,831,302 B2, entitled “Light Emitting Devices with Improved Extraction Efficiency,” filed on Nov. 26, 2003, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. As described further below, the pattern may conform to a transformation of a precursor pattern according to a mathematical function, including, but not limited to an angular displacement transformation. The pattern may also include a portion of a transformed pattern, including, but not limited to, a pattern that conforms to an angular displacement transformation. The pattern can also include regions having patterns that are related to each other by a rotation.
Light may be generated by LED 100 as follows. The p-side contact pad 117 (or conductive layer 112) can be held at a positive potential relative to the n-side contact pad 116, which causes electrical current to be injected into the LED. As the electrical current passes through the active region, electrons from n-doped layer(s) 115 can combine in the active region with holes from p-doped layer(s) 113, which can cause the active region to generate light. The active region can contain a multitude of point dipole radiation sources that generate light with a spectrum of wavelengths characteristic of the material from which the active region is formed. For InGaN/GaN quantum wells, the spectrum of wavelengths of light generated by the light-generating region can have a peak wavelength of about 445 nanometers (nm) and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 30 nm, which is perceived by human eyes as blue light. The light emitted by the LED may be influenced by any patterned interface (e.g., the emission surface 118) through which light passes, whereby the pattern can be arranged so as to influence the collimation and/or isotropy of the emitted light.
It should be appreciated that the patterns presented herein may also be incorporated into light-collection devices, including, but not limited to, optical filters, solar cells, and photodetectors. In such devices, the patterns may be configured to influence the collection of light by the device including controlling collection efficiency, collection collimation, and/or collection isotropy. In such devices, tailoring of the collection collimation and isotropy can enable to collection of more light that impinges on the collection surface with specific orientations. For example, a high collection collimation enables the device to collect light that is impinging on the collection surface with orientations that do not significantly deviate from the emission surface normal, while at the same time, collecting less of the light that impinges on the collection surface with orientations that significantly deviate from the emission surface normal. Anisotropy further allows the collection to be enhanced along one or more directions (along the collection surface). Furthermore, the wavelength(s) of the collected light may also be tailored based on the pattern characteristics, for example the nearest neighbor distance between features of the pattern. Therefore, although the embodiments that follow are described in the context of light-emitting devices, it should be appreciated that the invention is not limited in this respect. For instance, the structures described herein can also be incorporated into light-collection devices, as previously described.
The schematic representation of the LED 100 illustrates angles θ and φ that can be used to characterize light emission from the emission surface 118. Light emission from the emission surface can be characterized by a light emission field, where the direction of the light emission field at any point corresponds to the direction of propagation of the emitted light at that point.
A light emission pattern can in turn be defined by the spatial distribution of the light intensity emanating from the light-emitting device. From a calculation standpoint, the light intensity at a point in space can be determined by the magnitude of the light emission field. A light emission pattern can be used to determine the projection of light onto a projection plane, or any other desired surface. Such a procedure can be useful for calculating an emission pattern of light onto a projection plane, where the projection plane is typically parallel to the emission surface. For example, the projection plane may be a plane parallel to the emission surface, and for example, can be located at a far-field distance from the emission surface so as to capture the far-field emission pattern. In embodiments presented herein, an emission pattern refers to an intensity pattern on a projection plane substantially parallel to the emission surface. In instances where the emission surface is not parallel to the active layer (e.g., a quantum well), the emission pattern can refer to an intensity pattern on a projection plane substantially parallel to the active layer.
To facilitate a description of collimation and/or isotropy of emitted light, suitable coordinate systems may be employed. In a spherical coordinate system, an emission vector 102 can be defined by a polar angle θ between a normal of the emission surface and the emission vector, and by an azimuthal angle φ on a plane defined by the emission surface. The definition of these angles can facilitate a description of the collimation and isotropy of the emitted light. In such a spherical coordinate system, collimation is a measure of the polar angular variation of the light emission. Azimuthal isotropy is a measure of the isotropy of the light emission versus the azimuthal angle, hereafter referred to simply as isotropy. In a mathematical sense, the azimuthal isotropy can be related to the variation of the emitted light intensity versus the azimuthal angle, for a constant polar angle.
The emission pattern, and hence collimation and/or isotropy of the emitted light, may be characterized based on collection shapes or surfaces within which, or on which, emitted light can be integrated so as to determine the total light emission within, or on, that collection shape. Some examples of collection shapes include a solid angle collection cone, a collection plane, or sets of collection planes, but other collection shapes are also possible.
The variation of the total intensity of light collected within the solid angle cone as a function of the collection angle θc can be compared to a Lambertian distribution exhibited by light-emitting devices not possessing any surface patterns, or other features, that modify light emission. It should also be appreciated that the variation of the light emission as a function of the azimuthal angle may be used to characterize the anisotropy of the light emission.
Other collection shapes may be utilized to facilitate the description of anisotropic light emission. In some instances, a suitable collection shape may be a set of planes having angles θc and −θc with respect to the emission surface normal 220, and containing a common line 230 which lies on the emission surface (not shown), as illustrated in
In some embodiments, a pattern on an interface of a light-emitting device can be used to tailor the collimation and/or isotropy of the emitted light. The pattern on the interface of the light-emitting device can influence the emission of light so as to generate substantially isotropic collimated emission. In other embodiments, the pattern on an interface of a light-emitting device may influence the emission of light so as to generate anisotropic light emission. The light emission may be collimated along a first axis (on the emission surface) and non-collimated along a second axis (also on the emission surface). In some embodiments, the first axis is perpendicular to the second axis.
Patterns that can facilitate the tailoring of light emission may conform to various arrangements of features (e.g., at an interface, such as on an emission surface). In some embodiments, the arrangement of the features may be chosen based on a various techniques, as described in detail below. A pattern that has been incorporated at an interface within a light-emitting device is shown in
In various embodiments, a pattern can be generated by transforming a precursor pattern according to a mathematical function. It should be understood that, as used herein, a mathematical function does not include random operations. Any suitable mathematical function can be used. For example, the mathematical function may be expressed as a function f(x):x→x′ that depends on a position vector x and generates a position vector x′, where the position vectors belong to the space that the precursor pattern spans. In one embodiment, the transformation of the precursor pattern may be defined by mathematical function that depends on the radius from a specified origin on a surface (e.g., plane) containing the precursor pattern. In one embodiment, the transformation of the precursor pattern can include providing an angular displacement to features of the precursor pattern, wherein the angular displacement may be given by a mathematical function that depends on the radial distance of the features of the precursor pattern with respect to a reference origin, as can be described by a function f(r), where r is the radial distance. In one embodiment, the transformation of the precursor pattern may be defined by a mathematical function that can depend sinusoidally on a distance from a reference axis on the plane containing the precursor pattern (e.g., where the distance may be an x or y coordinate value), as can be described by a function f(x) including sin(x) and/or sin(y) factor(s) and/or terms.
The precursor pattern is an initial pattern that need not have any physical manifestation and that may be transformed so as to generate a pattern, also referred to as a transformed pattern. In some embodiments, the precursor pattern may be periodic (e.g., having a simple repeat cell, or having a complex repeat super-cell), periodic with de-tuning, or non-periodic. Examples of periodic patterns include rectangular patterns and hexagonal patterns. Examples of non-periodic patterns include quasi-crystal patterns, for example, quasi-crystal patterns having 8-fold symmetry. The transformation of the precursor pattern may comprise transforming the location of features that form the precursor pattern so as to generate a transformed pattern having different feature locations. In some embodiments, the feature locations of the transformed pattern are not simply related to the precursor pattern feature locations based on only a translation and/or rotation.
In some embodiments, the precursor pattern may be defined by features that lie on a two-dimensional plane, and which may be transformed so as to generate a transformed pattern having features that lie on the same two-dimensional plane. The transformation may be defined by a mathematical function that depends on positions on the two-dimensional plane. The mathematical function can be represented in any number of suitable coordinate systems, including, but not limited to, a Cartesian coordinate system (having coordinates x and y) or a polar coordinate system (having coordinates r and φ). Examples of mathematical functions that can be used for the transformation include an angular displacement that at least depends on a radial distance from a reference origin, sinusoidal functions that depend on a distance from a reference axis (e.g., the x or y axis on the two-dimensional plane), scaling functions that depend on a position along a reference axis (e.g., elongation or compression along an x or y axis), or combinations thereof. It should be appreciated that these are just a few examples of suitable mathematical functions that may be used to accomplish the transformation of the precursor pattern, and other suitable mathematical function may also be used.
The precursor pattern may be transformed via the transformation of the feature positions of the precursor pattern. In one embodiment, a point within each feature is transformed but the shape and orientation of the features remains invariant. In another embodiment, all points within each feature are transformed, therefore resulting in a transformation of the shape and orientation of each feature.
In some embodiments, a pattern conforms to a transformation of a precursor pattern, wherein the transformation comprises an angular displacement transformation. For example, a mathematical transformation can be applied to a precursor pattern to create a twist of the precursor pattern. Such a transformation can be applied such that a displacement angle is applied to each feature of the precursor pattern where the displacement angle may be a function of a distance to a chosen center point, or reference origin, on a precursor pattern.
A schematic showing how an angular displacement transformation can be applied to a precursor pattern is show in
where “a” represents a circumferential displacement of a feature point with respect to the chosen center point from which the radius r is measured.
An example of a constant angle angular displacement transformation is given by
where the transformed feature points experience the same circumferential displacement with respect to the chosen center point.
An example of an equal angle displacement transformation may be given by
where r=0 at the chosen center of the pattern and r=1 at the edge of the pattern. In this way, the transformation can also depend on the pattern size.
In some embodiments, an angular displacement transformation can have any type of functional dependence on the radius r. A general classification for angular displacement transformations that depend on the radial distance to a reference origin can be given by φ˜T(r), where T(r) is a transformation function which varies with the radius r from the reference origin. Examples of such transformations include
where n is a constant.
An illustrative embodiment of such a pattern generated by an angular displacement transformation of a precursor pattern is shown in
and the reference origin (not shown) lies in the center of the pattern, thereby generating a twist of the precursor pattern. In this example, the precursor pattern was a periodic hexagonal pattern, but it should be appreciated that other precursor patterns may also be used, as previously described. For example, some other periodic precursor patterns that may be utilized include a square pattern or a rectangular pattern. Furthermore, non-periodic patterns may also be used as precursor patterns. In addition, although the pattern in the illustrative embodiment shown in
other angular displacement transformations can be used.
In some embodiments, a pattern may include one or more portions of a transformed pattern conforming to a transformation of a precursor pattern. For example, the transformation may be an angular displacement transformation of a precursor pattern, as discussed above. The pattern may comprise a plurality of cells, where each cell includes a portion of an angular displacement transformation of a precursor pattern. The cells can include the same portion or different portions of the transformed pattern, and can be arranged in a periodic or non-periodic arrangement.
An illustrative embodiment of a portion of an angular displacement transformation of a precursor pattern is shown in
To further explain a method by which portions of a transformed pattern may be generated,
In some embodiments, a pattern can comprise a plurality of regions each having a pattern related to the pattern in one of the other regions by a rotation. Such patterns may be referred to as rotated patchwork patterns. Each of the regions can be referred to as cells, and the cells can have any shape and be arranged in any desired manner. Possible shapes for the cells include triangles, squares, rectangles, hexagons, or even irregular shapes. The cells can have any desired size, and need not necessarily all have the same size. The pattern within each cell may be any pattern, including non-periodic and periodic patterns, including but not limited to hexagonal or rectangular patterns.
Multiple cells and rotations are possible. In some embodiments, the rotation of the cells can vary randomly with respect to the adjacent cells. In other embodiments, the rotation of the cells can vary according to a desired rotation angle. For example, each cell could be rotated 15 degrees with respect to an adjacent cell. In addition various cell sizes can be used. Exemplary cell lengths (and/or widths) include about 5 microns, about 10 microns, about 25 microns, about 50 microns, about 100 microns, and about 200 microns. In some embodiments, cells can have areas greater than about 100 mircons2 (e.g., 10×10 microns) and/or less than about 40000 microns2 (e.g., 200×200 microns). In one embodiment, cells have and area of about 1000 microns2 (e.g., 33×33 microns).
Furthermore, the cells need not necessarily be contiguous and may be separated by regions having other patterns, or no patterning at all. Also, it should be appreciated that the cells may have patterns related by more than just a rotation. For example, some cells may have patterns that are both rotated and further transformed in some other manner, including, but not limited to, scaling such a compression and/or elongation along one of more axes.
In some embodiments, a pattern includes extended gap regions in one or more directions. Within the extended gap regions, pattern features may be absent and/or may have altered characteristics (e.g., feature sizes) so as to differentiate the extended gap regions from other regions of the pattern. In some embodiments, rows and/or columns of features may be absent from a pattern at selected locations. The extended gaps may be separated by a desired distance or number of features.
In some embodiments, a pattern may be spatially compressed along one direction and/or spatially elongated along another direction. Elongation and/or compression (also referred to generally as scaling) of patterns along one or more directions may enable the generation of anisotropic patterns. An example of an elongation or compression transformation along the x-axis and/or y-axis may be defined mathematically according to a function f(x=(x,y))=(kx x, ky y), where kx and ky are scaling factors along the x and y directions, respectively. For compression, the scaling factor is less than 1, and for elongation, the scaling factor is greater than 1. It should be appreciated scaling can be performed along any desired axis, and need not just be performed along the x and/or y axis.
In some embodiments, a pattern can comprise a plurality of regions, wherein each region can include a specific pattern. For example, regions of a pattern may include any of the patterns mentioned herein, but can also include any other pattern.
Once a pattern is generated, it may be incorporated into a variety of devices, including, but not limited to, light-emitting devices and light-collection devices. In one embodiment, a pattern may be incorporated into a device such that an interface (e.g., an emission surface and/or buried interface) of the device has a dielectric function that varies spatially according to a transformed pattern. The variation in the dielectric function may be accomplished by a variety of means, including but not limited to incorporating openings (or protrusions) in locations where a pattern feature should be located. In some embodiments, the pattern may lie at an interface between two material layers.
As previously mentioned, patterned interfaces in light-emitting (and light-collection) devices can be used to tailor the light emission profile of such devices. The pattern can influence the collimation and isotropy of the light emission. In instances where a pattern is absent, the emission profile of a light-emitting device (without any collection optics) is known to have a Lambertian distribution dependent on the collection angle from the emission normal. In contrast, in some embodiments presented herein, the dielectric function of an interface of a light-emitting device varies spatially according to a pattern, and the pattern is arranged so that light generated within the light-emitting device emerges with an emission profile that is more collimated than a Lambertian distribution. In some embodiments, a pattern can enable the tailoring of light emission so that the emission is both collimated and isotropic. As described herein, the degree of collimation may be defined in relation to a Lambertian emission distribution. Light emission can be considered collimated when the intensity of the emitted light at a direction normal (i.e., zero collection angle) to the emission surface is at least about 20% greater (e.g., at least about 30% greater, at least about 50% greater, at least about 100% greater) than a Lambertian emission at a direction normal to the emission interface.
Furthermore, in other embodiments, a pattern can enable the tailoring of the light emission in one or more directions to create a partially collimated beam. In some embodiments, a pattern can be configured so as to generate anisotropic light emission. The anisotropic light emission may be characterized by an emission pattern on a far-field projection plane substantially parallel to the interface, wherein a first total light intensity along a first axis (e.g., x-axis or y-axis) on the projection plane is at least 20% greater than a second total light intensity along a second axis (e.g., y-axis or x-axis) on the projection plane. In some embodiments, the second axis is perpendicular to the first axis, and in further embodiments, the first total light intensity along the first axis is at least 50% greater (e.g., at least 75% greater, at least 100% greater) than the second total light intensity along the second axis.
It is believed that a patterned light projection profile may be generated using a light-emitting device with a surface having multiple patterns which are spatially separate from one another. Both collimating and non-collimating patterns can be sectioned together. An example of such an embodiment is shown in
Various devices (e.g., light-emitting devices, light-collection devices) incorporating patterns, such as those described above, can be used in various components and systems. Light-emitting devices having partially collimated anisotropic emission may be incorporated into components and systems that may be suited for anisotropic emission profiles, including but not limited to, applications such as edge illumination of a light panel (e.g., for use in an LCD display or for general illumination), rear projection televisions, and far-field manipulation for projection applications (e.g., decorative lighting, automotive headlamps).
LEDs 2216 a, 2216 b, 2216 c, and 2216 d can be positioned along the edge 2211 of light panel 2212, in a manner illustrated in the perspective view of
Having thus described both patterns that can be incorporated into light-emitting devices, and systems within which such light-emitting devices may be incorporated, it should be appreciated that such light-emitting devices can be formed with a variety of processes and methods known to those in the art. Device structures described in the embodiments can be fabricated using a combination of any suitable processing techniques. Such processes can include thin film deposition techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition (e.g., metal-organic chemical vapor deposition), for depositing various materials, including semiconductors, insulators, and metals. Evaporation and sputtering can be utilized to deposit metals. Patterning processes, such as photo-lithography and nano-imprint techniques, may be used to form the surface patterns described herein. Etching processes, such as dry etching (e.g., reactive ion etching), and wet etching, may be used to pattern layers. Coating and spin-coating can be used to deposit encapsulants. Wafer bonding processes may be used to transfer structures and devices. Furthermore, packaging processes may be used to package the aforementioned light-emitting devices and structures.
Patterns which can enable a tailoring of the collimation and/or isotropy of the light emission may include any of the types of pattern described herein, but are not limited to just the patterns illustrated herein. Such patterns may be generated via any of the methods described herein, or by any other suitable method, including direct selection of pattern feature locations. As previously described, a pattern to be incorporated into a device may be generated by a transformation of a precursor pattern. Such a transformation may be performed on a computer via a mathematical transformation of a set of points describing the locations of pattern features, or by any other means, as the invention is not limited in this respect. Once a desired pattern is generated or selected, thereby yielding a location of features, a patterning mask may be created and used to incorporate the pattern onto a layer of a device. The patterning process for the pattern may be performed with any suitable patterning process, including, but not limited to, photo-lithography and nano-imprint techniques.
In addition, pattern modification processes may be included in the fabrication process via techniques such as etching vias or trenches into the surface. In other pattern modification techniques, etching vias into the backside of the device (i.e., through a backside mirror layer) can influence the emission pattern (e.g., collimation and/or isotropy) of the light-emitting device. In other pattern modification processes, extended gaps such as those described in relation to
Some working examples are presented to illustrate various simulation results for LEDs incorporating some of the aforementioned patterns. It should be understood that these working examples do not limit the embodiments.
Although collimated emission has been obtained in prior light-emitting devices having patterned surfaces (e.g., with hexagonal patterns), these emission profiles possessed an eight-fold symmetry, and were neither substantially isotropic nor anisotropic (e.g., having substantial collimation along only one axis in the emission surface plane). An example of such LEDs having a patterned surface that can provide a light emission profile that is more collimated than a Lambertian distribution is described in U.S. Patent Publication 2004/0207310A1 which is hereby incorporated by reference, which is based on U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/724,029 filed on Nov. 26, 2003.
A hexagonal pattern of holes on the emission surface of a LED has been previously demonstrated to create a collimated emission. Such a hexagonal surface pattern is shown in
In some embodiments, the surface of a light-emitting device can be patterned to generate a substantially isotropic emission pattern while maintaining collimation. In one embodiment, a patchwork pattern that generates a substantially isotropic emission while maintaining collimation is shown in
Angular Displacement Pattern
Angular displacement patterns can be incorporated into a LED so as to facilitate the generation of a substantially isotropic and collimated emission pattern.
Portion of an Angular Displacement Pattern
To further describe such emission, a corresponding set of collection planes, as illustrated in
To further illustrate the anisotropy of the emission,
As can be seen from the simulation results, the light intensity corresponding to curve 1714 d is greater than the light intensity corresponding to curve 1712 d for at least some collection angles between about −20 and 20 degrees, but this range may be modified based on the pattern used within the light-emitting device. It can be seen from the simulated total collection curve 1714 c that the total collected emission within collection planes having a common line oriented along the x-axis is greater than the total collected emission of a Lambertian distribution for almost all collection angles, and especially for collection angles greater than about 60 degrees (e.g., greater than 40 degrees, greater than 30 degrees, greater than 20 degrees, greater than 10 degrees).
In contrast, the light intensity corresponding to curve 1712 d is similar to the Lambertian distribution 1720 d for all collection angles. The orientation of the collection shape for curves 1712 c and 1712 d corresponds to collection planes having a common line aligned along the y-axis. It can be seen from the simulated curve 1712 c that the total collected emission within collection planes having a common line oriented along the y-axis is similar to the total collected emission of a Lambertian distribution for all collection angles. As such, the pattern of
In some embodiments presented herein, light emission from a light-emitting device is anisotropic, such that the light intensity on a collection plane along a first axis and which is perpendicular to the emission surface (i.e., 0 degree collection angle) is at least about 20% greater (e.g., at least about 50% greater, at least about 75% greater, at least about 100% greater) than the light intensity on a collection plane along a second axis and which is also perpendicular to the emission surface (i.e., 0 degree collection angle), where the first and second axis are perpendicular. In the working example of
Extended Gaps Pattern
Based on the rotational symmetry of the hexagonal pattern, the simulated emission pattern corresponding to the pattern of
Without wishing to be bound by theory, a collimating surface pattern where the pattern features are compressed in one direction and/or elongated along a second direction can also be used to create an anisotropic emission pattern. Furthermore, any type of pattern can be scaled accordingly to enhance the anisotropic emission pattern. For example, a pattern conforming to a transformation, such as an angular displacement transformation (e.g., of a hexagonal precursor pattern), may be compressed along a first direction and/or elongated along a second direction.
Having thus described several aspects of at least one embodiment of this invention, it is to be appreciated various alterations, modifications, and improvements will readily occur to those skilled in the art. Such alterations, modifications, and improvements are intended to be part of this disclosure, and are intended to be within the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description and drawings are by way of example only.
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|U.S. Classification||257/98, 257/E33.068, 257/E33.074|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L33/20, B82Y20/00, G02B6/1225, H01L2933/0083|
|European Classification||B82Y20/00, G02B6/122P, H01L33/20|
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