|Publication number||US7357043 B2|
|Application number||US 11/220,501|
|Publication date||Apr 15, 2008|
|Filing date||Sep 7, 2005|
|Priority date||Sep 7, 2005|
|Also published as||US20070056392|
|Publication number||11220501, 220501, US 7357043 B2, US 7357043B2, US-B2-7357043, US7357043 B2, US7357043B2|
|Inventors||Colin Cumming, Eric Towers, Mark Prather|
|Original Assignee||Nomadics, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (21), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (21), Classifications (6), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Government Funding: W31P4Q-04-C-R166 DARPA
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a portal-type sampling system for sampling the air around vehicles for purposes of detecting trace chemicals present therein.
2. Description of the Related Art
The rise in worldwide terrorism has made it imperative that border traffic security stations and traffic checkpoints screen for concealed explosives as well as performing their normal function of controlling access to certain locations and searching for persons of interest. Experience has shown that concealed explosive devices have been transported onboard vehicles by terrorists on a number of occasions, some of which have resulted in disasters claiming the lives of many persons. Further, the modern terrorist is sophisticated enough to obtain and use plastic explosives, a small amount of which may be sufficient to destroy a building or checkpoint, act as an effective improvised explosive device (IED), or be effectively used to attack military and civilian vehicles and convoys, and which are very difficult to detect.
It is well-known that specially-trained dogs can detect such concealed explosives under the proper circumstances, despite the fact that the concentration of explosive in the air may be as little as a few parts per trillion. Chemical detection devices of exquisite sensitivity have also been developed, based on the principles, for example, of mass spectrometry, ion-mobility spectrometry, or gas chromatography. Very effective devices are shown, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,200,614 that issued to Anthony Jenkins and in U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,337 that issued to Anthony Jenkins and William J. McGann. Commercialized detectors that incorporate the technology of U.S. Pat. No. 5,200,614 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,337 typically function by initially rubbing a wipe over an article, such as a piece of luggage, that is likely to carry a trace amount of a composition of interest. The wipe then is placed in an apparatus employing the technology of U.S. Pat. No. 5,200,614 or U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,337, and an air stream is directed through the wipe to transport trace amounts of molecules of interest into the apparatus for detection. A wipe cannot realistically be rubbed across the entire body of a vehicle to test for substances of interest. Therefore, what has been lacking in the prior art is a rapid, convenient, effective means for such sensors to sample the intimate environment of vehicular subjects to screen for concealed explosives.
A hand-held sensor attached to one of the detection devices mentioned above has been used in the prior art to carry out a scan of a vehicle. Such a device is marketed by Nomadics®, Inc. of Stillwater, Okla. under the trademark “FIDO.” Some of the technology in this device is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,558,626. This type of device can be used effectively at vehicle border crossings for detecting the presence of certain explosives, chemical weapons, or narcotics. However, this prior art device would be very time-consuming when applied to the many thousands of vehicles, which pass borders and checkpoints each day, and would be perceived as an intrusive approach which would be likely to elicit objections if used on a significant proportion of those vehicles.
Less intrusive means of screening for concealed explosives have been proposed. As explained in U.S. Pat. No. 6,073,499 issued to Settles, many of these proposals are fundamentally flawed in assuming that the proper method for sampling vapors and particles is to disturb those particles horizontally, or vertically downward. As eloquently explained by Settles, rising from human subjects is a thermal plume. Efficient collection of particles and vapor from a human subject should be performed by leveraging this thermal plume.
Similarly, although not taught by Settles, nor demonstrated in the art, rising from most operating vehicles is a thermal plume. This plume carries dirt, dust, pollen, other particles, and vapor both from the surface of the vehicle and from the interior of the vehicle. This plume has a substantially larger volume than that produced by a person and typically rises much faster than that produced by a person.
Settles references U.S. Pat. No. 4,964,309 issued to Jenkins et al. and observes that particle and vapor sampling systems for human subjects based on air-curtains dilute samples as much as 100,000-fold, that the flow rate cannot be effectively reduced, and that Jenkins solution is “saloon-doors” which make contact with the body and which through suction sample air from intimate contact with the subject. There are several practical problems with a contact solution for sampling from vehicles. Nevertheless, the dilution problem is acute for any particle and vapor collection system, especially when such collection is from a large object, instead of the relatively small object, a person, contemplated in Settles.
Settles expresses that the referenced and above-described prior art perceived a need to strip, scrub, or otherwise dislodge explosive vapors and/or particles from the skin and clothing of human subjects. These vapors and/or particles are presumed to be stagnant and to require active disruption and removal in order to provide a sufficient signal to an explosives-detection analyzer. Further, Settles notes that air currents used in the prior art for purposes of dislodging particles from human subjects are generally oriented horizontally with respect to the vertical orientation of a standing human subject, or at least are not oriented vertically.
As does Settles, we observe that the prior art for sampling portals that avoid physical contact, whether for sampling from human subjects, vehicles, or other subjects, rely upon the movement of very large quantities of air compared to the thin layer of air surrounding the subject. This leads to a very great dilution of the chemical traces released by a subject with concealed explosives. Given such dilution, the task of detecting a vanishingly low concentration of explosive or other chemical trace in a large mass of air becomes essentially an impossible one. Further, the prior art devices generally sample only a small portion of the airstream they create. Since available explosive analyzers can accept only a very small sample size, most of the generated airflow is not examined at all for the presence of trace explosives. Solid particulates are not specifically sampled or, if they are, they are subsequently boiled off to present a gaseous sample to the chemical analyzer. This heating must be done carefully to avoid decomposing the very compounds one is looking for.
Settles notes that the prior art recognizes that some combination of explosive vapor and/or particulates is or may be involved in the proper functioning of an explosive-detection portal. It is further asserted that such portals have broader applications, i.e. in drug and hazardous-materials detection as well. Finally, it is noted that the functions of explosive detection and metal detection, as for concealed weapons, may be integrated into a single portal-type device.
However, neither Settles nor the prior art addresses the additional difficulties of sampling from vehicles. First, the fluid dynamics of a portal large enough to contain a vehicle is more complicated that the fluid dynamics of a small portal containing a human subject. The shape of a vehicle is typically vastly more disturbing to the flow of heated air around it, and substantially complicates the flow pattern in the portal. The temperature of the vehicle, especially in and around the engine compartment is substantially higher than that of a typical human subject, producing both more and hotter thermal plume than for a human subject. This plume rises more rapidly and can thereby more readily induce turbulence in its own motion. Thus we find that the prior art does not adequately teach the efficient capture of particles and vapors from a vehicle.
Further, in Settles, we find teachings related to the emission of skin particles by human subjects. As is evident to one knowledgeable in the art of many fields, including machinery, metal working, and biology, vehicles do not have an epidermis, and do not release flakes of skin into the environment. However, as one knowledgeable in the art of forensics knows, the exterior surface of most objects, perhaps especially vehicles, is covered with dirt, dust, pollen, adsorbed particles and vapors, and other “contaminants” that are characteristic of the environment and materials to which the vehicle has been exposed. These contaminants are constantly exchanging with the environment so that at any instant, contaminants that were previously on the vehicle's surface are liberated into the environment near the car, especially to the layer of air that flows to form the vehicle's thermal plume. Similarly contaminants from the environment are constantly arriving at and adsorbing to the surface of the vehicle. Thus, although the mechanism is different from that of human subjects, a vehicle is constantly exchanging contaminant material with its local environment.
We find, as does Settles that the role of the exchange of these contaminants for detecting trace contamination is not adequately taught in the prior art. Further, we find no evidence in the prior art that the exchange of contaminants between the surface of a vehicle and its surroundings has been taught. Since the feasibility of detecting materials of interest is directly related to capturing the material and passing that material to sensing device, clearly accounting for the vehicular thermal plume and the exchange of contaminants with the environment is a substantial component of successfully screening vehicles.
Finally, we find in the market a dearth of products suitable for the detection of vapors or particles of substances of interest. At this time, vehicle screening portals for radiological detection are essentially the only screening options available. Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated a drive-through trailer, roughly the size of an ISO container, which contains a shroud that is lowered onto the driver-side window of an automobile and which draws air through the shroud to a sampling apparatus. In all cases, the vehicle is driven into the portal and stopped. For radiological detection, the driver and other occupants are required to leave the vehicle. For the Sandia screening device, roughly two to three minutes is expended positioning the vehicle to be properly fitted by the shroud and then an additional 30 seconds is required to sample vapors. In all cases, the current art shows no evidence of drive-through vehicle screening portals nor of portals that can be passed in very short time, such time necessary to satisfy the throughput requirements of a border crossing or a traffic checkpoint.
The following discussion is based on Applicants' understanding of the underlying theories involving the invention at this time. The subject invention is based partly on the premise that the art of explosive-detection portals for vehicular subjects may be substantially improved by taking proper account of the thermal behavior of the air surrounding the vehicle, and of the natural particulate field generated by the continuous exchange of contaminants on the vehicle surface with the environment, especially the air immediately surrounding the vehicle. As will be shown below, such consideration is central to the effective detection of concealed explosives or other substances on the vehicle. Further, active stripping, scrubbing, or other removal of trace explosives from the vehicle by mechanical means or air-jet impingement is either unnecessary, insofar as this function is automatically performed by the natural behavior of the vehicular thermal plume itself, or only becomes necessary under such circumstances that the natural signal produced by the vehicle is too weak to detect. The concept of a “stagnant boundary layer” of explosive vapor on or near the vehicle, as described in the prior art, is actually not physically possible within the context of the known behavior of the vehicular thermal plume. In contrast with the horizontal orientation of air currents in the preponderance of the prior art, the subject invention takes advantage of the natural orientation of the thermal plume of an operating vehicle, or of a vehicle which is not operating, but has been standing in a heated or sunny environment, which, as discussed below, is vertical and upward. The prior art thus introduces airflow patterns at direct variance with the natural tendency of the convective airflow about the vehicle, leading to gross inefficiencies in the collection of a concentrated sample of air from the intimate environment of the vehicle.
The present invention is based on the inherent thermal and aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, and secondarily on the presence of a large number of particles and/or vapor in the air surrounding the vehicle. An operating or heated vehicle is normally several degrees warmer than the surrounding atmosphere (50 C being reasonable on the surface of the vehicle vs. 24 C room temperature). This causes continuous thermal convection to occur from the vehicle to the surrounding atmosphere. In fact, this circulation is both necessary and encouraged in internal combustion engines to ensure that the engine does not overheat. This fact is well known to one practiced in the art of internal combustion engine design or vehicle design.
The air heated by the vehicle, being warmer and less dense than the surrounding air, rises naturally according to Archimedes' Principle. This generates a boundary layer. For a vehicle, the boundary layer begins at the tires or wheels, which are heated by friction with the road surface when operating or by conduction from a heated road or parking surface when stationary, and travels up the sides of the vehicle, growing thicker and faster as it moves. The flow continues upward and near the upper surfaces of the vehicle this boundary layer detaches and continues its buoyant upward motion, forming the vehicular thermal plume. The vehicular boundary layer and plume are observed to form in about the same manner despite wide variations in vehicle height, weight, paint, etc.
It is thus essential to the present invention that the air in contact with the vehicle is not normally stagnant, but is in a constant state of upward motion. Moreover, the very nature of the motion of the vehicular boundary layer is such that every location on the surface of the vehicle contributes to it. Thus any location where explosives might be concealed all contribute to the buoyant airstream which eventually rises above the vehicle to form the thermal plume. In fact, heated air escaping the interior of the vehicle, whether forced out by the action of an integrated HVAC system, escaping due to the same thermal plume production process occurring on the interior of the car, or being drawn out by natural airflow around the car, also contributes to the plume. Traces of explosives concealed anywhere on or in the vehicle thus migrate naturally upwardly and end up in the thermal plume.
The subject invention operates on the principle that sampling desirably encompasses the entire vehicle in order to ensure that concealed explosives are not overlooked. The vehicular thermal boundary layer accomplishes this task naturally, so that one need only collect the thermal plume rising naturally above a subject vehicle to have a highly-concentrated sample from all locations on the vehicle. Moreover, insofar as this task is accomplished naturally by the vehicular thermal plume, it is highly undesirable to dilute and/or diffuse the plume by artificially-induced air currents, as is done in essentially all art prior to Settles in this field.
The subject invention also takes advantage of certain facts that are well known in the non-analogous forensic arts, namely, that vehicles exchange contaminants in the interior and on their surfaces with their surroundings. As noted by Settles, humans emit large quantities of skin flakes, which are suitable particles and carriers of materials of interest and coat nearly any object brought near the human subject. Thus, as can be demonstrated forensically, a human exposed to the compound of interest will give off skin flakes in copious quantities, some or all of which are contaminated with the compound of interest. These flakes will contaminate the environment of the human, including the interior and exterior of a vehicle that the human touches or occupies. Thus, the skin flakes described in Settles represent one component of the contamination on and in a vehicle which are collected by the subject invention.
The particles and/or vapor released by the vehicles are immediately caught up in the upward motion of the vehicular boundary layer, since their settling speed is typically only 1 mm/sec to, at most, 1 cm/sec.
Accordingly it is highly desirable to collect the rising warm air in the vehicular thermal plume and extract the solid particles and/or vapor it contains, rejecting the air and retaining only the small solid sample with adsorbed trace explosives. Both the vapor not retained and the highly concentrated sample is then presented directly to an appropriate device for analysis and detection, e.g. the instrument described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,558,626. Furthermore, concealed narcotics and other hazardous materials or controlled substances may be detected in the same manner, and a human mitochondrial DNA sample may be extracted from the captured skin-flake sample.
It is important to establish that although the following detailed description is framed in terms of the detection of concealed explosives, this invention has broader and more general applications as well. Specifically, the principles disclosed here may similarly be used to detect other illegal, dangerous, forensic, diagnostic, or otherwise interesting substances concealed upon or inside the vehicle, such as contraband drugs, incendiaries, money, and chemical/biological warfare agents. Further, it is possible with the invention disclosed here to collect a small sample of human particles and/or vapor shed by subjects passing therethrough, from which a human DNA sample can be extracted for purposes of DNA typing of individuals. One embodiment of the presently-disclosed invention may be used to detect trace biological signals emitted by the human body. Trace biological signals include an excess or shortage of proteins, chemicals, and other markers; viral or bacterial contaminants; and breakdown products of these items (e.g. formaldehyde from cancerous cells). These signals can be keyed to the subject's state of health, thereby allowing any of a wide variety of diseases to be diagnosed without direct physical contact, or for the subject's state of mind to be ascertained, perhaps to select agitated persons for further questioning. Changes in the subject's state of mind can be measured based on alkalinity or basicity, which are normally detected as “galvanic skin response,” a slight change in the chemistry of the skin. This change is also transferred to emitted skin flakes and to other vapors and particles emitted by the subject. The present invention may be used to detect traces of controlled nuclear substances, such as Uranium, which are difficult to detect by traditional radiation detectors. Finally, the invention may be used to detect trace vapors and particles from radiation shielding, which may be preventing the successful detection of controlled nuclear substances. In short, the invention is suitable for detecting target substances and is not preferential for any particular substance or class of substances.
The collection of the vehicular thermal plume without dilution by extraneous air is accomplished by an open, drive-through portal with an overhead collector, beneath which vehicular subjects may or may not be required to pause for a few seconds. This collector may have an inverted, contoured funnel shape, terminating in a filter, trap, or particulate separator and a single fan or blower which draws the air of the plume through the collector. The filter, trap, or separator may be any one of several different devices including 1) a mesh filter-type separator, 2) a cyclone-type separator, 3) an impingement/particle-inertia-type separator, 4) an electrostatic precipitator, 5) a cold trap, or some other device capable of functioning as a particulate separator. Likewise the explosive, narcotic or other chemical detector to which the resulting sample is presented may be a prior art detector, such as the detectors disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,200,614 or U.S. Pat. No. 6,558,626, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.
The portals of the subject invention capitalize on physical phenomena identified by the inventors herein and illustrated schematically in
The vehicular thermal plume cooperates with another physical phenomenon referred to above. In particular, the vehicular subject S continually exchanges microscopic particles and vapors as part of the contaminant exchange process described above. These microscopic particles and vapors are entrained in the upwardly flowing air A that forms the vehicular thermal plume illustrated schematically in
A drive-through screening portal for purposes of detection of substances of interest from vehicular subjects, or for the possible collection of human DNA samples, or for the sampling of airborne signals related to the state of mind or health of vehicular-borne subjects, is identified generally by the numeral 10 in
The sidewalls 12 and 14 and/or the ceiling 18 may further be provided with alternate detectors comparable to commercially available detectors commonly employed at locations requiring security. Thus, the substances of interest detection functions of the portal 10, as explained herein, may be carried out simultaneously with additional detection functions in an apparatus that is dimensionally comparable to currently employed vehicle screening portals.
Portions of the ceiling 18 that cover the open passage 16 define an inverted contoured funnel 20 that gradually tapers to smaller cross-sectional dimensions at locations further above the passage 16. The funnel 20 is operative to collect the rising thermal plume generated by the vehicle as explained above. The smaller cross-sectional portions of the funnel 20 are provided with a filter, trap or separator identified generally by the numeral 22 in
A fan 24 or other air circulation generator is provided to generate an airflow that will direct the vehicular thermal plume through the trap 22.
The air drawn through the fan 24 then is expelled to the environment. A conveyor 26 is further provided to present the trap 22 to a substance detector 28 which is schematically illustrated in
As shown in
An alternate portal is identified generally by the numeral 40 in
The impact of external air currents can be minimized without the provision of a mechanical sliding door as part of the portal. In this regard,
The portal 10 of the subject invention need not be dimensionally comparable to current commercially available detectors. Rather,
The placement of windows or cameras in sidewalls 52 and 54 further enable observation of vehicular subjects and their occupants by security personnel working near the portal 50. This ability to observe vehicular subjects and occupants can lead to visual observation of erratic behavior that may justify more detailed searching.
While the invention has been described with respect to a preferred embodiment, it is apparent that various changes can be made without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
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|Cooperative Classification||G01N1/24, G01N1/2214, G01N2001/024|
|Sep 22, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NOMADICS, INC., OKLAHOMA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CUMMING, COLIN;TOWERS, ERIC;PRATHER, MARK;REEL/FRAME:016838/0457
Effective date: 20050830
|Oct 16, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 15, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FLIR DETECTION, INC., OKLAHOMA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NOMADICS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:034509/0892
Effective date: 20140320
|Nov 27, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Apr 15, 2016||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jun 7, 2016||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20160415