|Publication number||US7362946 B1|
|Application number||US 09/543,330|
|Publication date||Apr 22, 2008|
|Filing date||Apr 5, 2000|
|Priority date||Apr 12, 1999|
|Publication number||09543330, 543330, US 7362946 B1, US 7362946B1, US-B1-7362946, US7362946 B1, US7362946B1|
|Inventors||Julie Rae Kowald|
|Original Assignee||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (22), Referenced by (84), Classifications (18), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to the editing of raw motion picture footage and, in particular, to the extraction of information from a sequence of image clips obtained from film or video image information to facilitate editing of the raw footage to provide a desired result. Specific implementations are concerned with the automated editing of the source image materials to provide a rhythmic sequence of clips that captures the essence of the raw footage whilst reducing the playback time so as to avoid reproduction of portions of footage likely to be of little interest, and also to the identification of significant events in the footage, the placement of titles, and to the extraction of a series of individual frames for printing which are representative of the original footage.
The creation of smooth, rhythmic edited results from raw video or film stock requires specialised skill in order to produce interesting and entertaining results. When dealing with film, typically the film stock is converted into a video format so that the sequence of images can be readily manipulated with computerised assistance. Once the specific sequence is finalised using video editing, the original film stock may be cut and spliced in the traditional fashion thereby ensuring high quality reproduction. Such a process therefore relates to the manipulation of video (either analog or digital-based) which requires skills in a number of areas including digital film effects, editing and sound design. Such skills are rarely possessed by one person and each take advanced training sometimes only ever achieved from years of working in the film production industry.
Amateur video makers rarely have the time, expertise and sophisticated equipment necessary to achieve the results a professional film maker might obtain given comparable source material. The amateur results are, in most cases, only subjectively interesting to participants of the video, and often the interest of non-participant audiences are found to wane early in the screening. Such a lack of interest, in many cases arises from the poor application of editing techniques that can otherwise turn somewhat “ordinary” original footage into an entertaining final edited version. Basic editing and production techniques commonly used by professionals that are missing from amateur video include incorporation of attractive titles, a rhythmic approach to editing, the appropriate use of transitions and cuts, sound and backing tracks and also the application of digital effects such as colour correction, and particle animations, and also the application of different shot types.
The editing of original footage requires placing clips in a sequence corresponding to the order in which they were originally derived. Current tools available to amateurs and professionals alike include software that may operate on personal computers (PC's), with or without a video card, and which is configured to manage a linear time line for editing purposes. Hardware such as dual video cassette recorders (VCR's) may be used to allow sequencing from the original source tape to a new tape. Editing by either method is a time consuming task, as both solutions require a “hands on” approach of manually slotting each clip into its place in the sequence. Transitions such as dissolves or cross-fades must also be placed manually and often impose heavy processing demands on computer aided production devices. Also, the correct understanding of transitions and where they should be used is often lacking with respect to the amateur video maker, and often results in inappropriate or excessive use or the draining of resources from the production system, only to achieve an unprofessional result. The current dual VCR approach is fraught with problems. For example, should the amateur wish to amend any part of the video after editing is completed, the entire process must be re-performed.
The placement of titles in the edited video must also be done by first analysing the footage to determine new scene locations. This task requires some time relative to the amount of footage the video maker has available, as the footage must be carefully reviewed with in-out points recorded, and then further time is required for the title mattes to be inserted. To achieve an optimal result, alternate transitions to the rest of the video must be inserted when a new scene is introduced.
Insert titles, or “intertitles” as they are sometimes known, have been used historically in the production of silent movies to help convey information about characters and the story to the audience in the absence of sound. Insert titles are also used in modern day productions to facilitate comments on action, create humor, set time and location and provide for continuity between otherwise disparate scenes. The current method of producing insert titles has been performed by a person known as a typesetter who is given the written content by a writer of the movie or production. The typesetter is a skilled person who sets out the text either photographically, illustrated by hand or with the use of a desktop publishing system. Words are supplied in most cases by a writer who knows the context of the story and are often written in witty prose or, if conveying the setting of location or time, is generally direct and informative. Insert titles are incorporated into a short list for the editor to then sequence the titles into a movie. The duration of insert titles is largely set according to the number of words and syllables required to be comprehended by the audience. The genre and style of the production also alter the duration of titles as does the skill of the editor in maintaining continuity within the movie.
As a consequence, producing insert titles in a traditional fashion requires a number of people each with specialised skills. Writing the text for insert titles requires knowledge of the movie story, genre and an understanding of the culture of the audience. Typesetting the text in a fashion that reflects the genre of the movie requires special design skills, and placing the insert title within the movie sequence at an appropriate place requires the specialised skill of an editor. Thus, creating insert titles is a complicated expensive and time-consuming process.
Current methods of sound editing are highly specialised and the concept of embellishing the final edited rhythm with beat synchronisation is well beyond the scope of most amateur video makers. The time taken to analyse an audio waveform of a chosen sound track and then to synchronise video cuts is prohibitive, the cost of equipment is unjustified for most amateurs, and the techniques are even harder to manage with dual VCR editors.
It is an object of the present invention to substantially overcome, or at least ameliorate, one or more of the deficiencies associated with amateur video production.
In accordance with one aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a method of editing a video sequence comprising at least one clip, each said clip each having a determinable duration, said method comprising the steps of:
extracting from said sequence characteristic data associated with each said clip, said characteristic data including at least time data related to the corresponding said duration;
processing said characteristic data according to at least one template of editing rules to form editing instruction data, said editing rules comprising at least a predetermined cutting format configured to form edited segments based on a plurality of predetermined segment durations; and
processing said video sequence according to said editing instruction data to form an edited sequence of said edited segments.
In accordance with another aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a method of editing a video sequence comprising a plurality of individual clips and associated data including at least time data related to a real time at which said clip was recorded, said method comprising the steps of:
(a) examining said time data for each said clip to identify those of said clips that are associable by a predetermined time function, said associable clips being arranged into corresponding groups of clips;
(b) identifying at least one of a beginning and a conclusion of each said group as a title location;
(c) at least one said title location, examining at least one of corresponding said time data and further data to generate an insert title including at least a text component; and
(d) incorporating said insert title into said sequence at said title location.
In accordance with another aspect of the present disclosure there is provided a method of extracting a first number of individual images from a video sequence comprising a second number of individual clips, said method comprising the steps of:
(a) dividing said sequence into segments corresponding to said first number, there being a substantially equal number of said segments divided from each said clip; and
(b) for each said segment
(c) associating said representative frames to form said extracted images.
Other aspects of the present disclosure are specified later herein.
The present disclosure includes a number of aspects all intended to assist in the automated editing of raw video footage to permit satisfying reproduction. In one aspect, an automated editing tool provides for rhythmic editing of the raw footage in such a fashion so as to provide an edited version which captures the essence of the original raw footage whilst avoiding the inclusion of excessively long video cuts that might be perceived as non-entertaining to the viewer, or that surpass the attention span of the viewer. In another aspect, an arrangement is provided for extracting from video cuts a selection of individual frames representative of the raw footage so that a still-shot summary of the raw footage may be formed. In a further aspect, a method of providing insert titles into the edited versions to distinguish between different stages of the raw footage is disclosed.
In order for either analog video derived from the camera 20 or film stock 26 to be processed in a manner akin to the digital video data 16, it is necessary for each of the signal 24 or film stock 26 as appropriate to be input to a digitizer 28 which converts the respective signals into a digital image signal. The output of the digitizer 28 is provided to clip detector 30 which detects transitions between clips and forms metadata which is combined with the output of the digitizer 28 in a summer 32 to provide a digital video signal 34 effectively comparable to that of the signal 16 derived from the digital video camera 10.
The described arrangements may be implemented as a computer application program hosted in a Windows™ operating system environment developed by Microsoft Corporation. However, those skilled in the art will recognise that the described embodiment may be implemented on computer systems hosted by other operating systems. For example, the preferred embodiment can be performed on computer systems running UNX™, OS/2™, DOS™. The application program has a user interface which includes menu items and controls that respond to mouse and keyboard operations. The application program has the ability to transmit processed data to one or more displays, printers or storage arrangements, either directly connected to a host computer or accessed over a network. The application program also has the ability to transmit and receive data to a connected digital communications network (for example the “Internet”).
The described arrangements can be practiced using a conventional general-purpose (host) computer system, such as the computer system 40 shown in
The computer module 41 typically includes at least one processor unit 45, a memory unit 46, for example formed from semiconductor random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM), input/output (I/O) interfaces including an output interface 47, and an I/O interface 48 for the keyboard 42 a mouse 43 and optionally a joystick (not illustrated). The output interface 47 couples to an audio-visual output device 56 typically incorporating a video display and a loudspeaker arrangement. A storage device 49 is provided and typically includes a hard disk drive 53 and a floppy disk drive 54. A CD-ROM drive 55 is typically provided as a non-volatile source of data. The components 45 to 49 and 53 to 55 of the computer module 41, typically communicate via an interconnected bus 50 and in a manner which results in a conventional mode of operation of the computer system 40 known to those in the relevant art. Examples of computers on which the embodiments can be practiced include IBM-PC's and compatibles, Sun Sparcstations or alike computer systems evolved therefrom. Typically, the application program of the preferred embodiment is resident on a hard disk drive 53 and read and controlled using the processor 45. Intermediate storage of the program and any data fetched may be accomplished using the semiconductor memory 46, possibly in concert with the hard disk drive 53. In some instances, the application program may be supplied to the user encoded on a CD-ROM or floppy disk, or alternatively could be read by the user from the network via the modem device 52.
In particular, the digital audio stream 16 or raw footage 24 may be provided to the computer 41 in any appropriate manner including via a computer network and the modem 52, by means of portable memory device such as CD ROM 55 or directly for example to a “video” input of the I/O interface 48. In this fashion, the entirety of the raw video footage including each of the clips is available for computerised processing within the computer 41.
As seen in
Rhythmic Sequence Editing
If viewed in linear (time line) order, portions of the original footage are likely to be construed as being boring, uninteresting and the like. Rhythmic sequence editing relates to the editing of the raw video footage in a way that enhances viewer appeal. Through careful review of professional edited productions, it was determined that the interest of an audience tends to wane after certain, relatively short periods of time, particularly where there is little or nothing in particular upon which the images are focussed. This was appreciated as particularly being the case in domestically produced (amateur) video productions where the content recorded typically has more relevance to the actual film maker, rather than any future audience which is often comprised of family, friends or colleagues. This is to be distinguished from professional productions such as feature films, telemovies and the like where characters and/or action can maintain the interest of an audience even over what might be considered as an excessively long clip that may take numerous minutes to conclude.
A number of rules were then determined which may be applied to any individual clip in an automated fashion so as to achieve a best chance of reproducing the interesting content of any individual clip. The rules determined by the present inventor are effectively two-fold. Firstly, the present inventor has determined that, more often than not, the first portion of a clip, obtained immediately after depression of the record button 12 or 22 as the case may be, is typically of little interest or of poorer quality in amateur circumstances as this is usually the time taken by the user to focus the camera onto the subject of the clip. This typically occupies approximately one second of the clip and for this purpose, a first rule used in editing in a preferred implementation is to ignore the first second of any one clip. It is noted that the period of one second is relative and may be varied according to the duration of the clip in question or of the clips that form the original footage.
The second substantive rule is to divide the remainder of the clip into segments with each segment being one of a predetermined number of intervals each having a specific time period. In this regard, the present inventor has determined that by dividing a clip into segments, each of a predetermined time period, and editing out other portions of the clip which do not match the predetermined time period, allows for an effective compression of the amount of footage to the reproduced, whilst maintaining the essence of the clip and the linearity of the overall footage. In the preferred implementation, the present inventor has determined that clip segments of duration of about 4 and 10 seconds, are best used for the editing of domestic (amateur) video productions. It will be apparent that these time periods may be altered depending upon the specific requirements of the user, the type of source material provided, or, where one is used, the type of editing template selected (to be described below).
In this fashion, each of the raw clips 01-16 of the naval museum excursion are edited using alternate 4 and 10 second segments as required. As will be apparent from
From the example of
Based on the foregoing, a system for the presentation of a collection of clips can be based on the creation of a profile of the duration of clips and other time related metadata in order to apply a selected rule set, termed herein a “template”. A hierarchy of rules may be embedded in the template to accommodate clips of varying duration. For example, clips of only a few seconds or even frames can thus be managed in a manner different to those of hours or many minutes of duration.
Further, the manner in which individual segments are edited from the original footage may be varied according to the actual content of the footage. For example, whereas
Although audio detection for identification of interesting clip segments can be performed merely by examining peak values compared to a predetermined threshold, it is often advantageous for that threshold to be variable and reflective of a background noise level rather than total noise level. With this, the system may generate a profile per presentation of a clip collection or on an individual clip basis, for thresholded peak examination and identification.
The arrangements of
Further, the editing of raw footage may be substantially, or at least perceptually, synchronised to an audio track intended to be dubbed over the edited footage. This involves examining the audio track to identify an appropriate beat and adjusting the reproduction rate of either one or both of the audio or the video to achieve perceptual synchronism. For example, music having a beat of 120 beats per minute has 2 beats per second which divides equally into any rhythmic sequence having edited clips of duration which is an integer multiple of 0.5 second, such as the 10-4 sequence described above.
With the foregoing described automatic detection methods, and others to be described, it is thus possible to process raw video footage comprised of one or more clips to identify portions of interest which may form clip segments in an edited production that provides a rhythmic sequence of images more likely to attract and maintain the interest of a viewer.
According to a particular implementation, the actual rules applied in the interpretation of any raw video signal are established by a template arrangement which provides for the creation of edited video sequences based upon predetermined video production styles and which may be suited to different types of raw video image. Examples of templates each incorporating predetermined combinations of editing rules which may be used to edit raw video images to provide an edited sequence include:
Each different template is configured to provide a stylistically and structurally different result and is selected by the user to provide an interpretation of the raw video footage whether or not that raw video footage may be suited to the particular template selected.
The standard template is one that may be applied to provide a basic editing of a wide variety of source footage. The various attributes of the template are as follows:
Sequence is a time basis upon which the footage is cut to give a final edited result. Specifically a line sequence may specify the actual duration of edited clips, which in the above example accords to a 10-4 second format. Other formats such as 12-4 or 12-6 may alternatively used.
Duration is generally determined by the number and duration of clips in the raw footage. The overall edited sequence duration may be forced to map to the duration of an accompanying audio track intended to be dubbed into the edited video. Such may not however be appropriate for audio tracks longer than seven minutes.
Transitions between edited clips are preferably achieved using a four frame cross fade between each clip.
(iv) Cutting Rule:
In a preferred implementation, a number of cutting rules are applied as follows:
(a) Clips are cut in chronological order.
(b) Remove one second from the beginning and end of each original clip before determining a new clip cut length.
(c) Add a 12 frame cross fade between two edited clips taken from same original raw clip.
(d) Where possible apply the 10-4 rhythmic cutting sequence.
(e) When the duration of the clip allows more than one clip to be cut, always ensure the remaining duration allows for 1 second to be omitted from the end, and 4 seconds to omit from between the two clips.
Cutting Rule Example—Standard Template
If the first raw clip is less than 7 seconds, cut to 4 seconds. If the raw clip is 7 seconds, but less than 10, time stretch the original raw clip to 12 seconds and then cut the stretched clip down to provide a 10 second (somewhat slower motion) clip. If the next original raw clip is 14 seconds or more, and less than 20 seconds, omit the first second and cut the next 4 seconds, omit the next 4 seconds, cut the next 4 seconds, omit the remainder until the end of the end of the raw clip. If the next raw clip is 20 seconds or more, omit the first second, cut 4 seconds, skip the next 4 seconds, cut the remaining 10, omitting the remainder up to 27 seconds. If the next clip is 28 seconds or more, omit the first second, cut 4 seconds, skip the next 4 seconds, then cut 10 seconds, omit the next 4 seconds, cut 4 seconds, and omitting the remainder up to 38 seconds.
This relates to any visual effects that may be applied to the video footage. In the standard template no effects are applied.
(vi) Time Stretching:
Time stretch the last clip of the edited video up to 200% to make a new duration of 12 seconds. Omit the first and last seconds of the clip by cutting it down to 10 seconds. Fade out to black or template default for the last 3 seconds.
The audio is beat stretched to suit the sequence (either increased or decreased to achieve the best possible match).
(a) An editable title matte is placed in sequence duration during the first 10 seconds from which a fade occurs to the first clip. An editable “The End” matte is provided in sequence at the conclusion of the edited clip.
(b) Editable scene and cast masts may be provided and need not be placed in sequence.
(i) Sequence: 12-4 seconds
In this regard, since romance type footage is typically more sedate, and thus the sequence duration is extended slightly compared to the 10-4 sequence to give a more relaxed, slower pace.
Duration is generally determined by the number and duration of clips in a directory. The duration sequence can be forced to map to an audio track duration although this is not recommended for tracks longer than seven minutes.
For 12 second clips, fade-in to the next clip from 0 to 100% opaque with the last 2 seconds before the current clip ends. Use a four frame cross fade between each clip.
(iv) Time Stretching:
(a) Slow the speed of clips by stretching the duration to 150% thus giving a more relaxed, romantic feel.
(b) Stretch the speed of the last clip up to 200% to make a new duration of 12 seconds (creating the effect of slow motion), omit the first and last second of the clip by cutting it down to 10 seconds, and applying a fade out to black template over the last 3 seconds of those 10 seconds.
(v) Cutting Rule:
(a) Cut in chronological order.
(b) Remove 1 second from the beginning for determining a new clip cut length.
(c) Add a 2 second cross fade between the two clips taken from the same shot.
(d) When the duration of a clip allows more than one clip to be cut, always ensure the remaining duration allows for 1 second to be omitted from the end and 4 seconds to be omitted from between the two clips.
Cutting Rule Example—Romance Montage
If the first raw clip is less than 8 seconds, cut to 4 seconds. If the clip is 8 seconds but less than 12 seconds, time stretch to 14 and cut down to 12 seconds. If the next raw clip is 14 seconds or more and less than 20 seconds, omit the first second, cut the next to 4 seconds, omit the next 4 seconds, cut the next clip to 4 seconds, omit the remaining until 20 seconds. If the next raw clip is 20 seconds or more, omit the first second, cut 4 seconds, skip the next 4 seconds, then cut the remaining 12 seconds omitting the remainder up to 27 seconds. If the next raw clip is 28 seconds or more, omit the first second, cut 4 seconds, skip the next 4 seconds then cut 12 seconds, omit the next 4 seconds, cut 4 seconds omitting the remaining up to the 38 seconds.
Utilise an animated fog filter to provide a misty “romantic” appearance.
Beat stretch/compress the audio to suit the video sequence so as to increase or decrease to achieve the best possible match.
(a) Editable title matte placed in sequence duration 10 seconds with a fade to the first clip.
(b) Editable “The End” matte provided in sequence.
(c) Editable scene cast and mast provided but not placed into any particular sequence.
The sequence in this example is dependent on the audio beat, since generally the video is intended to complement the audio, not vice versa (as it sometimes may appear). For example, for music with less than 100 beats per minute, the 10-4 sequence is used as a basis. For beats equal to or exceeding 100 beats per minute, an 8-3 basis sequence can be used. In each case the actual clip intervals are adjusted to permit substantial beat synchronisation. For example, with music at 96 beats/minute gives 1.6 beats/second, the footage may be cut in a sequence of 10 seconds and 3.76 seconds thereby approximating 16 and 6 beats respectively and providing perceptual synchronism.
General four frame cross fade between each clip.
Duration of the cut sequence is forced to map to audio track duration. This is not recommended for tracks longer than six minutes.
(iv) Cutting Rule:
(a) Cut in chronological order.
(b) Remove 1 second from the beginning and end of each original clip before determining new clip cut length.
(c) Add a 12 frame cross fade between clips taken from the same shot.
(d) Apply the (eg. 10-4) rhythmic cut sequence.
(e) When the duration of a clip allows for more than one clip to be cut, always ensure the remaining duration allows for one second to be omitted from the end and 4 seconds to omit from between the two clips.
Cutting Rule Example—Music Video (for the 10-4 Sequence)
If the first raw clip is less than 7 seconds, cut to 4 seconds, if the clip is 7 seconds but less than 10 seconds, time stretch to 12 seconds and cut down to 10 seconds. If the next raw clip is 14 seconds or more and less than 20 seconds, omit the first second, cut the next 4 seconds, omit the next four, cut the next 4 seconds, omit the remaining until 20 seconds. If the next raw clip is 20 seconds or more, omit the first second, cut 4 seconds, skip the next 4 seconds and then cut the remaining 10 seconds omitting any remained up to 27 seconds. If the next raw clip is 28 seconds of more, omit the first second, cut 4 seconds, skip the next 4 seconds, then cut 10 seconds, omit the next 4 seconds, cut 4 seconds, omitting the remainder up to 38 seconds.
(v) Effects: None.
(vi) Time Stretching:
For a 10-4 sequence, time stretch the last clip up to 200% to make a new duration of 12 seconds, omit the first and last second of the clip cutting it down to 10 seconds. Fade out to black or template default for the last 3 seconds.
Although not preferred in order to ensure audio integrity, the beat may be stretched or compressed to suit the sequence and obtain a best possible match.
(a) Editable title matte placed in sequence duration 10 seconds for the first clip, fade into the first clip.
(b) Editable “The End” matte provided in sequence. Editable scene and cast matte provided but not placed in sequence.
The Quick Look template provides the user with a short running preview of all of the footage that may be presented within raw video content. The Quick Look template provides the preview within a designated default time period, for example 30 seconds, or to a time period specified by the user. The rhythmic editing sequence is applied to accommodate the original raw footage of a duration many times longer than the predetermined time period (30 seconds) by cutting clips to short durations of only frames in length. Clip speed may be altered in the range 100-600% for example and cut durations may range from a few frames to a few seconds. A variety of Quick Look templates may be formed as desired.
Quick Look Example 1
Clips may be cut into segments of ten frames and four frames in a fashion corresponding to the 10-4 rule mentioned above. In order to present more footage into these short durations, the footage is stretched sometimes up to 300% of the original play speed, and in some cases, the frame rate of the original footage is reduced. For example, using the arrangement shown in
Quick Look Example 2
In this example, a rhythmic cutting rule such as the 10-4 rule is not applied. The user specifies the duration of the Quick Look, which generally will be related to the overall length of the source footage. For instance, 5 minutes of raw footage may be desired to be compressed into 30 seconds of Quick Look reproduction. The user can adjust the cut lengths to be an even fraction of the overall duration. For a 30 second output, this may be formed of 30 one second segments spliced together. Each segment may be obtained by dividing each clip into 3 second portions, each separated by a 1 second (waste or cut) portion. Each 3 second portion may be compressed in time by 300% to give the desired reproduction duration. Thirty of these portions are then used to form the Quick Look preview. Where the raw clips are of varying duration, it may be desirable in the template to ensure a portion is extracted from each raw clip.
Quick Look—Comparative Example
This Example compares a number of Quick Look sequence rules against an Action sequence, as seen in Table 1 below:
set ‘IN’ point from start of clip
set ‘OUT’ point from end of clip
period to pass before setting next ‘IN’ point in
same clip when duration allows
skip clip if duration x% is smaller than cut
number of cuts that make a rhythm cycle
duration of cut in rhythm cycle
duration of cut in rhythm cycle
The above Examples only describe a few different template arrangements which may achieve a certain style of edited video reproduction. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the above rules regarding automated editing can be modified to establish alternative template configurations. An example of this is where different ranges of compression/stretch may be used based on the particular genre being manipulated. Examples of other types of templates can include those that reflect various established movie styles, such as “martial arts”, “sci-fi”, “horror”, “war” and “western”. Other styles such as “sports” and “action” may be used. Where desired, multiple templates may be applied to raw footage. For example, raw footage may be edited according to the romance template, and the edited version then further edited according to an action template. Further, where multiple templates are used in sequence or combined, a hierarchy of the various rules may be applied, not to override any particular effect, but to permit priority ordering of the rules and their application.
In each instance, the particular style is founded upon the use of a number of standard edited clip lengths (eg. 10-4, 12-4) which have been found to be generally applicable to the style of edited reproduction that is desired. Although the above templates supply only two base clip lengths, a further number of clip lengths may be used depending upon the particular circumstances. For example, wild life or scenic footage may be well suited to the editing of longer clips, at least intermittently with clips of shorter duration. Further, although the 10-4 and 12-4 format is preferred in the various templates described above, other durations may be used. Typically, the “shorter” duration will typically be of a period of between 1 and 8 seconds with the longer duration being between 12 and 20 seconds. Also, the 1 second cutting from the commencement of each clip can be varied. Typically, any period between 0.5 and 2 seconds may be used. Further, the 2 second interval between the selection of edited segments may be varied. Durations of 1 to 5 seconds may be appropriate. Further, whereas the embodiment of
The system cuts the raw footage according to the chosen template structure using its rhythmic sequence in appropriate transitions, beat synchronised music and to add digital effects. Examples of such effects include altering the original colour palette, fog filtering the image, and distorting the image. In this fashion, the rhythmic sequence editing system described herein applies the skills of a film editor, sound editor and special effects editor to the source video taken by an amateur thereby allowing the amateur to be free to direct the rearrangement of the video to modify, adjust or simply appreciate the results. The process of applying these effects to the raw video is fast and is well suited to off-line (ie. non real-time) processing within the computer system 40. Such a process also frees the amateur film maker to make higher level decisions regarding the content of the edited video rather than consuming time through the repetitive task of placing transitions and in-output points in their clips. The arrangement also permits real-time operation. For example, for a given raw video source, a desired template may be selected by a simple keystroke or clicking of the mouse 43 which results in the automatic editing of the video source by the system 40 and a rendering of the edited sequence to the output device 56 for immediate viewing by the user. Further, multiple windows may be operated permitting simultaneous real-time editing and reproduction of source video according to multiple templates. This, for example, can permit a real-time comparison between a 10-4 template and a 12-4 template thus permitting the user to an output that is more appealing.
In operation, the rhythmic sequencing editing system described achieves edited results by examining the metadata associated with the raw video footage to produce an edit decision list (EDL) which represents a combination of the information from the above-noted templates. Since fundamental rhythmic sequence processing can be performed solely upon the metadata, which includes clip number, duration, frame number and the like, and without any knowledge or need to access the actual video content, evaluation of the edit decision list can be achieved quickly and without requiring the video maker to devote (typically hours of) time setting appropriate in and out points. Once the edit decision list is created, the list is applied to the raw footage to select the appropriate bit sequences for reproduction. This may be performed in real-time or alternatively by copying the edited output to a contiguous reproduction file.
Where it is desired for further metadata to be derived from the raw digital footage, that footage is extracted from the storage 108 and provided to a metadata determination process 110 which acts to process the raw digital footage 106 so as to extract additional metadata 112 for combination with the original metadata 104 in a summing arrangement 114. The metadata extraction process 110 may include an audio extraction arrangement such as those indicated in
In order for beat synchronisation to be performed, an overdub audio source 136 is analysed by a beat extraction process 138 that identifies the beat of the source 136 which may be used in rhythmic sequence editing. The extracted beat 139 is input to the application module 118.
Also input to the application module 118 is a specific editing template 120 selected by the user via a multiplexer 122 from a repository of templates 124. As seen in
The combined metadata 116 may be represented as a list and retained with the edit display list 126 and may be used to mark edited clips of importance in the final edited sequence.
The edit display list 126 is input to a further application module 130 which interprets the edit display list to cut the raw digital footage stored in the storage 108 and extract appropriate edited segments. The application module 130 also extracts graphics, including animation and captions, together with any appropriate sound effects from a storage 132 for combination with the edited video to provide an edited video output 134. Where appropriate, the edit display list 126 can output beat control commands 156 to a beat adjustment unit 158 which is configured to alter the reproduction rate of the overdub audio source 136 so as to match the rhythmic sequence editing formed by the application module 130. It will be appreciated in this regard that in some instances it may be appropriate to substantially match the audio reproduction rate to specific edit intervals (eg. 10-4) or alternatively adjust the edit intervals (eg. from 12-4 to 11.5-3.5) to substantially match the beat of the audio source 136.
The edited video 134 may then be combined in a summing unit 140 with the overdub audio track derived either directly from the source 136 or the beat adjustment unit 160 as required. The summing unit 140 outputs edited audio-visual footage 142 which may be stored either in a storage unit 144 or directly output to a reproduction unit 146 for reproduction in a reproduction system 148 including a video display 150 and an audio loud speaker 152.
Insert Title Generation
The insertion of titles into an edited video production is desirable and can be achieved in the arrangement shown in
With reference to the traditional method of creating insert titles, the “writer's” role is facilitated by the user entered metadata 214 which supplies information regarding not only the clip duration and recording time, but also information regarding the story underlying the footage, any key scenes and movie genre. The metadata analysis unit 204 analyses the content of the metadata 214 to obtain information regarding the time code and clip duration. The time code metadata can be used to cluster clips taken at relative times.
For example, raw video may consist of shots taken early in the morning, around 7 am, later at 9 am and some shots taken around 12 midday. The metadata analysis 204 uses this metadata to establish three distinct scenes that delineate where any insert titles may be provided. The user can adjust the threshold of time clustering between clips where it is desired to alter a default preset within the ITG 200.
The ITG 200 supplies the content or prose of the insert title by cross-referencing the analysed metadata with a database of culturally relevant catch phrases, sayings and catchy slang words, extracted from the phrase database 208. The cross-referenced results produce witty insert titles that are contextually based upon the user entered metadata 214. The prose is placed into a professionally designed template extracted from the typeset database 210 and fulfilling the typesetter's role and removing the need for other graphic tools in manipulating the text. As appropriate, the graphical database 212 may be extracted to provide a matte backdrop for the insert title where this may be desired. A time code metadata and a set of rules that define the placement and duration of the insert titles completes the editor's role in sequencing the insert titles and thus creating a higher level of continuity and entertainment within the production. The duration of the insert titles may be determined by a number of factors including any rhythmic sequence editing being applied to the original footage, and the length of text to be displayed, and hence read by the audience. These factors may be incorporated into a template.
For example, a user may have taken a video of a scout's camping excursion and, using the ITG 200, the user enters a series of key words, describing the event as a whole and also for each specific scene identified by the system. The footage, as an event, may be described as: “camping”, “scouting”, “teamwork”, and “survival”. A first scene consisting of a shot of the scouts having fun while pitching tents is described by the user as “friends”, “fun”, “boys” and “help”. The system then uses these key words to establish the context of the event and to then present a catch phrase or list of catch phrases to the user from which a selection may be made. Examples of such catch phrases in this example may include:
The user makes a selection via an input 218, and the ITG 200 accepts then places the selected phrase at the beginning of the described scene. This is done by associating the selected title with metadata identifying the appropriate scene. In this fashion, the user can generate title mattes by supplying keywords on a scene-by-scene basis, or simply by describing the movie as a whole, and allowing the system to cross-reference the time code or other types of metadata. Title mattes can be produced that refer to common events that take place at a particular time of the day. For example, clips taken around noon may invoke suggestion of phrases such as “lunch time”. If clips commence at 7 am, a phrase such as “a new day dawns” may alternatively be suggested. Where appropriate, metadata obtained from a global positioning system (GPS) arrangement can be used to suggest an insert title having content indicative of the locality in which events take place. Cross-referencing in this manner may be useful for focussing a search for the correct title to suit the particular scene being processed.
The most basic scene identification is performed in an automatic fashion using the record time metadata associated with the raw footage. This is depicted in
As seen in
The foregoing rule-based analysis of time codes defines clusters of clips taken at similar times as well as those taken on different dates. In this regard, it is seen that clip 27 is taken at approximately 5.30 pm, whereas clip 28 is taken at approximately 6.45 am, clearly on the following day. These results allow for automatic insertion of scene mattes using the insert title generator 200 or an indication via a graphical user interface to the user of individual scenes.
The choice of insert title templates and the number of syllables, words and characters the audience must read acts to determine the duration of which the title mattes run. The ITG 200 uses the system of combining these factors to obtain a compromise of message comprehension, editing rhythm as well as the correct choice of font to ensure maximum legibility. Further, and where appropriate, the genre of the sequence may determine the insert title duration. For example, where the genre is one of tension or fear (eg. a horror film), the duration may be reduced to thus place stress on the audience when reading the insert title.
The duration of title mattes preferably matches the editing rhythm of the template structure described previously. A template structure consisting of the 10-4 rule preferably has title mattes matching the duration of 4 seconds. Likewise, the template structure consisting of a 8-3 rule could have title mattes matching a duration of 3 seconds. The ITG 200 acts to analyse the duration rules of the selected template to determine an appropriate duration for the insert titles.
In some circumstances, it may be that a template has a structure that accommodates the duration of title mattes conveniently. For example, a duration of 3 or 4 seconds may be sufficient to allow an audience to comprehend the message. In this fashion, the ITG 200 can include an input 120 from the multiplexer 122 identifying the selected template. In this fashion, the phrase database 208 may include an embedded rule for title duration thereby enabling the rule-based application 206 to specify an alternative duration in the event of a message exceeding the available duration required for comprehension. Such may occur in the use of stylistic dominant templates. Such templates consist of specific time format productions such as newscasting and music videos.
Productions that run for a short period of time, or have fast cuts with clip duration of less than 25 frames, require the messages on the title mattes to have a layout, word/syllable count, and typesetting, to suit the time available for the audience to comprehend the content. For example, if the duration of a title matte is only 14 frames, the ITG 200 acts to select from the phrase database 208 only short messages of one or a few words and, if the typeset database 210 allows, typesetting the message in a bold legible typeface.
Although the ITG 200 is described with reference to the arranged rhythmic sequence editing system of
Scene identification as described above with reference to the insert title generator 200 may be used not only to identify place holders for title mattes, but also for other elements such as the correct use of transitions. Specifically with reference to rhythmic sequence editing, the “fading” transition used for the beginning of a scene and the “fade out” for the end of scene will differ stylistically from other cutting techniques throughout the production as each represents a different meaning within the video production story.
The scene identification system when combined with the template structure of titles and rhythmic sequence editing allows for automatic placement of sound track and sound effects. The system processes this information and uses the result to know where title music should be placed and where sound tracks should commence. The beat of the sound track may be extracted and, depending on the particular video template rules, be either modified to match the editing sequence, to modify the editing sequence to match the beat, or to modify both, resulting in a synchronisation of the music and video cutting.
In this fashion, the rhythmic sequence editing system can produce edited, entertaining results for users who wish to view their video without having to spend excessive time reviewing the original raw footage. Since the raw footage contains shots often longer than intended, and sometimes shots that were not intended to be recorded at all, these may be edited in a convenient and substantially transparent manner to the user.
Print Frame Selection
A further editing process that may be applied to the raw video provides for the selection of individual frames desired for printing or for slide-show display which is indicative of the original footage.
As seen in
Step 258, where individual segments are processed to derive the best frame, acts to apply a number of rules to the individual frames within the segment so as to determine the best frame. Any one or more rules may be applied depending upon the circumstances of the raw footage and/or according to a particular template desired by the user. Research by the present inventor has found that the best or optimal quality image of any one clip occurs in the third quarter of the clip. Further, within any one segment, the present inventor determined a best frame will be found in the middle of any one segment. Depending upon the duration of the segment, this can limit the number of individual frames to be further examined according to other rules.
Other selection rules may be based on various processes that can be applied to the frames that occur within the segment. One rule can include the audio analysis as indicated in
Where multiple matches occur, user interface may be applied to resolve the issue to a single print frame. For example, each of the matching frames may be rendered onto the display 56 thereby permitting the user to select one frame for printing.
A further rule can include image analysis such a face detection whereby a print frame is selected based upon the detection of features indicative of a human face as opposed to background landscape information and the like. Face detection software and processes are known in the art and may be readily applied to the limited number of frames under consideration in step 258 of
An example of the formatted print output from the arrangement of
It will be apparent from the foregoing that a number of arrangements are provided that allow for the editing of raw video footage and the like to provide useful versions thereof that are likely to encapsulate the subject matter of the original footage without representing a burden for any person wishing to view that footage. Rhythmic sequencing editing provides a convenient reduction in the size of the original footage in a fashion that provides a stylistic reproduction devised to enhance and maintain the interest of the viewer of the edited version. Rhythmic sequence editing also supports the combination of the original footage with over-dub audio and for pacing the footage and audio in substantial synchronism so as to maintain the interest of the audience. The provision of insert titles either with or without rhythmic sequence generation provides for identification of various scenes within the footage to be reproduced to convey a story line and the like to the audience. Print frame selection arrangement allows for a still image synopsis of the original video footage to be obtained and reproduced in a convenient fashion. Since each utilize different combinations of processes in their generation, there is no guarantee, where they are separately applied, that rhythmic sequence editing and print frame selection will result in reproduction of the same video frame in each output.
The foregoing describes only a number of embodiments of the present invention and modifications can be made thereto without departing from the scope of the present invention.
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|U.S. Classification||386/278, 369/83, 386/E05.001, 360/13, 386/224|
|International Classification||H04N5/93, H04N5/92, H04N5/262, H04N5/91|
|Cooperative Classification||H04N5/765, H04N5/76, G11B27/034, H04N5/772, H04N5/85, H04N5/781, H04N9/8205|
|European Classification||H04N5/76, G11B27/034|
|Aug 16, 2000||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KOWALD, JULIE RAE;REEL/FRAME:011048/0278
Effective date: 20000809
|Jan 27, 2009||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Sep 14, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 4, 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Apr 22, 2016||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Jun 14, 2016||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20160422