US 738093 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATENTED SEPT. 1, 1903.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 5, 1902.
K0 MODEL- J I 3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
W|TNE$$E$5 A r INVENTUR ,4 ATTORNEY s m: NORRIS PETERS co: mctauma. WASWNGYON a c UNITED STATES Iatented September 1, 190?;
JAMES BRADY, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORIQASSIGNOR TO HORATIO R; PALMER, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., AND LYMAN s. LEASON, OF PIIILA;
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 738,093, dated September 1, 1903.
Application filed April 5, 1902. Serial No. 101,453. (No model.)
T0 at whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, JAMES BRADY, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the borough of Brooklyn, county of Kings, city and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Metronomes, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a front elevation thereof; Fig. 2, a similar view of the mechanism, the case being removed; Fig. 3, a plan view; Fig. 4, a horizontal sectional view taken on line 4 4c of Fig. 1; Fig. 5, a vertical sectional View taken on the line 5 5 of Fig. 1; Fig. 6, a detail view of the pallets of the escapement; and Figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10 diagrammatic views of the pallets of the escapement and various arrangements of the pins on the pin-drum.
In accent-metronomes of the type'usually employed the accented beat is obtained by employing a bell ringing mechanism by which a bell is struck on the beat which it is desired to accent. The beats are indicated by a uniform sound, while the accent is indicated by a different sound-that is, by the bell-stroke. By thus accenting a beat with a sound differing in quality from the sound of the regular beats of the measure the attention of the musician or other person using the metronome is distracted from the regular sound of the beats. Another objection to the bell is that there is great vibration to its sound, which vibration is apt to interfere with the securing of the musical note, which should be struck on the accented beat.
It is desirable in accent-metronomes that all the beats should be of the same quality of sound and that the accented beat should merely be of a greater volume, and one of the main purposes of this invention is to provide a metronome by which this result will be obtained.
A further object of this invention is to provide means whereby the operation of the pendulum will he more regular thanin the metronomcs of the ordinary type in which a helical or clock spring is employed and which will run longer at one winding than the ordinary metronome without any necessity of increasing the size thereof.
A further object of the invention is to produce a metronome of simple construction which may be simply and cheaply manufactured and which will be efficient in operation and have'longer life.
The casing l of the metronome, as shown, is hexagonal, but may be of any desired form in horizontal section and is cast in three Vertical sections 2, each section comprising two sides of the hexagonal casing. This casing is enlarged at its base to receive the operating mechanism, and the walls of this enlarged part are vertical; but from a point slightly above said mechanism the walls extend inward and are horizontal for a short distance. From the inner end of this horizontal portion the Walls extend upward and inward,so that the upper part is reduced in size and is tapered toward the top. The upper ends of the sections extend inward, as at 3, to form the top of the casing.
A base-plate at, which is substantially trian gular in shape, is secured to inward extending lugs or projections 5, which are formed integral with the sections 2 of the casing near the bottom thereof, one of said lugs being formed at the center of each section, the baseplate being secured to the bottom of these lugs by screws or other suitable fastening devices. In the center of this plate is mounted a vertical rotatable shaft 6, whose upper end passes through the top of the casing, and around the opening through which this rod passes is formed an upward-extending annular flange 7, which is externally threaded, a section of this flange being cast integral with each section of the casing. To tie all of the sections of the casing together at their upper ends, an internally-threaded cap 7 is screwed on said flange, said cap being provided with a central aperture, through which the upper end of the shaft 6 extends. One longitudinal edge of each section of the casing is grooved, as at 6, and the other longitudinal edge of each section is formed with a tongue 6 the three sections being so formed that when assembled the tongue of one section of the casing will engage and fit in the groove of the adjoining section, as shown clearly in Fig. at. It will thus be seen that when the base-plate is secured in position and the cap is screwed on the flange the sections of the casing will be securely fastened at their upper and lower ends and that other fastening means will be unnecessary. By this construction the casing is capable of economical manufacture and the parts thereof may be quickly assembled. As shown in Fig. 1, it is preferred that this casing be provided with openings through which the sound may escape. As shown, these openings are in the form of windows of the Gothic style of architecture; but of course they may be of any desired'shape to give to the exterior of the metronome a pleasing appearance.
Mounted on the base-plate within the cas ing is a standard 10, which supports at its upper end a horizontal pendulum-shaft 10, which is arranged radial to the central Vertical shaft. On the outer end of this horizontal shaft is rigidly mounted a pendulum 11, which is provided with the usual upward extending gage-bar 12, the weight 13 being slidable thereon, as in the usual form of metronome, to govern the speed of the beat. This gage-bar extends through a slot or opening in the top of the enlarged base of the casing and swings in front of the reduced upper portion thereof. To the front of this gagebar is secured or marked thereon the usual scale and index, by which the position of the speed-governing weight is determined, to secure the desired rapidity of beat. On the inner end of the shaft 11 is rigidly secured the pallets 14, and adjacent to these pallets is mounted the escape-wheel or pin-drum, which acts as a striking device. The pallets of the escapement are of the usual form, except that they are double faced. They are spaced apart on the shaft a slight distance, the lower edge of the inner pallet and the upper edge of the outer pallet being radial to the shaft on which they are mounted, said edges being beveled in opposite directions, as shown clearly in the drawings. The upper edge of the inner pallet and lower edge of the outer pallet are tangential and are also beveled in opposite directions for a purpose which willhereinafterappear. Theouterend of the pendulum-shaft projects beyond the support thereof and rests lightly on a small sounding-board 9. This sounding-board is supported on an arm of the standard 10 and is rotatably adjustable in order to vary the point of contact with the outer end of the pendulum-shaft. This board may be cutout, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, in order that by moving said board to bring the recess 9 toward or form the escapement-shaft the sound given out by the board may be slightly varied.
A vertically-movable frame 16 is mounted on a post 17 and is formed with the two horizontal arms 18, between which is mounted the vertical shaft 19, which is in the form of a broad-faced pinion. On this shaft is rigidly secured the striking device or pin-drum 20. This drum is provided with a plurality of series of tangential pins, each series being horizontally arranged around the drum, said pins being so arranged on the drum that those of any one series may be caused to engage and operate the pallets. It is desirable in accented measures that the first beat of each measure be accented, and in order to accomplish this without the use of a separate accenting mechanism certain of the pins of each series are spaced farther apart than other pins of the same series. The purpose of this is to give the pin-drum a greater speed of movement at certain intervals and to thereby cause certain of the pins to strike the cam-escapement with greater force than others. By thus striking the pallets an increased blow the end of the pendulum-shaft is driven against the sounding-board with greater force and produces a louder sound of the same quality as the softer beats.
Near the lower edge of the pin-drum is arranged a series 21 of pins, which are spaced equal distances apart around the drum for the purpose of giving unaccented beats. When it is desired that all the beats shall be equal in volume of soundthat is, without accent the pin-drum is positioned to bring this lower series of pins in position to engage the radial edges of the pallets of the escapement. The
operation of this set of pins is substantially the same as the escapement mechanism of the ordinary metronome, the movement of the drum at all times being such that the stroke or sound is uniform. Above this series of pins is a series 22, the distance between the pins of this series being just double the distance between the pins of the series below. The purpose of this is that when this second series of pins is brought in position to engage the radial edges of the pallets there will be a variation in the sound at each second stroke of the pendulum. Each pin first contacts with the beveled lower edge of the innermost pallet, and then as the pendulum swings slips off said pallet and contacts with the beveled up per edge of the other pallet. It will therefore be seen that as the distance between the pallets is very mueh less than the distance between the inner pallet and the pin that is next to contact therewith the movement of the pin-drum will be much less when a pin is moved from one pallet to the next than it will be when a pin is moved into contact with the innermost pallet. This greater movement of the pin-drum will permit the drum to attain a greater speed and will cause the pins to strike the innermost pallet with greater force than they strike the outermost one, thereby causing a greater sound on the first beat, and this produces what is known as double measure. This series of pins is placed in position to contact with the pallets when double measure is desired, with the accent on the first beat.
Above the second series of pins is arranged a series 23, by means of which triple measure is secured with the accent on the first beat. This series differs from the others in that it consists of two horizontal parallel rows of pins. The pins of these two rows are peculiarly arranged, as shown in Fig. 9 of the drawings, and the object of this peculiar arrangement of pins is to accent each third beat. In operation the pin-drum is adjusted to bring this double-row series of pins in such a position that the upper row of pins will engage the upper beveled edge of the inner pallet while the pins of the lower row will engage the beveled lower edge of the outer pallet. Each pin of each row of this double-row series will contact with only one of the pallets of the escapement. It is therefore necessary in order to get the three beats and have the accented beat in the correctrotation that the three pins be arranged as shown. It will be observed that the accent will be caused by the forward pin of each set of two striking the pallets and that therefore the accented beat will be given first by the upper row of pins and then by the lower row of this double series.
When the measure desired is double measure or a measure which is a multiple of two, a single series of pins may be employed,said pins being properly spaced apart on the pindrum to bring the accent on the proper beat. This is made possible by causing each pin to contact with the radial edge of each pallet of the escapement, thereby making two beats with each pin. vVhen triple measure is desired, with the accent on first beat of each measure, two rows ofpins must be employed, and one of said rows must be arranged to contact with the upper edge of the inner pallet and the other to contact with the lower edge of the outer pallet, as described and as shown in Fig. 9.
Above the double-row series of pins is arranged a fourth series 24, which is a singlerow series arranged in sets of two, the space between the pins of the sets being equal and the space between the sets being double the space between the pins of each set. W'hen quadruple measure is desired, the pin-drum is shifted to bring this fourth set of pins in such a position that each pin will successively engage the lower beveled edge of the inner pallet of the escapement and the upper beveled edge of the outer pallet thereof. It will thus be seen that as each pin contacts with each pallet the two pins of each set will give four beats and that the first beat of each four will be accented. Above this fourth seriesis another series of pins 25, and this latter series is arranged in sets of three, the spaces between the pins of each set being equal'and the space between the sets being double the space between the pins of each set. When sextuple measure is desired, the pin-drum is shifted to bring this upper set of pins in position to successively engage the lower beveled edge of the innerpallet of the escapement and the upper beveled edge of the outer pallet thereof. It will thus beseen that as each pin of each set of three will contact with both pallet-s six beats or impulses will be obtained and that the first of each six will be accented.
It will be observed that as six rows of pins are provided, each row being used to produce a certain kind of measure, the life of the metronome will be greatly lengthened, the wear being distributed throughout all the series of pins. In the metronomes of the ordinary type only one row of pins is employed.
Pivotally connected to the upper end of the frame 17 is the lower end of a rod 26, whose upper end is pivoted to the lower end of a crank-arm 27, which is mounted on the inner end of a stub-shaft 28. This stub-shaft is mounted in the front wall of the casing near the upper end thereof, its outer end projecting slightly beyond the face of the casing and having secured thereto a transverse fingerpiece 29, which is in the form of an arrow. Around the shaft 28 is formed in the front of the casing a circular face or dial on which are formed indicating-numerals O, 2, 3, 4, and 6.? The finger-piece 29 is secured to the shaft in such relation that when the arrow is turned to point to the 0 on the dial the pin-drum will be shifted vertically to bring the lowermost set 21 of pins into position to engage the escapement-cams. In this position all of the beats are without accent. When double measure is desired, with the accent on the first beat, the arrow is moved and pointed to the numeral 2 of the dial. This will brin the series 22 of pins in position to engage the escapement. l/Vhenever triple or quadruple or sextuple measure is required, with the accent on the first beat, the finger-piece 29 is pointed to the numeral on the dial indicating the number of beats in p the measure desired.
In metronomes as now constructed where the accenting device is separate from the measuring or heating device it is obvious that when the accenting device is brought into operation additional friction is produced, which will impose a drag on the mechanism and render it inaccurate. This serious objection is done away in my apparatus, since the same devices used for heating time are used for accenting.
The vertical post 17 is provided with annular grooves or notches 30, and the frame 16 carries a strong flat spring 31, which is bent to V form at a point about midway its length, the point of theV extending inward and riding on the post 17. The grooves in this post are so located that when any one of the series of pins on the pin-drum is brought into position to engage the escapement the V-point of the spring will snap into a groove in the post 17 and hold the frame against accidental vertical movement. A guide-bar 31 is sc ing rigidly secured to the shaft.
cured rigidly to the frame 16 and engages the central shaft 6 to prevent the said frame swinging horizontally on the post 17. It is obvious that any suitable means may be employed for this purpose.
On the vertical central shaft 6 below the escapement is loosely mounted a large drivinggear 32. This gear engages the broad-faced pinion 19, which constitutes the shaft of the pin-drum. Thisshaftofthepin-drum maybe mounted in any suitable manner in the arms of the movable frame; but it is preferred to support it on centering-points 3a. The purpose of employing the broad-faced pinion of the character shown is to permit of the vertical shifting of the pin-drum while still maintaining the pinion in mesh with the drivinggear. It is necessary to maintain these two gears in mesh at all times to prevent the driving-gear from freely rotating or racing when the pin-drum is being shifted.
Surrounding the vertical central shaft 6 is a long coil-spring 36, whose lower end is attached to the driving-gear, its upper end be- On the lower end of this shaft below the base-plate is secured a ratchet 36, which is engaged by a pawl 37, said pawl preventing the rotation of the vertical bar in one direction and thereby holding the coil-spring under tension.
It will be noted that the pindrum or striking device is free to rotate ungoverned whenever the pins are out of contact with the pallets, and that, therefore, its speed will increase from the time one pin leaves the pallets until the next pin contacts therewith. It is obvious, therefore, that in order to have a certain pin strike one of the pallets with greater force than other pins it is only necessary to increase the distance between that pin and the preceding pin, and thus permit the striking device or pin-drum to have a greater racing or ungoverned movement, whereby it will attain a greater speed. It will also be noted that because of this the striking device or pin-drum will rotate at different speeds at intervals in its rotation.
By arranging the main shaft vertically in the center of thecasing and extending it upward through the top of the machine I not only provide a convenient means of rewinding the spring, but also provide for the use of a long spring of the torsional type. This type of spring is vastly superior to the ordinary convolute clock spring usually employed in metronomes, as more power with a given length of spring can be stored up and the power will be given off more regularly, so that when a spring of this type is employed with a Geneva stop-movement, hereinafter described, great accuracy of movement can be obtained, especially when the stop device is so arranged that only the middle portion of the run of the spring is employed.
Secured to the shaft 6 below the gear is one member of an ordinary Geneva stop-movement, the other member thereof being carried by the driving-gear. The purpose of this stop-movement is to prevent the coilspring being wound too tight on the shaft. This stop-movement may be of any desired construction. The upper end of the shaft 6 above the casing is provided with a thumbpiece 38, by which the shaft may be rotated for the purpose of winding the spring, said thumb-piece being shown in the form of an arrow or weather-vane.
The operation and advantages of the invention will be readily understood from the foregoing, and, as various changes in the details of construction may be made without departing from the scope of the invention, I desire it understood that I do not wish to limit myself to the exact construction shown and described.
While the preferred form of my invention embodies as a sounding device a tappet-shaft, which, as shown, is the oscillating pendulumshaft carrying the pallets, adapted to strike against a suitable resonant device, such as a sounding-board, and a pin-drum as a striking device, this drum being ungoverned eX- cept by said tappet device and being springac'tuated, it will be understood that in its broadest aspect the invention contemplates the employment of any suitable sound-producing means when used in conjunction with a movable striking device and means for moving the striking device at different speeds to produce sounds of different degrees of volume but of the same character.
Having thus described my invention, wha I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In a metronome, the combination of a sound-producing means, of a rotatable striking device adapted to operate said sounding means, and means for moving the striking device at different speeds and with different degrees of force during each revolution thereof to produce sounds of different degrees of volume.
2. In a metronome, a rotatable striking device in combination with means for moving said device at different speeds and with different degrees of force during each revolution thereof, to produce sounds of different degrees of volume.
3. In a metronome, the combination of a sound-producing means, a rotatable striking device provided with an annular row of pins adapted to operate said sounding means, and means for moving the striking deviceat different speeds and with different degrees of force during each revolution thereof to cause the pins to operate the sounding device to produce sounds of different degrees of volume.
4. In a metronome, the combination of a sound-producing means, a rotatable striking device provided with an annular row of pins which are unequally spaced apart at intervals and are adapted to operate the sounding means, and means for moving the striking de-' IIO vice at different speeds and with different degrees of force during each revolution thereof to cause the pins to produce sounds of different degrees of volume.
5. In a metronome, the combination with a pin-drum provided with an annular row of pins, of escapement-pallets in position to be engaged by the pins during the rotation of the pin drum, said pins being unequally spaced apart at intervals around the drum, whereby some of the spaces between the pins will be longer than others the longer spaces being equal and the shorterspaces being equal and an ungoverned means for rotating the pin-drum freely whereby the speed of the drum will be accelerated atintervals according to the spacing of the pins.
6. In a metronome, the combination with the pin-drum provided with an annular row of pins, said pins being unequally spaced apart at intervals, escapement-pallets in position to be engaged by said pins, the pallets intermittently arresting the movement of the drum to cause said drum to have a step-bystep movement, and an ungoverned means for rotating the drum said means accelerating the speed thereof during the longer steps to cause some of the pins to strike the escapement-pallet with greater force than other of said pins.
7. In a metronome, the combination with a pin drum, a sound producing means, said means permitting said drum to have a stepby-step rotary movement, and an ungoverned means for rotating the said drum, said means accelerating the speed of the drum during some of the steps of its movement, and consequently the force of the blow against the sound-producing means.
8. In a metronome, the combination of a pendulum-shaft, a pendulum mounted thereon, a pair of pallets on said shaft, a pin-drum, an annular row of pins on said drum arranged in sets and in position to engage the pallets whereby the drum is permitted to have a stepby-step rotary movement, the pins of each set being equally spaced apart and the space between the sets being greater than the distance between the pins of each set whereby the drum will be permitted to make a series of short steps and then a long step and the long steps will be made at regular intervals, and an ungoverned means for rotating the pin-drum freely when the pins are out of contact with the pallets to accelerate the speed of the drum during the long steps, for the purpose set forth.
9. In a metronome, the combination of a shaft carrying a pair of escapement-pallets, a sounding device adjacent one end of said shaft, a pin-drum provided with an annular row of pins adapted to contact with the pallets to drive the shaft against a sounding device, the pallets permitting a step-by-step movement of the drum and the pins being so spaced apart that the pallets will permit the drum to make a short step or a plurality of pendulum, asupporting-shafttherefor, apair of escapement-pallets mounted on said shaft, said pallets being separated from each other, a pin-d rum provided with an annular row of pins adapted to contact with the said pallets, said pallets stopping the drum intermittently during its rotation and the pins being unequally spaced apart at intervals around the drum to permit the drum to move a greater distance between stops at certain points inits re volution than at others, this increased movement being greater than the distance between the pallets, and an ungoverned means for freely rotating the pin-drum when the pins are out of contact with the pallets Whereby'sounds of diiferentdegrees of volume but of the same character are produced.
11. In a metronome, the combination of a pendulum, a supporting-shaft therefor, a pair of escapement-pallets mounted on said shaft, said pallets being separated a suitable distance and being beveled on their outer edges, a pin-drum provided with two parallel annular rows of pins one of said rows being arranged to contact with the outer beveled edge of one pallet, and the other row being adapted to contact with the outer beveled edge of the other pallet, the pallets intermittently stopping the rotation of the pin-drum, and the pins of each row being unequally spaced apart at intervals around the drum to permit a greater movement of the drum between some of said stops than between other stops, and an ungoverned means to freely rotate the drum when the pins are outof contact with the pallets for the purpose set forth.
12. A metronome comprised of a supporting-frame, a horizontal shaft therein, a pendulum on said shaft, a pair of pallets secured to said shaft, a pin-drum mounted adjacent to said palletsand provided with two annular rows of pins spaced at suitable distance from each other the pins of one row being adapted to engage the upper edge of one pallet, and the pins of the other row being adapted to engage the lower edge of the other pallet, and an ungoverned means for rotating the pin drum freely when the pins are out of contact with the pallets, the pins of each row being unequally spaced apart at intervals around the drum, for the purpose set forth.
13. In a metronome, the combination of a supporting-frame, a shaft therein carrying a pendulum and two double-faced escapementpallets, a pin-drum mounted adjacent the pallets and provided with a plurality of annular rows of pins, the pins of each row being IIO unequally spaced apart at intervals around the drum, and the pins of each row being differently spaced from the pins of the other rows, means for shifting the pin-drum vertically to bring any desired row of pins in position to engage the pallets, means connected to the shifting mechanism to indicate which row of pins is in position to engage the pallets, and an ungoverned means for rotating the pin-drum when the pins are out of contact with the pallets, for the purpose set forth.
14. A metronome, comprised of a supporting-frame, a horizontal shaft therein carrying a pendulum and a pair of pallets, a pin-drum, a plurality of rows of pins on said drum the pins of each row being unequally spaced apart at intervals around the drum, and the pins of each row being differently spaced from the pins of the other rows, means for shifting the pin-drum vertically to bring any desired row of pins into engagement with the pallets, a vertical shaft, a driving-gear loosely mounted thereon, a coil-spring secured at one of its ends to the gear and at its other end to the shaft, means to prevent the rotation of said shaft in one direction and a gear meshing with the driving-gear and adapted to freely rotate the pin-drum when the pins are out of contact with the pallets.
15. In a metronome, the combination of a supporting-frame, a vertical rotatable shaft mounted therein, a driving gear loosely mounted on said shaft,a coil-spring surrounding said shaft and having one of its ends secured to the driving-gear, its other end being rigidly fastened to the said shaft, means to prevent the rotation of said shaft in one direction, a horizontal shaft carrying a pendulum and a pair of pallets, a pin-drum carrying a plurality of annular rows of pins, the pins of each row being unequally spaced apart around the drum, and the pins of each row being differently spaced from the pins of the other rows, means for vertically shifting said pin-drum to bringany one of said rows of pins in position to engage the pallets, a pinion engaging the driving-gear in all positions of the pin-drum and rotating said drum.
In testimony whereof I hereunto affix my signature, in the presence of two witnesses, this 14th day of March, 1902.
JOHN G. PEARSE, WM. R. DAVIS.