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Publication numberUS7388367 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 10/578,560
PCT numberPCT/EP2004/052702
Publication dateJun 17, 2008
Filing dateOct 28, 2004
Priority dateNov 6, 2003
Fee statusPaid
Also published asDE112004001967A5, DE502004012073D1, EP1683261A1, EP1683261B1, US20070252587, WO2005046043A1
Publication number10578560, 578560, PCT/2004/52702, PCT/EP/2004/052702, PCT/EP/2004/52702, PCT/EP/4/052702, PCT/EP/4/52702, PCT/EP2004/052702, PCT/EP2004/52702, PCT/EP2004052702, PCT/EP200452702, PCT/EP4/052702, PCT/EP4/52702, PCT/EP4052702, PCT/EP452702, US 7388367 B2, US 7388367B2, US-B2-7388367, US7388367 B2, US7388367B2
InventorsPeter Stauder, Tom Kaufmann
Original AssigneeContinental Teves Ag & Co. Ohg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for determining the rotor position of a synchronous machine
US 7388367 B2
Abstract
The invention relates to a method for determining the rotor position of a stationary or slowly rotating synchronous machine by evaluating electrical test pulses that are obtained by applying voltage pulses to the individual phase windings of the stator, wherein changes in the inductance of the phase windings which are caused by saturation of the stator iron depending on the rotor position, are determined in opposite directions or current by calculating differences in the amount of current of two test pulses, and angle values being predetermined by the number of the phase windings are associated with the differences in the amount of current.
To enhance the measuring accuracy of the method, the invention provides that prior to the first test pulse Imeas1, a bias pulse Ibias whose polarity is inverted in relation to the first pulse Imeas1 is generated, with the switch-on times t1 of the associated voltage pulses Ubias and −Umeas1 being equal, and in that the respectively first test pulse Imeas1 generated in the corresponding phase winding (U, V, W) acts as a bias pulse in the same phase winding (U, V, W).
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Claims(17)
1. A method for determining a rotor position of a stationary or slowly rotating synchronous machine, the method comprising:
evaluating electrical test pulses that are obtained by applying voltage pulses to the individual phase windings of the stator, wherein changes in the inductance of the phase windings which are caused by saturation of a stator iron depending on the rotor position, are determined in opposite directions of current by calculating differences in an amount of current of two test pulses, and angle values being predetermined by a number of the phase windings are associated with the differences in the amount of current, wherein prior to the first test pulse Imeas1, a bias pulse Ibias whose polarity is inverted in relation to the first pulse Imeas1 is generated, with the switch-on times t1 of the associated voltage pulses Ubias and −Umeas1 being equal, and in that the respectively first test pulse Imeas1 generated in the corresponding phase winding (U, V, W) acts as a bias pulse in the same phase winding (U, V, W).
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein defined angle offset values are added to angle values being associated with the differences in the amount of current ΔI when the test pulses Imeas are evaluated, and the so produced pairs of values are compared with a reference characteristic curve, and the sum of the squares of the comparison results is produced and stored together with the associated angle offset value in a memory, whereupon the minimum of the sum is determined and the associated angle offset value φstart is issued as the measured rotor position.
3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the angle offset values are limited to an angular range being defined by the evaluation of the signs of the established differences in the amount of current.
4. The method according to claim 2, wherein several cycles of evaluation are performed consecutively with decreasing distances between the angle values.
5. The method according to claim 2, wherein the reference characteristic curve is adapted to the detected differences of the amount of current.
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the minimum of the sum of the squares of the comparison results is used as a criterion of the quality of the determination of the rotor position.
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein one or more compensation pulses Ucomp are generated in order to increase the current decline gradient of the biasing pulse Ibias and the test pulses Imeas.
8. The method according to claim 1, wherein two or more phase windings are connected with defined potentials for a fixed time t1 in order to generate a test pulse Imeas.
9. The according to claim 1, wherein in order to generate a test pulse Imeas in motors having a star connection, one or more phase windings and a star point are connected with defined potentials for a fixed time t1.
10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the fixed time t1 is chosen depending on the voltage Umeas necessary to produce the test pulses Imeas and applied to the phase windings.
11. The method according to claim 9, wherein the fixed time t1 is chosen depending on a temperature of the synchronous machine 1.
12. The method according to claim 9, wherein the fixed time t1 is gradually extended until a desired current amplitude of the test pulse Imeas is reached.
13. The method according to claim 1, wherein the current amplitude of all test pulses Imeas is determined using one single means of measurement.
14. The method according to claim 1, wherein a current measuring device serving to determine the current amplitude of all test pulses Imeas is associated with the synchronous machine (1).
15. The method according to claim 14, wherein the change in the rotor position due to the moment reaction of the test pulses Imeas is measured, and the angle values associated with the differences of the amount of current are corrected depending on the measurement.
16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the voltage applied to the phase windings is monitored during the switch-on time t1 of the voltage pulses Umeas, and the test pulse Imeas is repeated in the event of a deviation from a predetermined tolerance.
17. The method according to claim 1, wherein the current amplitude Imeas of the voltage pulses Umeas is monitored during their switch-on time t1, and that the test pulse Imeas is repeated in the event of a deviation from a predetermined tolerance.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method for determining the rotor position of a stationary or slowly rotating synchronous machine by evaluating electrical test pulses that are obtained by applying voltage pulses to the individual phase windings of the stator, wherein changes in the inductance of the phase windings which are caused by saturation of the stator iron depending on the rotor position, are determined in opposite directions of current by calculating differences in the amount of current of two test pulses, and angle values being predetermined by the number of the phase windings are associated with the differences in the amount of current.

A method of this type is e.g. disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,172,498 B1 being titled ‘Method and Apparatus for Rotor Angle Detection’. When the prior art method is implemented, test pulses of opposite polarity are applied to the individual phase windings of the stator, and difference values are produced from the pulses' amplitudes which are used to determine the general rotor position and, subsequently, to determine a correction value used to correct the general rotor position.

It is disadvantageous in this method that the residual magnetism of the stator iron being induced by the test pulses influences in each case the following test pulse so that the initial rotor position is not determined with a sufficient rate of accuracy, with the result that the measuring accuracy of the method is highly impaired.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the invention is to enhance the measuring accuracy of the method of the type mentioned hereinabove.

According to the invention, this object is achieved in that prior to the first test pulse, a bias pulse whose polarity is inverted in relation to the first pulse and whose switch-on time corresponds to the first test pulse is generated, and that the respectively first test pulse applied to the corresponding phase winding acts as a bias pulse in the same phase winding.

In a favorable improvement of the method of the invention, defined angle offset values are added to angle values being associated with the differences in the amount of current when the test pulses are evaluated, and the so produced pairs of values are compared with a reference characteristic curve, and the sum of the squares of the comparison results is produced and stored together with the associated angle offset value in a memory, whereupon the minimum of the sum is established and the associated angle offset value is issued as the measured rotor position. This provision achieves a further increase in the accuracy of the established rotor position by way of evaluating the reference characteristic curve which precisely reflects the characteristics of a reference machine.

It is arranged for in another favorable improvement of the invention that the angle offset values are limited to an angular range being defined by signs of the established differences in the amount of current. This provision achieves an increase in the speed of evaluation or a reduction of the necessary calculating capacity by way of a pre-selection of the result to be expected.

In order to achieve an increase in the speed of evaluation or a reduction of the necessary calculating capacity by an iterative refinement of the resolution of the rotor position to be established, the invention provides that several cycles of evaluation be performed consecutively with decreasing distances between the angle offset values.

In order to minimize a moment reaction of the test pulses to the rotor position by way of an active current reduction and to reduce the time of measurement, it is arranged for according to an additional feature of the invention that one or more compensation pulses are generated in order to increase the current decline gradient of the biasing pulse and the test pulses.

As this occurs, preferably two or more phase windings can be connected with defined potentials for a fixed time in order to generate a test pulse, or one or more phase windings and the star point can be connected with defined potentials for a fixed time, which holds especially true with motors having a star connection. The measuring accuracy is considerably enhanced by gaining further measuring points with additional angle values. If different inductances and resistances ensue from the additional angle values for the corresponding circuit configuration, the switch-on time of the test pulses must be adapted and/or the established differences of the amount of current must be multiplied with a scaling factor.

To increase the accuracy of the rotor position determination by an optimal utilization of the available range of current measurement, according to the invention, the fixed time is chosen depending on the voltage necessary to produce the test pulses and applied to the phase windings. In addition, the fixed time can be chosen depending on the temperature of the synchronous machine. This provision achieves an additional increase in the accuracy of the determined rotor position by a compensation of the change in resistance of the phase windings under temperature influences.

Should it be impossible to measure voltages and/or temperatures, the measuring accuracy is further increased by an optimal utilization of the available range of current measurement because the fixed time is gradually extended until a desired current amplitude of the test pulse is reached.

In another variant of the method of the invention which can be implemented in a particularly low-cost manner, the current amplitude of all test pulses is established using one single means of measurement. The omission of the measurement offset in the subtraction and the omission of scaling errors when several sensors are used allows enhancing the accuracy of the rotor position determination. Only one additional sensor is required to choose a range of current measurement which is optimal for the rotor position determination.

Alternatively, the current amplitude of all test pulses can be determined with a current measuring device which is associated with the synchronous machine, thereby obviating the need for additional sensors.

To further increase the accuracy of the detected rotor position by considering the measured change of the rotor position during the measurement, a favorable improvement of the subject matter of the invention provides that the change in the rotor position due to the moment reaction of the test pulses is measured, and the angle values associated with the differences of the amount of current are corrected accordingly in dependence on the measurement.

In another advantageous improvement of the method of the invention, the reference characteristic curve is adapted to the detected differences of the amount of current, with the result of achieving an adaptation of the reference characteristic curve to the characteristics of the synchronous machine in order to compensate series variations in manufacture.

According to another favorable feature of the invention, the voltage applied to the phase windings is monitored during the test pulses, and the test pulse is repeated in the event of a deviation from a predetermined tolerance. This provision is used to reject all test pulses which are corrupted by voltage sags.

In another variant of the method of the invention, it is provided that the current amplitude of the test pulses is monitored during their switch-on time and that the test pulse is repeated in the event of a deviation from a predetermined tolerance. This provision is used to reject all test pulses lying outside the tolerance.

Finally, according to another feature of the invention, the minimum of the sum of the squares of the comparison results is used as a criterion of the quality of the determination of the rotor position. Due to this provision all rotor position values are dismissed whose basic differences of the amount of current differ excessively from the stored reference characteristic curve.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

To explain the invention more closely, reference is made to the drawings in which one embodiment of the method of the invention for determining the rotor position is schematically illustrated. In the accompanying drawings:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a device for implementing the generic method;

FIG. 2 is a diagram of the dependency U, I=f(t) showing voltage pulses and current pulses of an idealized individual measurement in a favorable embodiment of the method of the invention, and

FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating the evaluation of the test pulses.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Referring to FIG. 1, reference numeral 1 designates a synchronous machine, and reference numeral 2 designates an actuation electronic unit associated with the synchronous machine 1. The actuation electronic unit 2 essentially comprises an actuation software module 3 and an output end stage 4, the output or voltage signals UU, UV and UW of which are applied to the phase windings U, V and W of the synchronous machine 1. The actuation software module 3 comprises a control module 5 for controlling the process of determining the rotor position of the synchronous machine 1 as well as a rotor position detection device 6 to which are sent output signals Δφ of a relative rotor position sensor 7, which reflect the change in the rotor position of the synchronous machine 1. The control module 5 comprises a test-value detection module 8, an evaluating module 9, a memory 10 in which a reference characteristic curve of the synchronous machine 1 is stored, as well as an interface 11 whose output signal is sent to the rotor position detection device 6. The test-value detection module 8 is basically comprised of a test pulse generator 12, a PWM unit 13 connected downstream of the test pulse generator 12, a measuring device 14, and a test value memory 15.

The mode of function of the circuit configuration illustrated in FIG. 1 will be explained in detail in the following text:

It shall be assumed that the synchronous machine 1 adopts a position of standstill, and initially the difference of the amount of current in the phase winding U is measured. To do so, a first potential is applied to the phase winding U, while a second potential is applied to the phase windings V and W. The switch-on time of the voltage thus developing is fixed by the test pulse generator 12. The PWM unit 14 puts the requirements of the test pulse generator 12 into practice by actuating the output end stage 4 in such a fashion that the desired voltage pulses are applied to the phase windings U, V, W of the synchronous machine 1. The application of the voltage pulse Ubias induces a current pulse Ibias in the phase winding U (see FIG. 2), which is used as a bias pulse and brings about a defined residual magnetization or remanence in the stator iron. To speed up the current reduction, a compensation voltage pulse −Ucomp of a shorter switch-on time t2 and inverted polarity is produced by the test pulse generator 12. Subsequent to the compensation pulse −Ucomp may be a waiting time to during which the current decays to zero. Following this step, a voltage pulse −Umeas1 with a polarity that corresponds to the preceding compensation pulse −Ucomp is generated by the test pulse generator 12, having a switch-on time which corresponds to the switch-on time t1 of the voltage pulse Ubias for generating the biasing pulse Ibias and producing a first current measuring pulse Imeas1 whose amount amplitude is determined at the end of the voltage pulse −Umeas1 in the measuring device 14. A compensation voltage pulse Ucomp is again used for the purpose of current reduction. Subsequently, a second current measuring pulse Imeas2 with an inverted polarity is generated in the same manner, whose amount amplitude is also determined by the measuring device 14. A difference in the amount of current ΔIU is produced from the detected amount amplitudes in the measuring device 14 and is stored with the associated angle value in the measured value memory 15. The described measuring operation is repeated also for the phase windings V and W.

In a next step, the pairs of values produced from the differences of the amount of current ΔI and the associated angle values are sent to the evaluating module 9 in which they are compared with the reference characteristic curve stored in memory 10. As is illustrated in FIG. 3, the pairs of values are shifted by an appropriate angle offset value φStart in such a fashion that the deviation from the reference characteristic curve is minimized. The per se known method of the minimum error squares is preferably used for this purpose. The angle offset value φStart is transmitted via the interface 11 to the rotor position detection unit 6 and used by this unit as a starting angle of the synchronous machine 1. For the operation of the synchronous machine 1, the rotor position detection unit 6 continuously adds the rotor position variation Δφ to the starting angle φStart.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6172498Sep 29, 1998Jan 9, 2001Rockwell Technologies, LlcMethod and apparatus for rotor angle detection
AT395487B Title not available
EP0793337A2Feb 27, 1997Sep 3, 1997Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaElectrical angle detecting device and synchronous motor drive device
EP1160966A1May 31, 2000Dec 5, 2001Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)Rotor position detection method for a brushless motor and device for carrying out the method
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7830105 *Jul 21, 2008Nov 9, 2010Rolls-Royce PlcElectrical machine
US7877170 *May 24, 2007Jan 25, 2011Verdant PowerRemanent voltage generator tachometer and control for induction machine
US8547047 *Jun 17, 2011Oct 1, 2013Kuka Laboratories GmbhMethod and device for monitoring a movement-controlled machine with an electronically commutated drive motor
US8907606 *Jul 15, 2010Dec 9, 2014Robert Bosch GmbhMethod and device for determining a rotor position of a synchronous machine
US20100045216 *Aug 20, 2009Feb 25, 2010Danfoss Compressors GmbhReduction of start-up sequence
US20110309782 *Jun 17, 2011Dec 22, 2011Uwe BoninMethod and device for monitoring a movement-controlled machine with an electronically commutated drive motor
US20120223665 *Jul 15, 2010Sep 6, 2012Robert Bosch GmbhMethod and device for determining a rotor position of a synchronous machine
Classifications
U.S. Classification324/207.25, 324/207.15, 310/68.00B
International ClassificationH02P6/18, G01B7/30, G01D5/20
Cooperative ClassificationG01D5/2006, H02P6/185
European ClassificationG01D5/20B, H02P6/18H
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 8, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: CONTINENTAL TEVES AG & CO., OHG, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:STAUDER, PETER;KAUFMANN, TOM;REEL/FRAME:017896/0296
Effective date: 20060306
Dec 15, 2011FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4