US 738960 A
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No. 738,960. PATENTED SEPT.15 ,1903.
H. VAUGHAN&J. W. ARROWSMITH.
CLINICAL THERMOMETER SHIELD.
APPLICATION nun JULY 1a, 1993 no MODEL.
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No, 738,966. Iatented September 15, 1903.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFF CE.
HARRY VAUGHAN AND JAMES W. ARROWSMITH, OF MORRI STOWN,
' NEW JERSEY.
CLlNlCAL-THERMOMETER S HIELD.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 738,960, dated September 15, 1903. Application filed July 13, 1903. Serial No. 165.364- (ll'o model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that we, HARRY VAUGHAN and J AMESW. Annowsivnrmcitizen's of the United States, residing at Morristown, in the county of Morris and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Clinical- Thermometer Shields, of which the following is a specification.
Our invention relates to clinical-thermomero ter shields; and its objectrs to provide a temporary covering that may be discarded after once using, thereby rendering the transfer of infected matter from one patient to another practically impossible, for the reason that neither the bulb nor the body of the clinicali thermometer ever'comes into actual contact with the person whose temperature is being taken.
Another object of our invention is the pro-. 2o duction of thermometer-shields for single application which fit the bulbof a clinical thermometer and lie closely against the sides of the bulb, excluding all the air from immediately about the bulb, in order that the heat reaching the mercury may be transmitted wholly or in greater part by conduction of walls in contact throughout and not by the convection of an intervening air-space. Our invention consists of an exceedingly 3o thin, flexible, and substantially tubular sheath. It is usually made of diaphanous india-rubber possessing a high degree of elasticity. The latter quality of elasticity is not,
upon itself in the process of manufacture. India-rubber is the preferred material, as it may be formed exceedingly thin, sufliciently attenuated, in fact, to become, upon application, transparent in a degree. When, t'herefore, our invention is drawn on a clinical thermometer, which is done by inserting the end of the thermometer d into the pouch a and unrolling the normally-rolled edge 1) toward the top of the instrument, the scale is readable through the skin of the shield, although not greatly stretched by the operation.
We have found in practice that a skin of rubber can be made thin enough to cause no inconvenience in reading the scale when it is covered. by the shield, as shown in Fig. 2.
In many instances of use it is not necessary to roll the shield. over the scale, and it may be partly unrolled, covering the bulb and part only of the thermometer-stem. When a reading has been taken, the shield is rolled and slipped from the thermometer and thrown away. No part of the instrument touches the patient and no infection can result. It will be noted, further, that thebulb of the thermometer is covered-practically skin-tight by the shield, which is yet easily removable, and that every particle of air is excluded from about the bulb as far as possible. It is not thought needful to enlarge here upon the established fact of the lack of conductivity of heat by'air. It will be sufficient to state that while both the rubber shield and the however, absolutely essential, and other thin glass bulb conduct heat and when those two 5 membranous material can be employed, proparts are directly in contact the mercury is vided it be impervious to moisture and inpromptly and fully expanded, with an intersoluble or difficultly soluble by fluid animal vening air-space, the registration of the deexcreta. gree of heat by the thermometer is indefiv The accompanying drawings illustrate the nitely delayed and its accuracy rendered ex- 40 invention. tremely doubtful. When the air-space is go Figure 1 is a side view in partly vertical present about the bulb, the mercury is never section; and Fig. 2 shows a clinical thermomfully affected by radiation across such aireter with our invention applied, the shield space, for the reason that both the shield and being shown in section. the glass out off radiation very largely. In- 45 Like letters refer to like parts throughout. timate and complete surface-contact permits The scale of drawings is greater than 210- direct and rapid heat conduction from the tual size. patient to the mercury when the shield as As illustrated in Fig. 1, our invention is a invented by us and described herein is drawn skin-like hollow sheath Ct, closed at the end '0 over a thermometer, because all theair is ex- 50 and having the edge 17 of its mouth rolled eluded from about the bulb. rco
Having thus described our invention, what we claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is-
1. The combination with a clinical thermometer of a temporary shield applied thereto while in use and closely covering the bulb of the thermometer and excluding the air from said bulb, such shield being a sheath closed at one end, impervious to moisture and insoluble, and consisting of thin, flexible material.
2. The combination with a clinical thermometer of a temporary shield applied thereto while in use and closely covering the bulb of the thermometer and excluding the air from said bulb, such shield being a sheath closed at one end, impervious to moisture and insoluble, and consisting of thin india- 3. A clinical-thermometer shield comprising a sheath closed at one end, consisting of In testimony whereof we affix our signatures in presence of two witnesses.
HARRY VAUGHAN. JAMES W. ARROWSMITH. \Vitnesses:
JOHN M. MILLs, PETER MAXWELL.