|Publication number||US7399118 B2|
|Application number||US 10/524,948|
|Publication date||Jul 15, 2008|
|Filing date||Jul 22, 2003|
|Priority date||Aug 22, 2002|
|Also published as||CA2496489A1, DE50209352D1, EP1391703A1, EP1391703B1, US20060179936, WO2004018976A2, WO2004018976A3|
|Publication number||10524948, 524948, PCT/2003/492, PCT/CH/2003/000492, PCT/CH/2003/00492, PCT/CH/3/000492, PCT/CH/3/00492, PCT/CH2003/000492, PCT/CH2003/00492, PCT/CH2003000492, PCT/CH200300492, PCT/CH3/000492, PCT/CH3/00492, PCT/CH3000492, PCT/CH300492, US 7399118 B2, US 7399118B2, US-B2-7399118, US7399118 B2, US7399118B2|
|Inventors||Daniel Matter, Rolf Luchsinger, Beat Kramer, Bruno Sabbattini|
|Original Assignee||Ems-Patent Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (27), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (9), Classifications (23), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to the field of measurement of gas flows with thermal sensors. It begins with a method and a sensor for mass flow measurement according to the preamble of the independent claims.
In WO 01/96819 A1, a gas meter is disclosed which is calibrated as an energy meter. The calibration is based on the fact that sensor figure values are determined dependent upon the flow rate of a gauge gas or calibration gas and are stored in the form of a sensor gauge curve or sensor calibration curve in the gas meter. The sensor calibration curve or the sensor signal values are multiplied by a signal conversion factor and a calorific value factor for the basic gas mixture, so that the obtained product indicates a gas consumption in an output unit and after integration in an energy unit. With a further correction factor, the actual heat value of a supplied gas mixture can be taken into account at least approximately in the energy calibration. A measured heat value, averaged over a specific timespan, can be used as the actual heat value. It is disadvantageous that an external unit is required for determining the heat value.
In EP 0 373 965, a method and a device are disclosed for determining a gas or energy consumption from a corrected mass flow signal. During signal correction, the heat conductivity, specific heat capacity and density of the gas are taken into account. The corrected mass flow signal and hence the gas or energy consumption are dependent upon the gas type and in particular are identical for air, argon, helium, carbon dioxide, methane and propane. It is disadvantageous that a standardised mass flow signal of such a type is insensitive to the heat value of a gas or a gas mixture, since combustible gases with a different heat value (e.g. methane or propane) produce the same mass flow signals and even the same signals as non-combustible gases (e.g. helium, argon, carbon dioxide or air).
In the U.S. Pat. No. 5,311,447, a method and a device for combustionless determination of the specific heat value of natural gas is disclosed. For this purpose, specific heat value, density or proportion of inert gases are determined from measured values of viscosity, heat conductivity, heat capacity, optical absorption etc. by empirical formulae. The high measuring and computing complexity is disadvantageous in quantitative measurement of a plurality of independent gas type-dependent values and, when they are brought together, with a volume flow measurement in a gas meter for determining a consumed quantity of energy.
In WO 01/18500, an improved mass flowmeter with two CMOS anemometers is disclosed. On static gas, a heat conductivity is measured in the case of a constant heating capacity, and in the case of a pulsed heating capacity, a heat capacity is measured, the gas is identified and, from the specific heat value thereof together with the mass flow measurement, the total calorific value of the gas is determined. The relatively high complexity is again disadvantageous when determining the consumed quantity of energy from separate values of mass flow and specific heat value. In addition, the specific heat value for a sufficiently precise determination of the energy supply must be measured continuously and with great precision.
It is the object of the present invention to indicate a method and a device for determining a flow rate, an improved calibration capacity being achieved. This object is achieved according to the invention by the features of the independent claims.
In a first aspect, the invention resides in a method for measuring a gas consumption by means of a gas meter, in particular for measuring a meterable gas energy supply in the private, public or industrial sphere, sensor signal values, which are essentially proportional to a flow rate, being determined by the gas meter by means of a thermal flow sensor and the sensor signal values being output as energy values on the basis of a calibration of the gas meter as energy meter, a gas type being determined by the gas meter insofar as a non-combustible gas mixture is differentiated from a combustible gas mixture and the gas meter, in the presence of a non-combustible gas mixture, is operated with a calibration in mass or standard volume units and, in the presence of a combustible gas mixture, with a calibration in energy units. The operation as energy meter also comprises calibration and operation as output meter with output of output values. The method and gas meter according to the invention presents various advantages. The reliability of the energy measurement is significantly increased since, with low complexity, a strict differentiation is made between high-quality useful gas and non-combustible gas while the gas is flowing. In particular, a differentiation is made automatically between a non-combustible calibration gas, typically nitrogen or air, and a basic gas mixture or gas to be measured and an automatic switch is implemented from a mass or volume scale to an energy scale. The same differentiation is effective also when out of operation, during operation, during manipulation of the meter or for another reason, so that falsification of the energy measurement by contact with air or similar is precluded. The operation with a calibration in mass, volume or energy units includes in particular a signal output and/or signal display in these units.
In a first embodiment, at least one gas type-dependent parameter of the gas mixture, in particular a heat coefficient, such as e.g. a heat conductivity λ and/or heat capacity c or a viscosity η, are determined by means of a thermal gas quality sensor and, by comparison with known values of the parameter for known gases or gas mixtures, the gas mixture is identified as combustible or non-combustible. An approximate knowledge of the type or composition of the gas is therefore sufficient in order that a digital decision can be made between combustible/non-combustible and the corresponding calibration can be activated.
The embodiment according to claim 3 has the advantage of a particularly simple sensor configuration and signal evaluation. A summation of the temperature signals has the effect that the signal for determining a gas type-specific parameter or heat coefficient is independent of the flow direction and of possible asymmetries of the arrangement of the temperature sensors. A greater signal is also achieved than when using the temperature sensor alone which is placed upstream.
The embodiments according to claim 4 and 5 have the advantage that a simple computing specification suffices to categorise the gas or gas mixture which is present with high reliability as combustible and hence suitable for a meterable energy supply or as non-combustible and hence as a non-meterable mass flow.
The embodiments according to claim 6 have the advantage that the current requirement of the gas meter can be lowered effectively without losing measuring precision.
The embodiment according to claim 7 has the advantage that the entire gas energy consumption or energy supply can also be correctly determined when switching between the calibration in energy units and other flow units, such as mass or volume, has been implemented.
The embodiment according to claim 8 has the advantage that the flow measurement is continued optionally without interruption in mass or standard volume units, e.g. in order to determine a total volume flow, or is integrated only in the case of a flow of non-combustible gases, e.g. in order, when the gas circulation is closed, to generate a complementary control value for the supply of combustible gases or, after each switching of the calibration, it is re-initialised in order to document interruptions during the energy supply.
Embodiments according to claim 9 have the advantage in particular that manipulation attempts on the gas meter can be detected easily.
The embodiment according to claim 10 has the advantage that an automatic heat value tracking is implemented even without any external or internal determination of the current specific heat value of the gas or gas mixture.
In a second aspect, the invention resides in a gas meter with a thermal mass flow sensor for determining a gas energy supply according to the previously described method. The gas meter comprises a thermal flow sensor, is calibrated as energy meter in energy units and in addition as mass flowmeter in mass or standard volume units, has a gas quality sensor which generates a discrimination signal, in particular a gas type-dependent parameter or heat coefficient in order to differentiate a combustible gas mixture from a non-combustible gas mixture, and can be switched over on the basis of the discrimination signal between an operation as energy meter or as mass flowmeter. The gas meter is therefore calibrated for calibration purposes during storage or when out of operation as mass flowmeter or, with additional density measurement, as volume flowmeter and for measuring or metering purposes as energy meter. No metering takes place during operation if air is detected. Instead, a flow measurement can be implemented in mass or volume.
The embodiments according to claims 12-15 enable a particularly simple construction and operation of the gas meter. In particular, manipulation attempts on the gas meter during operation can be detected if a recurrent contact with air is detected.
Further embodiments, advantages and applications of the invention are revealed in the dependent claims and in the description and Figures which now follow.
There are shown:
In the Figures, the same parts are provided with the same references.
According to the invention, a gas type is determined by the gas meter 1 insofar as a non-combustible gas mixture 3 is differentiated from a combustible gas mixture 3 and the gas meter 1, in the presence of a non-combustible gas mixture 3, is operated with a calibration in mass or standard volume units, e.g. l/min and, in the presence of a combustible gas mixture 3, with a calibration in energy or output units, e.g. kWh.
For the operational capacity of the gas meter 1 as energy and mass flowmeter, instead of the flow sensor 1 a with two temperature sensors 5 a, 5 b and in particular instead of the CMOS anemometer 1 a, in general a thermal flow sensor can also be used in which the gas 3 is guided over a sensor element which has a heating means for temperature alteration and a sensor means for determining its temperature, the flow-dependent temperature alteration being in turn a measure of the mass flow. Alternatively, the thermal flow sensor 1 a can also be operated with only one temperature sensor 5 a which is disposed downstream. In general, the mass flow dm/dt can be indicated in mass or standard volume units, e.g. in kg/min or can be determined by means of the density ρ from a volume flow dV/dT according to dm/dt=ρ*dV/dT. In the gas meter 1, a signal output implies a signal display and/or a signal transmission to a reading or central evaluation unit (not illustrated).
According to WO 01/96819 A1, a sensor signal S is measured with a calibration gas 3, typically nitrogen N2 or air, said sensor signal being essentially proportional to the standard volume flow rate d(VN2,n)/dt of the calibration gas 3. By inversion of Sd(VN2,n)/dt, a sensor calibration curve F(S), previously designated by Fn(Sd(VN2,n)/dt, is determined and stored in the evaluating unit 7 of the gas meter 1. During operation, the sensor signal S is then calibrated by means of the sensor calibration curve F(S) to an (uncorrected) mass flow signal Sm which is proportional to F(S) or simply Sm=F(S). The calibration of the flow rate can therefore be expressed by a sensor calibration curve F(S) for the calibration gas under normal conditions. The mass flow rate signal Sm still depends upon the type of gas. Deviations of the mass flow rate signal Sm from an exact ideal value for a basic mixture, typically natural gas or in general a hydrocarbon mixture CH, are therefore corrected by a signal conversion factor or sensor signal correction factor fN2-CH (
S E =∫S M ·H CH ·dt=f N2-CH ·H CH ·∫F(S)·dt.
Starting from this energy calibration for the basic gas mixture CH, it is now however no longer necessary to implement a measure of the current heat value of the gas mixture on the gas mixture. According to WO 01/96819 A1, an inherent automatic heat value tracking is effected namely in the thermal flow sensor 1 a, in particular in the CMOS anemometer, in the case of deviations of the current gas mixture 3 from the basic gas mixture CH. It suffices therefore to attain an approximate knowledge relating to type and/or composition of the gas 3 and to make a digital decision as to whether a combustible or meterable gas 3 is supplied or else only a flow of a non-combustible or at least non-meterable gas supply is intended to be measured, in the first case a relatively reliable energy measurement, which relates to the current heat value, is effected without a heat value measurement.
According to WO 01/96819 A1 or the unpublished EP application No. 01 810 546.0, included herewith by reference in its entirety, suitable time averages can also be used for the mentioned values S, F(S), fN2-CH and HCH and values which can be derived therefrom.
Preferably, at least one gas type-dependent parameter λ, c, α (diffusibility), η (viscosity) of the gas mixture 3, in particular a heat coefficient λ, c, α, such as e.g. a heat conductivity λ and/or a heat capacity c, is determined by means of a thermal gas quality sensor 1 a and, by comparison with known values of the parameter λ, c, α, η for known gases or gas mixtures, the gas mixture 3 is identified as combustible or non-combustible.
In the following, a detailed analysis is provided for measuring the heat conductivity with the thermal flow sensor 1 a. The gas 3 to be measured can be assumed to be extensively incompressible, since relative density alterations Δρ/ρ≈½ (v/c0)2 with v=flow velocity and c0=speed of sound for typical values v≈3 m/s and c0≈300 m/s are in the range of 10−4 and hence are negligible. For incompressible gases 3, i.e. v<<c0, and neglecting viscous dissipation, the heat conveyance including convection can be derived from the stationary heat output equation by addition of a convective term. For a flow channel 2 in the x-direction without heat source in the gas 3, the heat output equation with forced convention is
with T=T(x, y, z) the stationary temperature field in the gas 3, λ=heat conductivity, vx=flow velocity in the x-direction, cp=heat capacity and ρ=density of the gas 3. For negligible convection vx≈0, the heat conductivity λ can be determined in that the stationary diffusion equation
is integrated and the correct boundary values for the integration constants (heat flow j≠0, no heat source in the gas 3) are used. For non-negligible convection vx>0, the inverse thermal diffusibility α−x=cpρ/λ can be determined from the equation (Eqn. 1) when vx is known.
Equation (Eqn. 1) was solved with a finite element calculation for the flow sensor 1 a according to
Alternatively or additionally, a measured heat capacity c or cp is compared with a threshold value corresponding to an absolute value of 1300 J/kgK, a prescribable tolerance of ±10%, preferably ±5% and particularly preferred ±2%, being taken into account. Upon falling below the threshold value, the gas mixture 3 is categorised as non-combustible and a signal output 8 of the gas meter 1 is operated with a scale 8 b which is calibrated in mass or standard volume units. Upon exceeding the threshold value, the gas mixture 3 is categorised as combustible and a signal output 8 of the gas meter 1 is operated with a scale 8 a which is calibrated in energy units.
Preferably, it is tested periodically whether the gas meter 1 is in contact with a combustible gas 3, in particular natural gas, or with a non-combustible gas, in particular nitrogen or air. Measuring intervals for determining sensor signals S; Sm, SM, SE are chosen to be large, in the presence of a non-combustible gas mixture 3, in particular 1 minute or longer, and are chosen to be small in the presence of a combustible gas mixture 3, in particular 10 seconds or shorter.
A consumed supply of gas energy can be integrated in the gas meter 1 and, when switching the calibration to mass or standard volume units, can be stored intermediately and, when switching back to energy units, be used as start value. On the other hand, the flow rate SM, when switching the calibration to energy units, can be further incremented and in particular output, or the integrated flow rate is stored intermediately and in particular output and, when switching back to mass or standard volume units, can be used as start value or be set back to zero as start value.
By means of an indicator or display 9, it can be displayed whether the gas meter 1 is in contact with air or natural gas or a mixture of air and natural gas. Furthermore, due to a default setting of the gas meter 1, mass or standard volume units can be indicated and energy units can be indicated only upon a first contact with useful gas, in particular natural gas. Also by means of a first initialisation of the gas meter 1, in particular during assembly, the calibration can be switched automatically from mass or standard volume units or air to energy units or natural gas. Finally, upon contact with air, natural gas and again air, a manipulation indicator 10 of the gas meter 1 can be activated.
The invention also has a gas meter 1 for implementing the above-described method for the subject. Preferably, the thermal flow sensor 1 a and the gas quality sensor 1 a have an identical sensor construction and in particular are identical. In the gas meter 1, the sensor signal values S; Sm, SM, SE and a heat coefficient λ, cp, α of the gas mixture 3 are then measured in the same thermal sensor 1 a, in particular in a CMOS anemometer 1 a with a heating wire 6 and with at least one temperature sensor 5 a, disposed upstream, and optionally in addition with at least one temperature sensor 5 b, disposed downstream. The thermal flow sensor 1 a can be operated as a gas quality sensor 1 a if a measured mass flow rate falls below a prescribable threshold value. Alternatively, the gas quality sensor 1 a can be disposed in a region with a constant flow rate, in particular with extensively static gas 3.
2 Flow channel, pipe
4 Flow profile
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|U.S. Classification||374/36, 73/25.05, 73/25.01, 374/32, 374/43, 73/204.11, 73/204.19, 73/23.31, 374/31|
|International Classification||G01N33/22, G01K17/00, G01F1/696, G01F25/00, G01N25/00, G01F15/04|
|Cooperative Classification||G01F25/0053, G01N33/225, G01F1/6965, G01F15/046|
|European Classification||G01N33/22C, G01F25/00A12, G01F15/04B2, G01F1/696K|
|Feb 27, 2012||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jul 15, 2012||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Sep 4, 2012||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20120715