|Publication number||US7411696 B2|
|Application number||US 10/342,355|
|Publication date||Aug 12, 2008|
|Filing date||Jan 15, 2003|
|Priority date||Jan 15, 2003|
|Also published as||EP1441505A2, EP1441505A3, US20040136014|
|Publication number||10342355, 342355, US 7411696 B2, US 7411696B2, US-B2-7411696, US7411696 B2, US7411696B2|
|Inventors||Martin S. Maltz|
|Original Assignee||Xerox Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (7), Classifications (17), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of Invention
The invention relates generally to systems and methods to improve and extend the color gamut of a printer.
2. Description of Related Art
Printers generally have an output which can be defined as existing in a color space called CMYK, referring to the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black colorants, which is uniquely defined for the printer by its capabilities and colorants. The printer receives information in a first color space, which may have values defined in an independent color space that is not used by any device, and converts that information to print in a second color space that is dependent of device characteristics.
There are many methods for converting between color spaces, all of which begin with the measurement of the printer response to certain input values. Commonly, a printer is driven with a set of color input values, the values are printed during normal operation of the printer, and measurements are made of the printed colors to determine what the actual color was printed in response to the color specification. Most printers have non-linear response characteristics.
Calibrating a printer involves finding what set of signals must be sent to a printer to obtain a desired color. The desired color is described in some device-independent terminology, such as, for example, some well-defined standard. In contrast, the signals to the printer constitute a device-dependent terminology. A complete calibration will transform the device-independent color description into a device-dependent description such that the resultant combination of materials, such as, for example, ink, toner, dye, etc., on the paper produces the desired color, i.e., the color which was initially described in a device-independent fashion.
Calibrating high quality printers can be divided into three major tasks, (1) setting a gray balance, (2) determining black addition and under-color removal, if any; and finally (3) obtaining an apparatus color correction or color transformation. A side effect from converting from CMY to CMYK is that the gamut may be reduced. That is, the number of colors that are produced may be reduced, due to loss of hue. This side effect can be compensated for by using an under-color addition process. The under-color addition process regains lost hues and expands the gamut. A gray component replacement strategy may use both under-color removal (UCR) and under-color addition (UCA or K+).
In U.S. Pat. No. 4,500,919 to Schreiber, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,275,413 to Sakamoto each incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, the information derived from sample patch measuring was placed into look-up tables, stored in a memory, perhaps ROM memory or RAM memory, where the look-up table relates input color space to output color space. The look-up table is commonly a three-dimensional table, since color space is three dimensional. With a scanner or computer, the RGB space can be defined as three-dimensional with black at the origin of a three-dimensional coordinate system (0,0,0), and white at the maximum of a three dimensional coordinate system. In an 8-bit system, the maximum would be located at a point having coordinates of (255, 255, 255). In an RGB space each of the three axes radiating from the origin point therefore respectively define the red, green, and blue components.
A similar construct can be made for the printer, with axes representing cyan, magenta, and yellow. Black is usually a separate toner which is added separately. In the 8-bit system suggested above there will be, however, over 16 million possible colors (2563). There are clearly too many values for a 1:1 mapping of RGB colors to CMYK colors. Accordingly, as proposed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,275,413 to Sakamoto, only a relatively small number of samples are made at the printer, perhaps on the order of 1,000 samples, or even fewer. Therefore, the look-up tables include a set of values which could be said to be the intersections for comers of a set of rectangular parallelepipeds mounted on top of one another. Colors falling within each rectangular volume can be interpolated from the measured values, through a variety of methods, including tri-linear interpolation, tetrahedral interpolation, polynomial interpolation, linear interpolation, and any other appropriate interpolation method depending on the accuracy of the desired result.
An example of a method involved in such printers is found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,710,824, which discloses a method for printing in a color printer so that scanned color images defined in terms of calorimetric color signals may be printed on a color printer responsive to printer colorant signals to render a color print with a set of three primary colorants and black on a substrate. The method includes scanning an image to derive a set of device-independent colorimetric color signals. Then, the colorimetric color signals are converted into device-dependent primary colorant signals. Each primary colorant signal defines a density of colorant to be used in rendering a color print. The conversion accounts for a subsequent black colorant addition. Next, a black colorant signal is determined as a function of minimum and maximum values of the combination of primary colorant signals. The determined black color signal adds black colorant as a nonlinear function of the primary colorant signals to expand the printable color gamut. Then, the primary colorant signals are gray balanced and black is linear zed to generate a set of corresponding printer colorant signals to control the printer. Finally, the printer colorant signals are used to control the printer to produce an image calorimetrically matching the scanned image.
The 919, 413 and 824 patents typically transform from RGB or from CMY to CMYK by specifying the amount of CMY colorants to be replaced by black (K), and the amount of black (K) to be used, as a function of the cyan, magenta or yellow separation, that achieves a minimum amount of applied colorant (e.g., dye or toner). The 919, 413 and 824 patents thus do not exploit the total gamut of a printer device in a smooth manner.
Gray component replacement (GCR) replaces a gray component of a color with an equal amount of black color. The gray component is made up of a mixture of subtractive primary colors, such as, for example, cyan, magenta and yellow. It typically takes a combination of three subtractive primaries to produce the gray (or achromatic) component of a color. In gray component replacement (GCR), only one achromatic color, e.g., black, is used to generate a color's gray component instead of three subtractive primary colorants, e.g., cyan, magenta and yellow. As a result, the total amount of colorant used to reproduce a color is reduced. A black colorant may also be used to replace equal portions of three subtractive primaries, e.g., replacing of cyan, magenta and yellow with black in shadow tones of an image. This latter technique is referred to both as under color removal (UCR) and as gray component replacement (GCR). Conventional gray component replacement (GCR) and/or gray component replacement/under color removal (GCR/UCR) techniques do not exploit the total gamut of a printing device in a smooth manner.
The systems and methods of this invention provide a gray component replacement (GCR) strategy as a smooth transform from CMY to C′M′Y′K′ which uses the entire printer gamut.
The systems and methods according to this invention exploit the total gamut of a printing device in a smooth manner by warping the points inside of a CMY cube so that they fill the entire gamut of the printing device.
Warping the points may be done in any device-independent color space. In various exemplary embodiments, the points are warped in the L*a*b* color space. Then, the CMYK values needed to obtain the scaled L*a*b* values are determined. In various exemplary embodiments, the CMY to CMYK transform is then smoothed with an averaging filter that does not change the CMYK values at the comers of the color space. The C′M′Y′K′ value which corresponds to a CMY value is that value that gives the L*a*b* value obtained by warping the CMY cube. The systems and methods according to this invention are useful in any printing system, including image-on-image devices and ink jet devices, and especially in printing systems in which the addition of a colorant to black results in a color which is lighter than black alone.
These and other features and advantages of this invention are described in, or are apparent from, the following detailed description of various exemplary embodiments of the systems and methods according to this invention.
Various exemplary embodiments of the systems and methods of this invention will be described in detail, with reference to the following figures, wherein:
The systems and methods according to this invention employ a smooth gray component replacement strategy that uses the full device gamut. The systems and methods according to this invention are typically used as part of a printing method, where the printing method typically includes one or more of (1) scanning an image to derive a set of device-independent colorimetric color signals, (2) converting the calorimetric color signals into device-dependent primary colorant signals, where each primary colorant signal defines a density of colorant to be used in rendering a color print, such that the conversion accounts for a subsequent black colorant addition, (3) determining, for values of the combination of primary colorant signals, a black colorant signal, whether to add black colorant, as a function of the primary colorant signals, to the color print, (4) gray balancing the primary colorant signals, (5) using black to generate a set of corresponding printer colorant signals and (6) using the printer colorant signals to control the printer to produce an image that calorimetrically matches the scanned image. In various exemplary embodiments, the smooth gray component replacement process according to the systems and methods of this invention is implemented using a set of lookup tables storing the responses of a set of patches generated as a set of input values, to build a three-dimensional color calibration lookup table which is used with tetrahedral interpolation.
In various exemplary embodiments, the systems and methods according to this invention build a cyan/magenta/yellow (CMY) to a cyan/magenta/yellow/black (CMYK) gray component replacement (GCR) transform in a fashion that inherently exploits the full gamut of the device. In various exemplary embodiments, the systems and methods of this invention transform the points in the cyan/magenta/yellow cube to L*a*b* values, scale the L*a*b* values so that the L*a*b values fill the maximum gamut obtainable with a specific printer device, and then determine the CMYK values needed to obtain the scaled L*a*b* values. The CMY to CMYK transform is then smoothed with an averaging filter that does not change the CMYK values at the corner of the color gamut boundary.
In various exemplary embodiments, the systems and methods according to this invention define a gray component replacement strategy as a smooth transform from a CMY space to C′M′Y′K′ space which uses the entire printer gamut. The basic approach is to warp the points inside a CMY cube so that the warped points fill the entire CMYK gamut of the printer. The warping may be done in any perceptually-uniform color space, such as, for example. CIELUV, HCV, PQV or CIEL*a*b* space. In one exemplary embodiment according to this invention, the warping is done is CIEL*a*b* space. A C′M′Y′K′ value corresponding to any CMY value is the C′M′Y′K′ value that gives the L*a*b* value obtained by warping the CMY cube.
The warping process can be understood with reference to
Most printing technologies produce maximum darkness with 100% CMYK. For some printing technologies, however, such as, for example, certain image-on-image xerography technologies and some ink jet system technologies, adding cyan, magenta or yellow colorants to a black colorant makes the combined color lighter than black alone. That is, in these technologies, the maximum darkness is obtained with pure black. Although the techniques discussed in this disclosure can be used for any kind of printer, they are particularly advantageous for printers where adding cyan, magenta or yellow to black makes the combined color lighter than black alone.
In the exemplary embodiment shown in
With respect to step S130, this initial black point is a point chosen along the neutral (achromatic) color axis. It can be called “kstart” because the CMY values on the white side of this point produce C′M′Y′K′ output that uses little or no black for reasons which will be explained below. This line, which is drawn from the initial black point to the a surface of the CMY cube through the correspondence point Vcmy, intersects the surface of the CMY cube a distance of Scmy from the initial block point kstart, and the maximum printer gamut at a distance of Scmyk from the initial block point kstart. The initial block point line connects kstart and the surface of the CMY cube.
In step S140, the L*a*b* correspondence point, i.e., the Vcmy point, is warped to a corresponding point L*a*b* point, Vcmyk, in the maximum printer gamut three-dimensional L*a*b* color space, where:
V cmyk =
Moreover, in step S140, all of the points on the surface of the CMY cube are inherently mapped to points on the surface of the maximum printer gamut in CMYK color space, points on the neutral (achromatic) color axis remain unchanged, and points in between the surface of the maximum printer gamut and the neutral axis are mapped to points in between. Next, in step S150, the C′M′Y′K′ value is found from Vcmyk by tetrahedral interpolation. Then, in step S160 the slope discontinuities are smoothed. Operation then continues to step S170, where operation of the method ends.
In various exemplary embodiments, in step S150, the maximum printer gamut is split into a number of tetrahedral, such as, for example, 24 tetrahedral. Each tetrahedron has one vertex at the initial black value, and three other vertices on the surface of the maximum printer gamut, that is, the initial black value, and at Y′, K′Y′, and K′Y′C′. Six of the surface triangles are formed at the top of the gamut, such as for example between white and all of the subtractive primary and additive primary color gamut points, i.e., for primary colors cyan, magenta, yellow, red, green and blue (CMYRGB). Six surface triangles are formed at the bottom, between black (K) and CMYRGB+K color gamut points, and 12 surface triangles are formed around the middle of the gamut, between the CMYRGB color gamut points and the CMYRGB+K color gamut points.
At the initial black point, the C′M′Y′ value equals the CMY, and the modified black value K′ is zero. All the tetrahedral that involve the initial black point, kstart, and points on the top surface of the gamut, therefore, use no black. As the CMY values go from the initial black point, kstart, to 100% CMY, the modified black value goes from 0% to 100%, while for the case where adding CMY to black makes the color lighter, the modified black value for the modified C′M′Y′K′ values goes to 0%, which is the value of C′M′Y′K′ at the maximum darkness point.
Piece-wise linear approximation produces slope discontinuities at the faces of the tetrahedron. In various exemplary embodiments, in step S160, C′M′Y′K′ values are first determined for a rectangular grid of CMY values. Applicants have found that using, for example, 17 evenly spaced values for each coordinate, works well. In various exemplary embodiments in step S170, the points on the edges of the CMY cube are first smoothed by:
C′ k [i+1]=(1−W)*C′ k [i]+W*(C′ k+1 [i]+C′ k−1 [i](/2 (2)
where C′ is the uniform color space cyan color, i is the iteration index, k is the index of a point on the edge, and W is the weight. Using 60 iterations with a weight of 0.3 has been found to work well. Similar equations are applied to the uniform color space colors M′, Y′, and K′. The values of C′M′Y′K′ at the ends of the edges, that is, the vertices of the CMY cube, are not changed.
In various exemplary embodiments, in step S160, the point on the faces of the cubes are smoothed using the following equation:
C′ is the uniform color space cyan color; and
k and m, are the coordinate indices of the points on the faces.
The values of C′M′Y′K′ on the edges of the faces are unchanged.
In various exemplary embodiments, in step S160, the points in the interior of the cube are smoothed using the following equation:
C′ is the uniform color space cyan color i and
k, m, and n are the coordinate indices of the points in the cube.
The values of CMYK′ on the faces of the cube remain unchanged.
While this invention has been described in conjunction with the exemplary embodiments set forth above, it is evident that many alternatives, modifications and variations will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art. Accordingly, the exemplary embodiments of the invention set forth above are intended to be illustrative and not limiting. Various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4275413||Jul 3, 1979||Jun 23, 1981||Takashi Sakamoto||Linear interpolator for color correction|
|US4500919||May 4, 1982||Feb 19, 1985||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Color reproduction system|
|US5243414||Jul 29, 1991||Sep 7, 1993||Tektronix, Inc.||Color processing system|
|US5305119||Oct 1, 1992||Apr 19, 1994||Xerox Corporation||Color printer calibration architecture|
|US5317426||Nov 22, 1991||May 31, 1994||Konica Corporation||Color estimation method for expanding a color image for reproduction in a different color gamut|
|US5592311||Apr 4, 1996||Jan 7, 1997||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Apparatus for forming color images having reduced edge exaggeration with high rate undercolor removal|
|US5710824||Mar 13, 1996||Jan 20, 1998||Xerox Corporation||System to improve printer gamut|
|US7019868 *||Dec 19, 2000||Mar 28, 2006||Sharp Laboratories Of Ameirca, Inc.||Black generation method for CMYK color printer using multiple lookup tables and interpolation|
|1||Kang et al., "Methods of Colour Gamut Extension Algorithm Development Using Experimental Data," Sep. 15, 1999, pp. 352-355, vol. 1, Tencon 99. Proceedings of the IEEE Region 10 Conference Cheju Island, South Korean.|
|2||Littlewood et al., "Pareto-Optimal Formulations for Cost Versus colorimetric Accuracy Trade-Offs in Printer Color Management," Apr. 2002, pp. 132-175, vol. 21, No. 2, ACM Transactions on Graphics.|
|3||Nin et al., "Printig CIELAB Images On a CMYK Printer Using Tri-Linear Interpolation," Feb. 11, 1992, pp. 316-324, vol. 1670, Proceedings of the SPIE.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7973971||Feb 29, 2008||Jul 5, 2011||Adobe Systems Incorporated||Gray component replacement in color conversions|
|US8009325||May 29, 2008||Aug 30, 2011||Adobe Systems Incorporated||Controlling black levels using a three dimensional intermediate color space|
|US8305636||Feb 24, 2009||Nov 6, 2012||Xerox Corporation||Undercolor removal gray color replacement with improved device color linearity|
|US8335015||Sep 16, 2009||Dec 18, 2012||Xerox Corporation||Systems and methods for building a color lookup table for a printer|
|US8593692||Aug 12, 2009||Nov 26, 2013||Xerox Corporation||Systems and methods for building a color lookup table for a printer|
|US8743439 *||Oct 19, 2010||Jun 3, 2014||Gmg Gmbh & Co. Kg||Method for generating an optimized printer calibration|
|US20120257227 *||Oct 19, 2010||Oct 11, 2012||Gmg Gmbh & Co. Kg||Method for Generating an Optimized Printer Calibration|
|U.S. Classification||358/1.9, 358/2.1, 382/167, 382/264, 382/162, 358/525, 345/590|
|International Classification||H04N1/46, G06K9/40, B41J2/525, G06T1/00, H04N1/60, G06K15/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H04N1/6058, H04N1/6025|
|European Classification||H04N1/60D3B, H04N1/60G|
|Jan 15, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: XEROX CORPORATION, CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MALTZ, MARTIN S.;REEL/FRAME:013666/0186
Effective date: 20020920
|Oct 31, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, AS COLLATERAL AGENT,TEXAS
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:XEROX CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:015134/0476
Effective date: 20030625
|Dec 14, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4