|Publication number||US7417536 B2|
|Application number||US 11/412,053|
|Publication date||Aug 26, 2008|
|Filing date||Apr 25, 2006|
|Priority date||Mar 13, 2003|
|Also published as||US20070103328|
|Publication number||11412053, 412053, US 7417536 B2, US 7417536B2, US-B2-7417536, US7417536 B2, US7417536B2|
|Inventors||Sridhar Lakshmanan, Bing Ma, Narasimhamurthi Natarajan, Srini Naidu|
|Original Assignee||Sridhar Lakshmanan, Bing Ma, Narasimhamurthi Natarajan, Srini Naidu|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (10), Classifications (11), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/799,401, filed Mar. 12, 2004 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,019,641, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/454,296, filed Mar. 13, 2003, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. In addition, this application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/674,914 filed Apr. 25, 2005, and U.S. Ser. No. 11/392,463, filed Mar. 28, 2006, the disclosure of which are incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates generally to systems that detect the presence of a living being in direct, physical communication with an object of interest, and more particularly, to the production a signal that contains information that indicates that a living being is in communication with the object of interest. The signal can be used to activate the object, such as a water faucet that is tapped or stroked by a human user; determination of whether the seat of a vehicle occupied with a human or other living being, or whether the vehicle seat is occupied with a non-human being (e.g., a box or a bag), or whether the seat is empty; determination when the seat is occupied by a human being whether the occupant is seated normally or leaning; determination of the presence of one or more human beings hidden or hiding within an enclosed space, such as a trailer, a cave, or an underground bunker; location of persons or animals trapped in a hazardous or hostile environment; and determination of the drowsiness of a human engaged in a dangerous task, such as the operation of an automobile or truck.
2. Discussion of the Related Art
In order that a front-seat passenger in a vehicle be protected in the event of a collision, motor vehicles are equipped with a front-seat passenger airbag. A necessary, but not entirely sufficient, condition for airbag deployment is that the front passenger seat be occupied. There are a number of systems for determining the presence of a human being in a vehicle seat. A typical detection system available in the art includes one or more sensing devices for measuring predetermined characteristics of a seat occupant. The sensed characteristics are used to determine whether a vehicle seat is occupied with a human subject, and further to determine whether to deploy the airbag. The weight of the occupant has been used in known arrangements as a fundamental parameter in this regard. More particularly, weight is used as a criterion to distinguish between a human-occupied seat and an empty seat. However, weight-based occupant detection systems have met challenges in calibration for different seat types, different operating environments, etc. There also are known systems for detecting occupancy of vehicle seats in which vision, infrared, or ultrasonic focal plane array sensors are used to gather occupant information. These sensors are mounted within the vehicle, but away from the seats, such as in the overhead console. However, since these sensors do not directly measure physical attributes they are not as reliable as those that do, and accordingly, occupant-sensing systems based on such sensors are more prone to errors than their weight-based counterparts. Occupant-sensing systems that use focal plane array technology also tend to be much more costly.
In another application of living being detection systems, unauthorized persons might endeavor to pass through entry checkpoints that have high security requirements (e.g., at airports, shipyards, border crossings, ballparks, concert halls, and secure or limited access areas such as military bases, power plants, nuclear plants, government buildings, etc.) by hiding, for example, in the trunk of an automobile or in a trailer. Conventional visual security checks are time-consuming and prone to fault due to human error and fatigue. An automatic living being presence detection system can reduce the workload for the guards and provide information about the inside of an enclosed space. An enclosed-space living being detection system developed at Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. detects the presence of human beings with geophones placed on the vehicle and employs wavelet analysis to the sensed data to determine if there are persons in the vehicle. This known system, as is the case with others, is capable of detecting human being presence, but it needs careful positioning and tuning of the sensors.
Enclosed spaces not only include boxed areas, but also areas that are hemispherical, tubular, etc. Examples of the other kind include caves, underground bunkers, tunnels, etc. A case in point is the ongoing anti-terrorism search for hidden/hiding criminals over the countryside and mountain ranges of certain foreign countries. The system proposed herein is useful in locating and capturing human beings who are hidden or hiding in caves, underground bunkers, tunnels, etc.
There is a need for a living being presence detection system that locates living beings buried under rubbles, trapped behind barriers, or inside buildings. After a disaster strikes, such as an earthquake, a hurricane, or a terrorist attack, living beings might be buried or trapped under rubble or behind large barriers. Similarly, there is a need to find living beings trapped indoors during a building fire. Rapid location of such persons can reduce the loss of life.
In a “life-detection system,” living subjects are illuminated by penetrating microwave, and the reflected wave is modulated by the body movements, including the breathing and heartbeat. In this arrangement, the living being presence detection is accomplished by extracting the breathing and heartbeat component signals from the received microwave signal.
Drowsiness is a common attribute of humans engaged in repetitive monotonous tasks. When the task is, for example, the operation of an automobile or truck, the consequences of undetected drowsiness can be fatal. Previous approaches to the detection of drowsiness have relied on measuring eye closure, i.e., so-called “perclose.” Although perclose can be a reliable measure of human drowsiness, it cannot be reliably estimated in operating conditions and requires very careful calibration for each human.
Heartbeat and breathing signals have been extensively used in detecting and monitoring living beings. In one known arrangement the author proposed a hand-held acoustic sensor pad that is placed on the subjects' upper chest to monitor heartbeat and breathing patterns. Since the water-filled sensor is excellently coupled with the living body, it is able to collect high signal-to-noise ratio heartbeat and breath signals. In another known arrangement, the life detection system utilizes active microwave sensors to acquire the heartbeat and breathing signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio. In both these cases, the acquired signal clearly shows the breathing and heartbeat patterns in time domain.
A problem incurred in inspection of cargo containers is that unauthorized persons, or stow-aways, might endeavor to cross a border or pass through entry checkpoints that have high security requirements (e.g., at airports, shipyards, border crossings, and secure or limited access areas such as military bases, power plants, nuclear plants, government buildings, etc.) by hiding in the container. In addition to unauthorized persons, weapons, bombs, or other contraband, may also be hidden in the same cargo containers.
Conventional visual security checks are time-consuming and prone to fault due to human error and fatigue. Moreover, in some cases, human intervention can be dangerous. In view of increased security concerns, methods of inspection employing strong radiation have been developed to guard against entry of dangerous weapons, for example. However, should the container also contain a stow-away, the level of radiation required to inspect for weapons, for example, is harmful, if not lethal. There is, therefore, a need for an automatic human being detection system that can be detected by a remote inspection.
In addition to the foregoing, there is a need for a method of detecting tampering with a cargo load that has already been inspected and/or sealed at a foreign location. Presently, United States customs inspects containers at the point of entry. However, the ability to inspect the containers abroad, seal them, and monitor whether the seal has been tampered with, would greatly expedite the flow of goods into the country. Thus, there is a need for a means of monitoring whether a sealed cargo container has been opened or tampered, at a remote location.
These problems are addressed by the present invention which provides a flexible film sensor, in the nature of an adhesive strip, that can detect human heart beats and breathing, as well as pressure changes, or vibrations, that would be indicative of tampering with the sealed container.
The foregoing and other objects are achieved by this invention which provides, in accordance with a first apparatus aspect, a system for distinguishing between a first condition corresponding to a living subject being directly in contact with an object of interest, and a second condition corresponding to the absence of contact between the living subject and the object of interest. In accordance with the invention, the system is provided with a transducer disposed in predetermined relationship to the object of interest, for producing a transducer signal responsive to a pressure wave resulting from the living subject being directly in contact the object of interest. There is additionally provided a database for storing first data corresponding to the first condition and second data corresponding to the second condition, and a processor for calculating an algorithm corresponding to a non-linear short-term frequency-selective energy distribution of the transducer signal over time to produce corresponding transducer signal data. Additionally, an arrangement is provided for determining a threshold between the first and second conditions in response to the transducer signal data and the first and second data.
In some embodiments, the system is configured to detect the direct contact between the living subject and the object of interest in the form of a tap contact by a human subject of the object of interest. In other embodiments, the direct contact between the living subject and the object of interest constitutes a stroke contact by a human subject of the object of interest.
The transducer, in certain embodiments of the invention, is an accelerometer. Of course, other forms of transducers, such microphones or other acoustic sensors, may be used in the practice of the invention.
In some embodiments, the transducer is disposed within the object of interest. This is particularly useful when it is desired to activate the object of interest, which may be, for example, a water faucet, by simply touching same. The water faucet, in this specific illustrative embodiment of the invention, can be deactivated by a subsequent touching or stroking thereof, or in response to the expiration of a predetermined period of time.
In a further embodiment of the invention, there is provided a modulation system for translating a selected frequency component of the transducer signal to a translated frequency within the frequency range between 0 Hz and 20 kHz. In a specific illustrative embodiment of the invention, the signal to be detected in response to the direct communication of the living being with the object of interest originates from human heartbeat. Such a signal contains frequency components that are subsonic. The resulting signal is translated into the sonic range by heterodyning technique. In such an embodiment where the resulting signal is intended to be heard and analyzed by a human listener, there is further provided a training system for training the human listener to listen to the signal corresponding to the frequency-translated transducer signal and to distinguish between the first and second conditions.
The training routine to which the human listener is subjected is similar to that used by oceanographers to train subjects to listen to the sounds of the sea, and to distinguish therefrom the sounds of volcanic activity, the callings of sea creatures, the noises made by vessels, etc. Such ear training is generally of the type that is provided to submarine crew members assigned to listen to SONAR signals. A similar training is used for individuals who train to listen for sounds of intelligence in the search of extra terrestrial intelligence (SETI). Thus, for example, the present invention can be applied to listen for the heartbeat signals of living beings contained within a trailer or other enclosed space, without conducting visual inspection.
The energy distribution is, in certain embodiments, converted to a tone signal. For example, in certain embodiments of the invention, the modulation system comprises an amplitude modulator, having a carrier frequency in the range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
In accordance with a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a system for distinguishing between a first condition corresponding to a living subject of a species of interest being directly in contact with an object of interest, and a second condition corresponding to the absence of contact between the living subject and the object of interest, The system includes a transducer disposed in predetermined relationship to the object of interest, for producing a transducer signal that is responsive to a pressure wave that resulting from the heartbeat of the living subject. There is additionally provided a modulation system for translating the frequency of the transducer signal.
In one embodiment of this further aspect of the invention, a modulation system translates the transducer signal to a translated frequency within the frequency range between 0 Hz and 20 kHz.
A filter arrangement compares the transducer signal to stored heartbeat data that is, in some embodiments, stored in a database. The database therefore contains first data that corresponds to a heartbeat characteristic of the species of the living subject.
In a further embodiment, the filtering arrangement includes a processor for calculating an algorithm corresponding to a non-linear short-term frequency-selective energy distribution of the transducer signal over time to produce corresponding transducer signal data. A comparator arrangement compares the transducer signal data to the first data.
Further processing in the filtering arrangement further calculates an algorithm for producing data that corresponds to a non-linear short-term frequency-selective energy distribution of the transducer signal over time, and thereby produce corresponding transducer signal data. An arrangement is provided in some embodiments for determining a threshold between the first and second conditions in response to the transducer signal data and the first data. The database additionally may store second data corresponding to the characteristics of the second condition.
In accordance with a still further aspect of the invention, there is provided a system for distinguishing between a first condition corresponding to a living subject of a species of interest being directly in contact with an object of interest, and a second condition corresponding to the absence of contact between the living subject and the object of interest. In accordance with this aspect of the invention, there are provided a plurality of pressure transducers disposed in predetermined relationship to the object of interest, for producing respective transducer signals responsive to pressure waves resulting from the heartbeat of the living subject. A database stores data corresponding to a heartbeat characteristic of the species of the living subject. A processor calculates an algorithm corresponding to a non-linear short-term frequency-selective energy distribution of the transducer signals over time, and for comparing the frequency-selective energy distribution of the transducer signals to the data in the database. Additionally, there is provided an arrangement for determining a threshold for distinguishing between the first and second conditions.
To detect the presence of living subjects without intruding on their privacy or without being able to access them directly, the sensors of the detection system should be able to take advantage by remote operation of some reliable featured movement of the living body or its parts. The heartbeat signal inside the living body can propagate to the body surface and then generate a shock wave around the body. This wave can be used as evidence of the presence of a living being. Each time the heart beats it generates a small measurable shock wave, ballistocardiogram, that propagates through the body. This wave can be measured either with a sensor that is directly in contact with the living body or with a sensor that is not in direct contact with the body but that has a receiver that is appropriately positioned and oriented. Human breathing is similarly detectable. Pressure transducers are the sensors of choice for measuring such human heartbeat and breathing signals. Such pressure transducers include, for example, strain gauges, load cells, accelerometers, geophones, laser vibrometers, fiber-optic probes, microwave radiometers, etc.
In the applications of the present invention, the heartbeat and breathing signals are very weak compared to the ambient noise and therefore cannot be detected by examining the time domain signal alone. To overcome the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio ubiquitous to the application under discussion, a novel non-linear short-term frequency-selective energy distribution method is used to detect the presence of heartbeat and breathing signals embedded in the measured data. This novel method has the ability to detect weak heartbeat and breathing signals in a variety of different noises, e.g., wind, suspension rocking, road, etc.
The living being presence detection system accepts data from pressure transducers located in an area of interest. A novel short-term non-linear frequency-selective energy distribution method is applied to detect the existence of heartbeat and breathing signals in the measured data. This method, in conjunction with measurement transducers, forms a system for detecting the presence and absence of living beings in any reasonably enclosed space.
In one embodiment of the invention, the living being presence detection system distinguishes between living being-occupied and empty vehicle seats, and as such can be integrated into a driver/passenger restraint (seat-belt) and protection (airbag) system.
In another illustrative embodiment of the invention, the living being presence detection system determines the presence of living subjects in an enclosed space, such as a trailer, a vehicle trunk, etc. This detection capability is useful for entry point security screening purposes.
In yet another illustrative embodiment of the invention, the living being presence detection system locates and facilitates the rescue of living beings trapped under rubble, behind barriers, inside buildings, etc. With appropriately chosen and positioned pressure transducers, the heartbeat and breathing signal will be recorded, and with the non-linear short-term frequency-selective energy distribution method disclosed herein, the presence of living beings is detected.
In yet another exemplary embodiment of the invention, the living presence detection system can be used to detect human drowsiness/fatigue. This detection capability can be used to prevent accidents and loss of life when the human is engaged in dangerous activity such as driving an automobile or truck.
In a further illustrative embodiment of the invention, the living being presence detection system identifies whether a human vehicle seat occupant is properly seated—in-position (appropriately away from the airbag) or out-of-position (too close to the airbag).
Some of the distinguishing features of the living being presence detection system in accordance with the invention disclosed herein are its:
Comprehension of the invention is facilitated by reading the following detailed description in conjunction with the annexed drawings, in which:
1. Data Acquisition
Each time the heart beats the ballistocardiogram propagates through the human body, through the media between the human body and the measurement transducer, and is eventually recorded by the transducer. The same is true of the human breathing signal. The media between the human body and the measurement transducer vary tremendously across the different applications Such media often includes the seat cover, cushion, and seat frame combination in vehicle seat occupancy detection applications; the vehicle body that encloses the trailer or the trunk space in entry point inspection applications; the rubble surface or the glass pane window in search and rescue applications; or the earth or the outer wall in search and capture applications. Since ballistocardiogram and breathing signals propagate in these media with different attenuations, the selection of the transducers that measure these signals is application dependent. For example, the vehicle seat occupancy application uses a load cell, accelerometers, strain gauges, etc.; the entry point security screening application uses geophones, acoustic pads, etc.; the locate and rescue or capture applications use geophones, fiber-optic probes, laser vibrometers, microwave radiometers etc. No matter which transducer is used, they all produce at their respective outputs a real-valued signal sequence data over time. The data is subsequently processed by the human being presence detection system.
2. Human Being Presence Detection Algorithm
The nature of the data recorded will vary considerably across the gamut of pressure transducers. In particular, the strength of the heartbeat and breathing signals will depend on the location/proximity of the human being, the media between the human being and the transducer, the sensitivity of the transducer, and its frequency response. The environments in which these transducers operate could introduce a variety of noise signals of varying strengths and energy distributions. However, all such measured data do provide information about the presence of human beings, and the redundant and complementary nature of these transducers allows us to improve the accuracy and reliability of human being presence detection with data fusion techniques.
There are several categories of data fusion methods based on the stage at which the fusion is performed, namely, signal-based, feature-based and decision-based. Since the sensors in the present detection setting are conditionally independent in their sensing capability, decision-based fusion is the method of choice. In decision-based fusion, each sensor makes a separate detection decision. These decisions are then combined using voting techniques, as described hereinbelow:
Where Ni is determined by the sampling rate ts
The Ni-point non-linear discrete Fourier transform of the signal
Where f[.] denotes the mean-subtraction operation, followed by a non-linear operation such as the absolute value of the mean subtracted signal.
Let Γ denote the select frequencies over which the human heartbeat and breathing signals have sufficient/discernible energies. The non-linear normalized energy distribution of
As an example, let
We call ei(n0ts
When the above individual sensor detection algorithm is applied to measurement data obtained from all the fielded sensors, at any instant in time I independent decisions are available. To make the most of all the sensor measurements, a decision-based data fusion approach is employed. A voting technique is employed to integrate the individual decisions. A variety of voting techniques are available:
3. Human Being Presence Detection Results
The human being presence detection algorithm described above has been applied to the vehicle seat occupancy detection application.
4. Occupant Pose Classification Algorithm
Once a human being is determined to be present in the enclosed space of interest, other characteristic of the human being are also of interest. For example, in the vehicle seat occupancy application, once it has been determined that the seat is occupied by a human being, whether the occupant is normally seated or leaning is also of interest. It is envisioned that if the occupant is normally seated then the airbag will be deployed with full force, whereas if the occupant is leaning the airbag will be deployed with lower power or not at all.
Categorization of the detected human being is also done using the short-time measured signal
4.1 Database, Dimensionality Reduction, and Signal Representation
Using a Fisherbasis algorithm, we compute a projection matrix P to project the training samples T onto a much lower dimensional space
is the average signal vector. The projection matrix P is chosen so that (PSWPT)−1(PSBPT) is maximized. This amounts to computing the eigenvectors of the matrix SW −1SB, which is a large N×N matrix (where N denotes the length of
Once the projection matrix P is computed, each of the training signals
Given the non-linear energy spectrum measurement signal
In accordance with the invention, there are additionally provided further transducers 67 and 68 within vehicle interior 50. An exterior transducer 69 is also shown in the figure to be provided. Transducers 67, 68, and 69 produce signals responsive to the location and movement of a person (not shown) on the vehicle seat, all of which signals being propagated to processor 65.
As stated, processor 65 employs data from a database memory 75 to compute, in some embodiments, an indication of the presence or absence of a human being on the vehicle seat. In other embodiments, the data from database memory 75 is used to identify certain behavioral characteristics of the human being, such as the level of alertness. Generally, the processor will make a determination between binary conditions, such as present or not present, or alert or not alert. Thus, the database memory will generally contain at least two memory regions 77 and 79 that contain data that would correspond to the two conditions being determined by the processor. For example, in an embodiment of the invention where the presence of a human being on the vehicle seat is to be determined, the first data would correspond to data representative of the human present condition, and the second data would correspond to data representative of the human absent condition.
In this specific embodiment pressure transducer 105 is contained within object of interest 101. The output of the transducer is propagated to a processor 107 that functions as hereinabove described.
The pressure signals generated by human being 123 are received by a pressure transducer 125 that produces a corresponding signal at its output. This signal is propagated to an input of a mixer 127 that receives at a second input thereof a carrier signal from a carrier signal generator 128. The carrier signal has a frequency f0 that in this embodiment of the invention is within the sonic range. More particularly, 20 Hz≦f0≦20 kHz. Thus, the carrier signal is modulated by the pressure signals, and there are produced audible vibrations at a receiver 129 that correspond to the pressure signals modulated to an upwardly translated frequency (f0) in the sonic range of frequencies.
The transducers produce corresponding transducer signals that are propagated to a mixer 153. The output of the mixer is in the form of a signal that is received at an input of a comparator 157. The comparator receives at another of its inputs data that is stored in a database 159. In this embodiment, the processed data is conducted to a threshold determination arrangement 160. The threshold determination arrangement may, in certain embodiments of the invention, contain circuitry for producing an audible tone signal that is made available to a human listener (not shown). In such an embodiment, the human listener is trained, as hereinabove described. Alternatively, the threshold determination is automatically performed in response to pre-established, or programmed, threshold levels.
MEMS-based technology has been employed in the art to provide an adhesive-backed flexible strip pressure sensor useful for monitoring and/or sensing tire pressure. A MEMS-based pressure sensor of this type is specifically within the contemplation of this invention. MEMS-based sensing devices suitable for use in the practice of the present invention can be purchased from MEMS Technology Berhad, Detroit, Mich.
The pressure signals are processed by a novel signal processing algorithm to determine the presence or absence of a human being, using information from different types of pressure transducers.
The flexible film sensors provide radio-frequency (RFID) and Wi-Fi signals to a remote user who would monitor the sensors at a control station, such as a computer terminal, a PDA, or other similar device.
Other characteristics of the present invention include:
Although the invention has been described in terms of specific embodiments and applications, persons skilled in the art may, in light of this teaching, generate additional embodiments without exceeding the scope or departing from the spirit of the claimed invention. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the drawing and description in this disclosure are proffered to facilitate comprehension of the invention, and should not be construed to limit the scope thereof.
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|U.S. Classification||340/538, 340/439, 701/45, 340/438|
|Cooperative Classification||B60R21/01516, B60R21/0152, B60R2021/01322, B60R21/0132|
|European Classification||B60R21/015, B60R21/0132|
|Apr 9, 2012||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Aug 26, 2012||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Oct 16, 2012||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20120826