US 7418755 B2
An orthopedic walking boot promotes rapid healing of diabetic foot ulcerations by lowering the maximum peak pressure imposed upon the foot. The walker has a hard unyielding shell which is designed for walking. The shell closely and rigidly supports a mid-sole in a foot-shaped bed. The mid-sole has a foot-shaped cavity with rounded sides adapted to form resilient support for the heel, arch and sides of a foot in addition to the bottom of a foot. A conformable inner-sole is adapted to fit over the foot-shaped cavity in the mid-sole and be compressed in response to foot pressure between the sides and bottom of the foot and the sides and bottom of the foot-shaped cavity in the mid-sole thereby compensating for small differences between the shape of the foot and the shape of the cavity. Weight applied to the foot is transferred to the walking shell by contact between the sides of the foot, arch, and heel and the arch, heel and sides of the foot-shaped cavity as well as the bottom of the cavity thereby decreasing the peak or maximum unit pressure on the plantar surface of the foot. A breathable bootie which wraps the foot and lower leg in a protective “cocoon” is preferably secured to the upper surface of the insole thereby preventing foreign materials from entering the foot cavity.
1. A method of supporting an injured foot, comprising:
providing a walking shell having inner and outer surfaces and one or more upright struts, wherein the outer surface is a walking surface and the inner surface is a foot bed designed to receive and support a mid-sole;
mounting a premolded mid-sole in the foot-bed, the mid-sole having a foot shaped cavity having a bottom surface with upwardly curving sides;
said mid-sole formed of a material having the characteristic of yielding without taking a compression set;
placing a self-molding inner-sole having a foot receiving upper surface and a bottom surface adapted to fit over the upper surface of the mid-sole in a manner that allows the inner-sole to conform itself closely to a foot and fit tightly against the upwardly curving walls of the mid-sole;
placing a foot on the foot receiving upper surface of the self-molding inner-sole over the foot receiving cavity in the mid-sole;
putting weight on the foot, thereby conforming and compressing the self-molding inner-sole closely against the loaded foot between the bottom and sides of the foot and the foot-shaped cavity;
said foot shaped cavity having a width and depth such that in response to foot pressure the peripheral edges of said foot are loaded by said upwardly curving sides of said foot shaped cavity prior to said bottom of said foot shaped cavity loading the bottom of said foot; and
securing a lower leg to said one or more upright struts after said inner-sole is compression molded.
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This application is a continuation-in-part of prior application Ser. No. 10/396,031, filed Mar. 25, 2003, now abandoned which was a continuation of prior application Ser. No. 09/745,313 filed Dec. 21, 2000, now abandoned, both of which are entitled “Walking Boot for Diabetic and Other Patients.”
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to orthopedic devices, and more particularly to an orthotic support for assisting in the stabilization and proper healing of ulcerative or pre-ulcerative conditions, plantar fasciitis or other conditions of the foot, especially for diabetic patients.
2. Background of the Invention
The present invention relates to orthotic or orthopedic devices that are used to immobilize, support and brace the foot and ankle. The sole or plantar surface of the foot is often subject to conditions or injuries, such as stone bruises, heel spurs, soft tissue injuries or injuries of the muscles, ligaments, bones or joints. Foot problems of this kind are often painful and exacerbated by the patient's need to walk during the healing process. The degree of immobilization and protection required varies with the severity and difficulty of the condition. Relief may sometimes be obtained by use of a molded inner sole or orthotic pieces in a regular shoe to add stiffness or alter the pressure distribution on the foot. Another option is custom made shoes which, although expensive, may provide relief for minor conditions. These may be augmented with the use of ankle braces or crutches but provide little relief for more serious conditions.
Diabetics are subject to especially severe and difficult foot problems. As the condition of diabetes gets worse, these patients begin to develop a problem called neuropathy, or polyneuropathy where they lose the sense of feeling in the plantar surface or bottom of the foot which may extend from the toes up the foot to the heel and eventually up to the lower leg or higher. Because there is no feeling, these patients are subject to severe pressure induced ulcerations that can be caused by high peak pressures or by hard foreign particles that may get in their shoe and which they do not realize are present. This often results in ulceration of delicate skin, which in diabetic patients is often very difficult to heal. Sometimes the festering ulcerations become infected, contain scar tissue and may result in secondary problems up to and including amputation. There were an estimated 54,000 amputations of this kind done in the United States in 1998. There are an estimated 23 million diabetics in the United States alone.
Prior art solutions have attempted to solve the problem by attempting to control the pressure on the bottom or sole of the foot. For example, a company called Royce Medical Company has modified their ordinary leg walker by replacing the normal Poron™ inner sole with about a ⅜ inch thick cross linked polyethylene foam inner sole material known as “plastazote” where the upper surface is cut into small hexagon shapes of roughly ⅜ inch across. One or more of the hexagonal areas directly under the ulceration or pressure site can be removed to create a reduction in pressure at the ulcer site itself. This can sometimes cause a distended wound because the exudate coming out of the ulcerated area causes a distention of the ulcer site which eventually granulates in to form scar tissue that has to be shaved off to avoid high pressure in that area when the foot is placed in a normal shoe. Removal of support under part of the sole of the foot tends to increase pressure loading of remaining portions of the foot which are supported. It also may cause increased pressure in the ring surrounding the cut away portion, which may restrict blood flow to the wound. Royce Medical Company is the owner of U.S. Pat. No. 5,464,385 entitled “Walker with Open Heel”.
Another example of the prior art approach is the walker produced by a company called Aircast, known as the Aircast Diabetic Walker™. To the ordinary walker they install a layer of about ½ inch to ⅝ inch thick cross-linked polyethylene foam referred to in the industry as “plastazote” foam in the bottom of the walker. It is a flat material which takes a compression set. While this does tend to distribute pressure over more of the foot to some extent, the support is still provided mainly by the boney prominences of the foot where the heel and ball of the foot fully compress the foam material. High unit pressure is found in those areas. We describe this result as producing a parabolic pressure distribution curve with a very high peak right under the boney areas.
Heretofore, the best available orthotic is a molded orthotic device which has been developed in the last several years using a technique called Total Contact Casting. Typically, a dressing is applied over the wound and then a piece of cotton or wool felt that will absorb exuding fluid is placed around the foot and held in place by a circularly knitted tubular material which is called a stockinet. Then, in one preferred method, a material called “conform”™ foam or “tempur”™ foam is used next. Approximately a ½ inch layer of this is placed under the arch and folded over the front of the toe down to the sides and pinched in on the sides creating somewhat of a cocoon below the ankle bones from the bottom of the foot up and over the forefoot. Over the top of this is wrapped some padding material for the cast which is either a cotton or polyester wool as is used for any other type of cast. Then a first layer of plaster or synthetic material is placed over the foot to form the cast and a wooden board is placed under the foot. Another layer of plaster or synthetic casting is plastered over the whole thing thus creating a “cocoon” for the foot. The “conform”™ foam or “tempur”™ foam has an open granular structure which compresses easily and rebounds extremely slowly. It will not sustain the body's weight without going to essentially zero thickness. We believe the Total Contact Cast nevertheless still produces a parabolic pressure distribution curve under the boney portions of the foot. Unfortunately, the total contact cast is heavy and not well designed for walking. The user has to pick the whole foot up and lay it down again, and it can only be used for about a week before it has to be removed and the foot cleaned and a new cast applied. The weight and bulkiness of the total contact cast create additional problems for diabetic patients. Patients can't remain immobilized to keep their weight off the cast. It is necessary for them to do some walking. Walking is beneficial because it actually stimulates the healing process. As a result, diabetics will start developing problems in other areas of their body because they are sensitive to pressure. Their tissues will break down at about half of what a young athlete can take without damage. The use of crutches can cause additional ulcers under the arms or on the hands.
Modern medical theories suggest that there may be some maximum threshold unit pressure if healing is to occur. If higher pressures are produced in “hot” spots, healing may take an extended time or be difficult to obtain at all. It appears that what might be called the time-pressure integral may also play an important role. The time-pressure integral relates to the cumulative effect of activity by the patient which produces pressures under all of the foot over a given time period.
Current theories suggest that ulcers will form in diabetic patients when peak unit pressure reaches 50 newtons per square centimeter (n/cm2). For comparison, simply walking in ordinary shoes that have a contoured inner sole matching the shape of the foot can generate unit pressures around 50-60 n/cm2. Running or suddenly changing direction will result in even higher unit pressures. Even diabetic shoes that contain a custom inner sole that is formed to match the patient's feet exactly are likely to generate unit pressures of 40-50 n/cm2, which can still allow ulcers to form.
In additional to being significantly more susceptible to ulceration, a diabetic patient will also generally take a significantly longer period for such ulceration to heal. It is not uncommon for it to take 10-12 weeks for an ulcer on the foot of a diabetic patient to heal when using Total Contact Casting. In comparison, such an ulcer would likely heal in less than seven days in a healthy individual. While maintaining unit pressures below 50 n/cm2 can minimize the formation of new ulcerations on the diabetic patient's foot, much lower unit pressures are necessary in order for the ulcer to heal properly and in a reasonable amount of time. Even below 50 n/cm2 sufficient damage is still being done to a diabetic individual's skin to delay or even completely prevent the ulcer from completely healing.
The requirements for shoe insoles are not well geared toward producing an insole that significantly minimizes the maximum and average unit pressure applied to the bottom of the foot. The purpose of a shoe insole is to provide the necessary support for the various flexion positions of the foot. Forces in the foot change dramatically during the various phases of a person's gait. For example, at heel strike an entire individual's weight is being applied at the heel of the foot. At this stage the purpose of the inner sole is to cup the heel. At mid-stance, the individual's weight is spread out more evenly across the foot and the inner sole must provide adequate support to the arch of the foot. During toe-off, the individual's weight is concentrated at the balls of the feet and the insole must be able to flex and stabilize the foot. The necessary type of support that must be provided by the inner sole of a shoe especially during heel strike and toe off is the lateral support of the foot to prevent it from over rotating.
A shoe insole must also be able to withstand the large forces that are applied to portions of the inner sole at various phases of a person's gait without breaking down or becoming permanently compressed. An inner sole of a shoe accommodates the relatively large forces that are applied to the heel and the ball of the foot during certain phases of the gait by increasing the amount cushioning at those locations. This does attempt to minimize to some extent the magnitude of the peak forces that are applied to the foot, but does nothing to spread out the force over the entire surface of the foot. As a result, inner soles of shoes result in a significant parabolic force distribution curve, where peak pressures are significantly higher under the bony portions of the foot, even those that are contoured and that have upper layers designed to cushion the foot.
In order to achieve these purposes, the inner soles of shoes use relatively hard and dense materials to provide sufficient support over time, even for the relatively “soft” upper layers that are designed to cushion the foot. If the inner sole were made of a material that is too soft, the inner sole would flatten over a relatively short period of time due to the large peak pressures that occur at various portions of the gait cycle and would quickly lose the ability to provide any support or cushioning.
In addition to the increased likelihood of ulceration, a certain percentage of diabetic patients will also develop what is referred to as charcot condition. This is a hyper-circulation condition where the bones become very fragile. The bones go through a cycle of fracturing and healing that results in the loss of neural control and ultimately the bone degrades and crumbles. In the foot, the balls and heal of the foot degrade such that the fascia over the mid-sole will stick out below the heal and ball, sometimes referred to as rockerbottom charcot. Also, the cycling can cause calcification on the bone. This can result in a growth on the bony protrusion on the inside of the foot by the arch, giving the side of the foot somewhat of a “V” shape. Special consideration must be taken into account when designing a walking boot for diabetics that have charcot condition, such that the inner sole accommodates the differing contours of the foot and does not result in the creation of point pressures. This is generally accomplished by cutting away some of the foam insole in order to accommodate the deformity in the foot.
It would be desirable to have a walking boot which can be used over an extended period of time and which improves upon the attributes of the total contact cast by reducing the peak plantar pressure operating on the injured foot while walking in the walker. We have demonstrated such an improvement with a new approach that utilizes the arch and side areas of the periphery of the foot to support part of the load on the foot and reduce the maximum peak pressure under the sole of the foot.
The improved walking boot of the invention for diabetic and other patients reduces the maximum peak pressure applied to the bottom or plantar surface of the foot while standing or walking, as compared to the best prior art orthopedic devices. The new walking boot is referred to as the Bledsoe Conformer Boot. The walking boot has a premolded foot-shaped cavity and an inner-sole made of conformable material which is molded by foot pressure to the shape of the foot. It operates on the principle of preloading the arch and side edges of the foot to take and spread some of the weight load on the foot before the bottom of the foot is fully loaded. Supporting pressure for the foot is spread over a larger area to reduce the peak unit pressure at any particular area. This is an improvement over flat-bed boots even though they may have a contoured surface and be made of a flexible or spongy material and have a compressible insole.
Preferably, the improved walking boot has a walking shell having an inner surface with an upturned edge portion which forms an unyielding generally foot-shaped bed adapted to support a mid-sole. The walking shell has an upwardly angled forward portion which the tread follows to allow the boot to roll forward in a walking step. The rear portion of the heel on the tread is angled to improve walkability also. A mid-sole is supported and held in the generally foot-shaped bed of the walking shell. The mid-sole is premolded to form a foot-shaped cavity with upwardly and outwardly rounded side edges to form a resilient but non-compressively setting support for the arch and sides of the heel and foot in addition to the bottom of the foot. The mid-sole can be a single density layer or it may be a dual density layer with a denser bottom layer to provide the non-compressively setting support and an upper layer that is less dense and somewhat compressive, thereby allowing the boot to accommodate a wider range of foot shapes, including those deformities formed by charcot condition. Over the foot-shaped cavity of the mid-sole is placed a conformable inner-sole formed from a pliable but compressibly settable material which is referred to as a self-molding material that takes the shape of the bottom portion of the loaded foot when the foot is pressed into the foot-shaped cavity. In response to foot pressure between the sides, arch, and bottom of the foot and the sides, arch, and the bottom of the foot-shaped cavity in the mid-sole, the inner-sole conforms to the shape of the foot thereby compensating for small differences between the shape of the foot and the shape of the foot-shaped cavity. Weight applied to the foot compresses and molds the conformable inner-sole to fit tightly between the heel, arch, and sides of the foot and the sides and arch area of the cavity thereby preloading the foot along the heel, arch, and sides of the foot before the heel and ball of the foot are fully loaded by compressing the inner-sole and the mid-sole at the bottom of the cavity. The foot-shaped cavity in the mid-sole has a foot-shaped opening near the size of a selected average foot. The size and shape of the foot-shaped cavity and the thickness of the conformable inner-sole are selected to assure that the foot is preloaded along the sides and arch of the foot-shaped cavity before the foot is fully loaded on the bottom of its heel and ball areas. This is accomplished by having the foot shaped cavity be deeper than the depth of the foot and slightly narrower, so that the perimeter of the foot is loaded prior to the loading of the bottom of the foot. The cross sectional thickness of the mid-sole at the highly loaded areas under the heel and ball of the foot are selected to be a minimum thickness in order to minimize leg height differential and any relative motion tending to be caused by compression of the mid-sole arising because of periodic compression of the mid-sole in response to foot loading while walking. Relative motion between the foot and the foot-shaped cavity is minimized to prevent any tendency for chafing.
The walking shell preferably has upwardly turned edges along the sides and heel areas which provide support to the outer lower surface of the mid-sole to prevent any spreading of the mid-sole in response to pressure from the weight of the patient. The upper surface of the foot-bed and the lower outer surface of the mid-sole are closely conforming so that unyielding support is provided by the rigid walking shell.
The walking shell preferably has a pair of upstanding struts, which extend upwards on both sides of the leg, attached to the upturned edges of the shell which serve to secure the walking boot on the leg of the wearer. The walking boot further includes a durable and resilient soft protective bootie adapted for extending around the lower leg and foot and having an open bottom portion having sides all around the foot and a toe box that are secured to the upper surface of the inner-sole to form a soft protective bootie around the foot and lower leg. Attached to each of the struts is a sheath which is provided with patches of hook and loop material for the purpose of attaching the bootie to the shell. The bootie also has appropriately located patches of hook and loop material which together with encircling straps removably secure the structure to the leg. The shell also contains straps together with hook and loop material or other appropriate fastening means which hold the assembly snugly on the foot.
The Bledsoe Conformer Boot is usable for the duration of the injury and does not have to be replaced every five to seven days as does the Total Contact Cast. The conformable inner-sole comprises an elastomeric foam having a skinned outer surface to prevent penetration by moisture, exudate or other liquids to which it might be exposed. Since these materials do not penetrate the inner-sole, the material is subject to washing and/or disinfecting if it is necessary to dress a wound or ulcerated area. Unlike the Total Contact Cast, which is fixed on the lower leg and foot, the Bledsoe Conformer Boot is removable by the patient, as for example, at bed time. It is truly a walker that facilitates walking because it has good walkability due to the shape of the floor contacting surfaces. The bootie is made from a soft breathable foam material of about ¾ inch in thickness which together with the insole provides a protective “cocoon” to prevent foreign materials from entering the foot chamber.
In the description that follows, the improved walking boot for diabetic and other patients of the invention, is designated generally by the reference numeral 10. Throughout the description that follows, the same reference numerals will be applied to similar parts. Reference numerals with primes represent similar structure not exactly the same.
Walking shell 12 in
Inner surface 18 of the walking shell comprises a foot bed in the shell designed to receive and support a mid-sole 28 which is seen in more detail in
Walker shell 12 further includes a flange 36 which is preferably formed as an extension of the sides 32′ on each side of the shell. Attached to each one of the flanges 36 is an upright strut 38 comprising a pair of upright struts 38. The upright struts 38 are attached to the flanges 36 by means of fasteners 39 best seen in
Protective bootie 14 is best seen in
An improved supporting platform for the bottom of the feet is provided by the combination of a pre-molded mid-sole illustrate in
With the foot shaped cavity 68 about the same or slightly larger than the outline of a foot, the unique pre-molded cavity provides peripheral side edge support for the foot during standing or walking which is superior to any form of flat bed or contoured flat surface and reduces “peak pressure” on any particular area of the bottom of the foot. Peak pressure is meant to indicate the maximum unit pressure applied to any given portion of the foot while walking in the boot structure. Part of the load is spread around the sides of the foot rather than just being supported on the bottom of the foot, as is the case when the foot is placed on a flat surface. When the foot is placed on a flat surface, peak pressures can be expected mainly under the heel and ball of the foot where forces from the foot bones are primarily applied and where there is a minimum of protection underneath the boney projections in those areas in the form of flesh, muscle and fatty tissue. The exact shape and curvature of the walls in the foot shaped cavity is largely a matter of trial and error and subject to the difficulty that feet do not come in a standard uniform shape or size. Nevertheless, the basic principle of providing a foot shaped cavity with sloping walls has been shown to reduce the maximum or peak unit pressure and the average unit pressure over the best alternative currently available, namely the Total Contact Cast.
In general, the foot shaped cavity has a shape such that the top of the curved sides contact the edges of the foot prior to the heel and ball of the foot contacting the bottom of the foot shaped cavity. This results in the edges of the foot starting to be loaded prior to the heel and the ball of the foot. The edges of the foot are preferably preloaded to an extent such that when the foot is fully loaded, the force is evenly applied across the entire bottom of the foot as well as along the edges. This significantly minimizes the peak pressure that normally appears under the ball and heel of the foot. Because there are differences in shape and size of feet, the mid-sole of the invention is preferably used in combination with an inner-sole 60 having generally a foot shaped outline but having quite different characteristics.
In a second preferred embodiment, shown in
This dual density mid-sole 28 acts as a shape change buffer while still providing the support necessary to pre-load the sides of the foot and keep the peak pressure at a minimum. The dual density mid-sole is especially important when treating an ulcer in a diabetic patient who has charcot condition, or other deformity of the foot. In previous walking boots, a portion of the sole generally by the arch of the foot would have to be cut away to prevent a pressure point from forming at the deformity on the foot. This adds a layer of complexity for the physician who is applying the brace, can create its own pressure points if not the material is not trimmed properly and smoothly, and must be modified over time to accommodate any further changes in the deformity. Changes in the deformity are especially likely to occur in a patient who has charcot condition.
In the second embodiment, as can be seen in
If necessary, walking boot 10 can be further modified by bending the aluminum shell to accommodate a larger deformity in the shape of the foot. Even higher density lower portion 126 of mid-sole 28 is still flexible enough that mid-sole 28 will be pressed against upward turned edges 32 of shell 12 and take on the configuration of the bent portion of upwardly turned edges 32. This allows walking boot 20 to accommodate the deformity in foot 16 while still providing the necessary support and preloading of the sides of foot 16 to minimize the peak pressure over the entire bottom of foot 16.
Inner-sole 60 is illustrated in
Inner-sole 60 is preferably formed in one piece from a material having a self-molding characteristic in response to pressure from a foot. It is a spongy preferably foam material having the characteristic that it does not readily rebound from pressure force and will take a compression set in response to foot pressure. The material should compress readily for more than half of its thickness before it begins to significantly resist further compression caused by foot 16. Inner-sole 60 preferably is molded from an elastomeric foam material having a skinned outer surface to prevent absorbing fluids from ulcerated areas of a patient's foot. Because inner-sole 60 can be cleaned, it does not require discarding after a period of use by a patient as does the Total Contact Cast. If the bottom of foot 16 changes to some extent, such as would occur after debridement or if the type of dressing used is altered, a hair dryer or hot air blower can be used to partially rebound inner-sole 60. The partial rebound of inner-sole 60 is sufficient to accommodate minor changes to the shape of the foot, however, inner-sole 60 will not rebound to its original condition.
The combination of single density or dual density mid-sole 28 and the compression set inner-sole 60 results in foot shaped cavity 68′ that is slightly narrower and deeper than foot 16 at the bottom, especially by the heel and ball of foot 16. Consequently, as the foot is placed on the inner-sole 60, the sides of foot 16 begin to compress mid-sole 28 along upwardly turned edges 74, 76, and 78 first. This results in the walking boot beginning to load the sides of foot 16 prior to the bottom. A significant amount of load is thereby removed from the foot before the heel and ball of foot 16 finally reach the bottom of foot shaped cavity 68′ and become fully loaded. The resulting distribution of the load on foot 16 is significantly broader and more uniform, avoiding the parabolic force distribution that is present in custom molded shoes and even the total contact casting system.
A way has been found to measure plantar pressures under the foot using the Novel Pedar in-shoe pressure measurement system made by Novel of Dusseldorf, Germany. The Novel system has an insert which looks like the inner-sole in a shoe and is shaped like a foot so it will fit right into a shoe. The in-shoe sensor has an upper grid and a lower grid separated by a layer of silicone with a vinyl layer on the top and bottom of the in-shoe pressure measurement device. The grids form a plurality of little squares distributed regularly over the area of the in-shoe pressure measurement device. Conductors representing each of the little sensor squares are connected to a programmed computer which measures changes in capacitance that occur when the grids are moved closer to each other in response to pressure forces. The device is approximately 2 mm thick with approximately 99 sensors per insole and roughly 1 sensor per square centimeter depending upon the insole size. The Novel Pedar in-shoe pressure measurement device is calibrated by means of a diaphragm using a known air pressure to push down on the insole. Very low pressures below about 1 or 2 newtons per centimeter square are treated by the software as zero pressure.
A series of comparisons were made using the Novel device to compare the performance of the best available orthopedic device, the Total Contact Cast, with the improved walking boot of the invention. Eighteen normal subjects without any prior foot or ankle problems were employed in this study. There were 7 females and 11 males in the study with an average weight of 85.6 kilograms and an average height of 177 centimeters. Data on these 18 subjects is given Table 1 below. The results of the tests are given in Table II and displayed graphically in
The present invention has been given the name Bledsoe Conformer Diabetic Boot or “Boot”. Each subject was asked to walk 1.) in the Bledsoe Conformer Diabetic Boot and 2.) in a well-padded Total Contact Cast which is also referred to as a short leg cast. The Total Contact Casts were all administered by the same casting technician using the same techniques applied by the Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Tex. to treat diabetic ulcers. The subjects were randomly assigned to the order of testing for the two conditions and asked to walk several times at a self-selected speed down a ten-meter walkway. Approximately 15 steps for each condition were used for averaging and statistical analysis. Paired t-tests were used to compare between the short leg cast results and the boot results at an alpha level of 0.05 for the statistical tests. The tests were naturally conducted over a period of weeks because it takes a great deal of time and effort to prepare and apply the Total Contact Cast to the individual feet. Pressure maps of each Novel insole were divided into three regions called masks: heel, midfoot, and forefoot. The heel is generally the area from the back of the heel to the front of the heel, the midfoot is generally the area from the front of the heel to the ball of the foot, and the forefoot is the area from the ball of the foot to the toes. Each mask area included a certain number of the sensor squares.
Although a number of different measurements were made, peak plantar pressure is considered to be most significant to the diabetic ulceration problem because of theories that below a certain peak plantar pressure new ulcers will not form and ulcers already formed will heal.
Table II has four columns containing comparative data for each subject wearing the boot and the cast. The data is paired and given in terms of newtons of force per centimeter squared. The left hand column gives the peak pressure in newtons per centimeter square that was found anywhere on the foot. The other three columns from left to right give the peak pressure respectively in the heel, midfoot and forefoot area for each of the Bledsoe Conformer Boot and the Total Contact Cast. Averages and standard deviations were calculated for each column of data. In each case the average peak pressure for the boot was lower than the average peak pressure for the Total Contact Cast in every area of the foot. The difference was considered to be statistically significant in at least the midfoot and forefoot areas in this test and in another test was considered to be statistically significant in each of the heel, midfoot and forefoot areas. The cross bar and stem sitting on top the vertical data bars in
What is significant about these charts is that they illustrate the difficulty of the problem because of the varying contours of the plantar surface of the foot and the boney projections which distribute weight nonuniformly and in fact create “hot” spots. In the shoe example of
In the best mode, the walker shell is formed from aluminum sheet because it is lightweight and will bend should it be necessary to make slight adjustments. The self-molding inner-sole is a closed cell off-white PVC foam from Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics Corporation, Granville, N.Y. under the designation HAFG 16 having an overall thickness of about ½ inch. The material has a density of about 7.5 pounds per cubic feet and a hardness on the Shore 00 scale which is said to be about 56. The material has the characteristic that it will readily compress to less than half its thickness and if compressed to less than half its thickness for a significant period of time by the foot, tends to retain the compressed shape. It has a fairly flat increase in deflection before it begins to resist.
The mid-sole is preferably made from Bayflex® 904 obtained from the polymer division of Bayer Corporation. It is described as a microcellular polyurethane foam system that was developed for use in applications requiring a microcellular core and a tough abrasion-resistant outer surface. It is formulated to a “hardness” of about 65-75 on the Shore 00 scale.
The dual layer mid-sole of the second preferred embodiment is made up of a higher density lower layer 126 that is preferably a polyurethane self-skinning foam with a hardness of about 25-30 on the Shore A hardness scale and a density of about 0.40. Lower density upper layer 128 of mid sole 28 is preferably a slow rebound recovery foam having a hardness of about 50-55 on the Shore 00 scale and a density of about 0.33. Higher density lower layer 126 is preferably about one-third the overall thickness of mid-sole 28 and lower density upper layer 128 is preferably about two-thirds the overall thickness of mid-sole 28.
As can be seen, mid-sole 28 and inner-sole 60 are made of materials that are significantly softer than the materials generally found in regular shoe insoles. Shoe insoles are generally measured using the Shore “A” hardness scale. In contrast, the lower density upper layer 128 of the mid-sole and inner-sole 60 of the current invention, as disclosed above, use the Shore “00” hardness scale. Even the higher density lower layer 126 is at the very bottom of the Shore A scale and could properly be measured on the Shore 00 scale as well. The Shore 00 scale was developed to measure ultra-soft, gel-like materials. Each Shore hardness scale measures from 0-100, however due to a loss of accuracy the next lower scale should be used for measurements that fall below 20 and the next higher scale should be used for measurements that fall above 90. For comparison purposes, a Shore “A” hardness of 60 equates roughly to a Shore “00” of 93 and a Shore “A” hardness of 20 equates roughly to a Shore “00” of 70. Consequently, the types of foam materials discussed above that are used in the current invention are substantially different that those used in prior art shoe inserts. If the above disclosed foams were used for sole inserts for shoes, they would compress down to virtually zero thickness over a relatively short period of time due to the relatively large forces that are applied to the forefoot and hindfoot during various phases of the gait.
The shape of foot shaped cavity 68 and the compressibility of inner-sole 60 and to a lesser extent upper layer 128 of mid-sole 28 also helps to limit the slip shear forces between the skin and walking boot. Once weight is applied to foot 16, the compression set inner-sole 60 creates a pocket in foot receiving upper surface 82 in which the foot rests. The shape of upper surface 82, due to the compression set nature of inner-sole 60, matches the shape of the bottom of foot 16 when it is fully and evenly loaded. In addition to assisting in spreading the load out across the entire bottom and edges of foot 16, the pocket shape of upper surfaces 82 also serves to limit lateral shear movement of the foot over the upper surface 82 of insole surface. By preventing lateral shearing forces, the boot further minimizes any chafing of the foot against inner-sole 60 of boot 10, which could prevent the healing of or even create new ulcers on the bottom of foot 16.
Being able to evenly spread out the force across the entire bottom of foot 16 when fully loaded provides an advantage over the prior art total contact cast. Total contact cast 102 is molded onto foot 16 when it is in an unloaded position. This is significant, because while total contact cast 102 may provide an exact match to unloaded foot 16 the shape of foot 16 changes significantly when loaded. This is because various portions of the bottom of foot 16 contain different amounts of flesh that will be compressed by different amounts when foot 16 is fully loaded. In general, there is less compressible flesh over the heel and ball of the foot than other areas of the foot. The difference in the amount of compression upon loading for various sections of the foot means that despite matching the contour of foot 16 when cast, the total contact cast does not match the contours of foot 16 when fully loaded. When loaded, the resistance provided by total contact cast 102 will merely compress certain areas of foot 16 while other areas the resistance causes pressure to be applied to foot 16. This results in unequal pressure being applied to the bottom of foot 16 and in the parabolic pressure curve shown in
On the other hand, boot 10 contains multiple layers that accommodate the amount of compression of various portions of foot 16. First, inner-sole 60 is self molding. This means that when foot 16 is placed on inner-sole 60 and weight is applied, inner-sole 60 molds itself to the shape of the bottom of foot 16. Since this is accomplished while foot 16 is under load, inner-sole 60 takes on the shape of foot 16 after all of the compressible flesh has already been compressed. Further, foot shaped cavity 68 in mid-sole 28 is shaped with sloping sides such that the edges of foot 16 are contacted before the bottom of foot 16. This serves to pre-load the edges of foot 16, where there is more compressible flesh than on the bottom of foot 16. Therefore, by pre-loading the portions of foot 16 that contain more compressible flesh and by having inner-sole 60 molded to the shape of the loaded foot 16 as opposed to unloaded foot 16, boot 10 can apply more even pressure across the entire bottom of foot 16 when it is in a loaded position. In addition, the upwardly curving side walls 74, 76 and 78 of foot shaped opening 68 allow boot 10 to further distribute some of the force to the sides of foot 16, further reducing the peak pressure on any portion of foot 16.
The above embodiments of the current invention provide a walking boot 10 that effectively spreads out the load across the entire bottom and a portion of the sides of foot 16. This minimizes the peak pressure across the entire foot 16. However, in some cases it is desirable to provide even lower peak pressures over a portion of foot 16 while accepting marginally higher pressures over another portion of foot 16. For example, over ninety percent of ulcers in diabetic patients occur in the forefoot. For these patients, it is especially desirable to keep the peak pressure at an absolute minimum for the forefoot. Because walking boot 10 of the current invention is so successful at maintaining an extremely low peak pressure over the entire bottom of foot 16, it is possible to shift the load slightly either to the forefoot or to the hind foot without running the risk of creating peak pressures that are high enough to cause another ulcer to form. By shifting the load slightly either forward or backward, it is possible to further minimize the peak pressure on the foot at the location of the ulcer.
While applying small amounts of pressure to the ulcer site will actually stimulate the healing process, it has been found that pressure well below the level that cause the formation of new ulcers can cause enough damage to significantly retard or even prevent healing of the ulcer. Reducing the peak pressure over the ulcer below a second and lower threshold will allow it to heal in the shortest amount of time because no additional damage is being caused at the ulcer site to slow down the healing process. For example, it is currently believed that peak pressures above 50 newtons per square centimeter will result in the creation of new ulcers. However, healing of existing ulcers can be maximized by reducing the peak pressure over the ulcer to below about 20 newtons per square centimeter. Because the maximum peak pressure at any point on the bottom of foot 16 is so low using walking boot 10 of the current invention, shifting the load slightly to one side of foot 16 will not raise the peak pressure to levels anywhere near those that might cause a new ulcer to form while simultaneously further lowering the peak pressure over the ulcer site to a level that will ensure healing at a maximum rate.
Shifting the load to the front or back of the foot can be accomplished by changing the angle between foot bed 26 of shell 12 and the patient's lower leg. Normally, as shown in
By changing the effective angle between foot bed 26 of shell 12 and the patient's leg, thereby either dorsiflexing or plantarflexing the ankle, it is possible to shift the overall load slightly forward or backward by some extent. This shift can be accomplished in a number of ways. First it is possible to hinge upright struts 38 to brackets 36 of shell 12 so that they can be adjusted forward and backward and locked into a position that creates the desired angle between uprights 38 and foot bed 26 of shell 12. The patient's lower leg is then aligned between upright struts 38 and secured between them. By using adjustable joints that are graduated, this method can allow for precise, measurable, and repeatable adjustment of the angle between the lower leg and foot bed 26.
However, as shown in
Although the invention has been disclosed above with regard to a particular and preferred embodiments, they are not intended to limit the scope of this invention. It will be appreciated that various modifications, alternatives, variation, etc., may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.