|Publication number||US7421037 B2|
|Application number||US 11/118,883|
|Publication date||Sep 2, 2008|
|Filing date||Apr 29, 2005|
|Priority date||Nov 20, 2003|
|Also published as||CN101167324A, EP1875701A1, US20050191976, WO2006117589A1|
|Publication number||11118883, 118883, US 7421037 B2, US 7421037B2, US-B2-7421037, US7421037 B2, US7421037B2|
|Inventors||Niall Eric Shakeshaft, Jussi Heikki Vepsäläinen, Petri Tapani Eloranta, Pauli Mikael Seppinen|
|Original Assignee||Nokia Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Non-Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (26), Classifications (28), Legal Events (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a Continuation-In-Part application of and claiming priority to U.S. patent applications Ser. No. 10/717,986, filed Nov. 20, 2003; now U.S. Pat. No. 6,937,848 and Ser. No. 10/988,202, filed Nov. 12, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,980,779 assigned to the assignee of the instant application.
The present invention is related to patent application Ser. No. 10/832,110, assigned to the assignee of the present invention, filed even date herewith.
The present invention relates generally to a RF transmitter and, more particularly, to a re-configurable transmitter with a digital-to-RF converter.
In radio communication applications the designs are continuously aiming for simpler and cheaper radio architectures to increase integration level of the mobile terminals. Conventionally, a direct upconversion transmitter has at least an I/Q modulator, an RF mixer, a filter and a power amplifier. The I/Q modulator is an efficient way to generate phase-modulated signals. It relies on two orthogonal signals, I (in-phase) and Q (quadrature), to produce a single complex waveform. In a direct upconversion transmitter the I/Q modulator transforms the frequency spectrum of each orthogonal input signal to the RF carrier frequency. As such, two digital-to-analog (D/A) converters are needed to transform a digital baseband into an analog baseband, as shown in
In order to make a complete transmitter, meeting the requirements of a real wireless standard, it may be necessary to include the following components:
An example of such a direct upconversion transmitter is shown in
In recent years, other forms of transmitters have received attention from the RF R&D community: transmitters that use high efficiency, non-linear power amplifiers, including Class-C, D, E, F or saturated Class-B, in order to reduce transmitter power consumption. These non-linear power amplifiers, however, cannot pass amplitude modulation without spectral re-growth. Thus, the input RF signal can only have phase modulation. The amplitude modulation must be introduced separately in a PA power supply.
Due to the separation of amplitude and phase, these types of transmitter architecture are generically called Polar transmitters, as opposed to Cartesian transmitters which use I and Q baseband signals.
The polar transmitter architectures have the following general forms:
Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER)
In this architecture, the RF signal is first produced with an I/Q modulator. The envelope is detected and fed forward to the PA power supply. The signal then goes through a limiter to keep a PM-only signal before being fed to the power amplifier. This architecture often includes an up-conversion as well, sometimes with an offset-loop approach.
Polar TX with Synthesizer Modulation
In this approach there is no envelope elimination and restoration, but rather the amplitude and phase signals are created in the digital baseband. The amplitude signal is fed to a DAC (digital to analog converter) and onto the non-linear power amplifier and power supply. The phase signal, which is differentiated to carry out frequency modulation, is used to modulate a phase-locked loop synthesizer. The synthesizer is often a fractional-N PLL with the FM data put into a sigma-delta modulator to obtain frequency modulation. In order to extend the bandwidth beyond the PLL loop bandwidth the following techniques can be used:
Fundamental problems associated with the direct upconversion transmitter using an I/Q modulator are:
Current-steering D/A-converters may solve some the aforementioned problems associated with convention upconversion transmitter. A conventional current-steering D/A-converter comprises a plurality of parallel unit cells divided into two or more sub-blocks, as shown in
Typically, each of the parallel unit cells comprises a differential switch pair connected in series to a cascode current source, as shown in
The D/A converters and I/Q modulators are complex and high performance analog elements. The requirement of these analog elements generally limits the flexibility of the RF transmitter.
Fully Digital Radio Transmitter
Ideally a digital radio transmitter would be independent of the radio standard and could be used in all of the modulation schemes and signal frequencies. One way to do this would be to directly convert the digital baseband signal to RF signal using a D/A converter that is capable of operating at least twice the maximum radio frequency of the used standard. One of the major problems associated with D/A converters for use in RF generation is the high sampling frequency. If an RF signal of 1.8 GHz is generated, the sampling rate in the digital baseband must be at least 3.6 GHz. Furthermore, in order to effectively filter the mirror image component around the frequency difference between the sampling frequency and the digital signal frequency, a much higher sampling rate is needed. A D/A converter with such a high sampling frequency is impractical to implement because of the high price and high power consumption. For that reason, D/A converters are typically used in the baseband or in the low IF range. These converters are used along with high performance analog mixers for RF generation. These I/Q mixers consume easily tens of milliamperes of DC currents. Moreover, even when the D/A converters are used in the baseband and in the IF range, the noise current spikes occur because of the high data rate of hundreds of megahertz. These noise spikes can limit the performance of the RF transmitter.
It is thus advantageous and desirable to provide a cost-effective method and device for carrying out digital-to-analog conversion associated with RF generation. At the same time, the power consumption is reduced.
Yuan (EP1338085) discloses a direct digital amplitude modulator wherein an upconverting type of converter cell is used. In Yuan, a number of sub-switched current source units are switched on or off according to the combinations of the digital input signal and the delayed or non-delayed clock signals to produce or to cancel quantized RF, IF or DC currents and/or voltages at the time precisely controlled by the delayed clock signals. As such, the performance of the circuit is low due to a slow settling of the current in the current source after switching the current source on.
It is advantageous and desirable to provide a method and device for direct digital amplitude modulation wherein the cutting off of the current flow is avoided.
The present invention uses two digital to RF-conversion modules to convert digital baseband signals into RF signals. The digital-to-RF conversion module combines the D/A conversion function and the upconversion function by a RF-carrier or IF-signal. The module comprises a plurality of parallel unit cells, each of which is a mixer cell type converter having a differential data switch section connected in series to a differential LO-switch pair. The differential LO-switch is further connected in series to a current source. Each unit cell is adapted to receive a control voltage indicative of a data signal value.
According to the present invention, I and Q baseband signals are converted by a Cartesian-to-Polar converter into an amplitude data part and a phase data part. The phase data part is reconverted by a Polar-to-Cartesian converter into an I phase data part and a Q phase data part to be used as the digital baseband signals to the digital-to-RF conversion modules. As such, the RF signals from the digital-to-RF conversion modules are phase modulated carrier with a constant envelope. After being amplified and bandpass filtered, the phase modulated carrier is amplitude modulated by the amplitude data part at a switched-mode power amplifier. In one embodiment of the present invention, the transmitter is a polar only RF transmitter. In another embodiment of the present invention, the transmitter is re-configurable so that it can operate in polar mode and in Cartesian mode.
Thus, the present invention provides an RF transmitter for transmitting RF signals based on a first digital baseband signal and a second digital baseband signal, the second baseband signal having a phase shift from the first baseband signal. The transmitter comprises:
a digital-to-RF converter having a converter input end for receiving a first digital signal and a second digital signal and a converter output end for providing first RF signals;
a power amplifier, responsive to the first RF signals, for providing the RF signals for transmission, the power amplifier having a voltage supply input;
a power supply operatively connected to the voltage supply input of the power amplifier for providing a supply voltage to the power amplifier; and
a mode conversion means, responsive the first and second digital baseband signals, for providing signals in a polar form based on the first and second digital baseband signals, the signals in the polar form having an amplitude data part and a phase data part, the phase data part converted into a first phase angle data part and a second phase angle data part having a phase shift from the first phase angle data part, wherein the mode conversion means is operatively connected to the power supply such that a modulating signal based on the amplitude data part is provided to the power amplifier for modulating the supply voltage to the power amplifier, and the mode conversion means is also operatively connected to the digital-to-RF converter so as to convey the first and second phase angle data parts to the converter input end of the digital-to-RF converter for providing the first and second digital signals; wherein
each of the first and second input digital signals has a plurality of data bits, and wherein the digital-to-RF converter comprises a first conversion component for receiving the first input digital signal, and a second conversion component for receiving the second input digital signal, each of the first and second conversion components converting the corresponding data bits for providing a differential output signal modulated by a carrier signal, the carrier signal provided between two carrier signal ends, wherein the differential output signal is formed with current loads and provided between two output ends, the different output signal indicative of the first RF signals, each of the conversion components comprising:
a plurality of conversion units connected in parallel, each unit adapted to receive a control voltage indicative of a data signal value, the control voltage provided between two control voltage ends, each unit comprising:
a first differential switch section having:
a second differential switch section having two control current paths, each operatively connected in series to a different one of the two differential switch pairs, the control current paths operatively and separately connected to different ones of the carrier signal ends, for modulating the differential currents with the carrier signal; and
a current source, operatively connected in series to the second differential switch section for further controlling currents in the control current paths.
According to the present invention, the RF transmitter is operable in a first mode and in a second mode. The transmitter further comprises:
a switching means operatively connected to the mode conversion means, such that
when the transmitter is operated in the first mode, the switching means is adapted
to disconnect the mode conversion means from the power supply and from the digital-to-RF converter, and
to convey the first and second baseband signals to the converter input end of the digital-to-RF converter for providing the first and second digital signals; and
when the transmitter is operated in the second mode, the switching means is adapted
to convey the first and second phase angle data parts to the converter input end of the digital-to-RF converter for providing the first and second digital signals; and
to convey the modulating signal to the power supply.
According to the present invention, the RF transmitter further comprises a power control module, operatively connected to the power supply, for adjusting the supply voltage to the voltage supply input when the transmitter is operated in the first mode.
According to the present invention, the RF transmitter further comprises
a bandpass filter, responsive to the first RF signals, for filtering the first RF signals before the first RF signals are conveyed to the power amplifier, and
a variable gain amplifier, responsive to the first RF signals, for adjusting signal level of the first RF signals before the first RF signals are filtered by the bandpass filter.
According to the present invention, the power control module is operatively connected to the digital-to-RF converter for adjusting output level of the first RF signals, and operatively connected to the variable gain amplifier for further adjusting the signal level of the first RF signals.
According to the present invention, the RF transmitter further comprises
a digital-to-analog converter, responsive to the amplitude data part, for providing the modulating signal, and
a frequency filter disposed between the digital-to-analog converter and the power supply for low-pass filtering the modulating signal.
According to the present invention, the amplitude data part is associated with a first path between the mode conversion module to the power amplifier through the digital-to-analog converter, and the phase data part is associated with a second path between the mode conversion module and the power amplifier through the digital-to-RF converter. The RF transmitter further comprises:
a path delay adjustment means, disposed between the mode conversion means and the power amplifier, for making the first path and the second path substantially equal.
According to the present invention, the current source comprises at least one current adjusting component having a control terminal, operatively connected to a bias voltage level, for adjusting the current passing through the current adjusting component; the second differential switch section comprises two current switching components disposed in different ones of the control current paths, each of the current switching components having a control terminal operatively connected to a different one of the carrier signal ends; and the first differential switch section comprises a first pair of differential switches and a second pair of differential switches, each pair having two current switches operatively connected to different ones of the control voltage ends.
The present invention will become apparent upon reading the description taken in conjunction with
The Digital-to-RF-converter, according to the present invention, combines the D/A conversion function and the upconversion function by a carrier (LO), which can be RF or IF. As shown in
Each of the parallel unit cells 20 is a Gilbert-cell type converter. It comprises a differential data switch section, connected in series with a differential LO-switch pair and a current source, as shown in
Each of the differential data switch pairs is connected in series to a differential LO switches Q5 or Q6 so that the differential signals LO+ and LO− from the local oscillator (LO in
It should be noted that Q1 to Q7 depicted in
In a converter architecture, according to the present invention, the switching elements in the cell 20 are also connected to an analog circuitry as shown in
In the direct digital-to-RF converter (DRFC) as shown in
The present invention uses two direct digital-to-RF converters (DRFC's) to build a direct-digital RF modulator (DDRM). As shown in
The re-configurable transmitter, according to the present invention, is shown in
In order to make a complete transmitter, it may be necessary that the transmitter 100 further comprises a variable gain amplifier 150, and a bandpass filter 160 to suppress noise and spurious. In order to meet the requirement of a wireless standard, a power control module 180 is operatively connected to the DDRM 140, the variable gain amplifier 150 and the power amplifier 170 through digital-to-analog converters 181, 182, 183 so as to achieve desirable dynamic range capability and a desirable output level of the RF signals at output 172.
Through the switches 310 and 320, the transmitter 300 can also operate as a Cartesian transmitter in linear mode. The reconfigurable transmitter 300 further comprises a clock signal generator 146 to provide the clock signal CLKBB to the DDRM 140, a LO frequency synthesizer 230 and a quadrature generator 240 to provide LOIN+ and LOIN− signals to the DDRM 140. The quadrature generator 240 can be a phase shifter or a quadrature divider. Moreover, a PA bias control 176 is used to provide PA bias voltages and currents to the power amplifier 170 based on whether the transmitter is operating in linear mode or in switched mode. The transmitter 300 may also comprise low-pass filters 200, 220 to suppress noise and other undesirable high-frequency components.
As shown in
The RF transmitter as shown in
Although the invention has been described with respect to a preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and various other changes, omissions and deviations in the form and detail thereof may be made without departing from the scope of this invention.
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|U.S. Classification||375/295, 375/297, 375/300, 375/298|
|International Classification||H04L27/04, H04B1/02, H04B1/04, H04L27/00, H04B1/66|
|Cooperative Classification||H03M1/0682, H03M1/682, H03M1/687, H03M1/745, H03M1/747, H03F3/24, H03C3/40, H03F1/0222, H03F2200/331, H04B1/0483, H04L27/361, H04L27/362|
|European Classification||H04B1/04P, H03F3/24, H03F1/02T1C1, H04L27/36A, H03M1/74J2, H03C3/40, H04L27/36B|
|Apr 29, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NOKIA CORPORATION, FINLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SHAKESHAFT, NIALL ERIC;VEPSALAINEN, JUSSI HEIKKI;ELORANTA, PETRI TAPANI;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016527/0224
Effective date: 20050427
|Oct 21, 2008||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Sep 22, 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 15, 2016||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Sep 2, 2016||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Oct 25, 2016||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20160902
|Jan 18, 2017||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NOKIA TECHNOLOGIES OY, FINLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NOKIA CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:041006/0101
Effective date: 20150116