|Publication number||US7430172 B2|
|Application number||US 10/545,550|
|Publication date||Sep 30, 2008|
|Filing date||Jan 23, 2004|
|Priority date||Feb 14, 2003|
|Also published as||CN1751481A, DE10306293A1, DE10306293B4, DE502004002174D1, EP1593237A1, EP1593237B1, US20060077904, WO2004073265A1|
|Publication number||10545550, 545550, PCT/2004/578, PCT/EP/2004/000578, PCT/EP/2004/00578, PCT/EP/4/000578, PCT/EP/4/00578, PCT/EP2004/000578, PCT/EP2004/00578, PCT/EP2004000578, PCT/EP200400578, PCT/EP4/000578, PCT/EP4/00578, PCT/EP4000578, PCT/EP400578, US 7430172 B2, US 7430172B2, US-B2-7430172, US7430172 B2, US7430172B2|
|Inventors||Stephan Brandenburg, Thomas Treyer, Oliver Veits|
|Original Assignee||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (5), Classifications (14), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is the US National Stage of International Application No. PCT/EP2004/000578, filed Jan. 23, 2004 and claims the benefit thereof. The International Application claims the benefits of German application No. 10306293.9, filed Feb. 14, 2003, both applications are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
The invention relates to a method for allocating transmission bandwidth in a packet-oriented communications facility.
In packet-oriented communications systems data packets are transmitted with different priorities, with network operators having the ability to control the volume of data transmitted as well as the transmission rate within the packet-oriented communications facility. To do this it is necessary to ensure that customers are given assured transmission bandwidth over the long term. In such cases there are various known methods of transmission bandwidth allocation and limiting with the aid of which an assured transmission bandwidth can be monitored. These include use of the “traffic shaping” method for controlling the subsequent processing of data packets in packet-oriented communications facilities, which allows network overloads to be avoided. In principle two basic traffic shaping methods are known:
The leaky bucket method, with the aid of which transmission peaks (“bursts”) of the relevant data packet stream are eliminated and the transmission rate is thus kept below an upper limit.
The token bucket method, with the aid of which the view of the average transmission bandwidth is regulated over the long term, with data bursts which are well in excess of the average transmission bandwidth being allowed.
The White Paper “Internet Processor II ASIC: Rate-limiting and Traffic-policing Features” from Juniper Networks, Inc., 2000, describes both the leaky-bucket method and also the token bucket method. With the token bucket bandwidth limitation method a token generator is used to permanently generate data volume tokens or short tokens at a constant rate and to store these in a token bucket unit, with the number of data volume tokens stored here corresponding to a defined allocatable data volume. Each of these data volume tokens allows a regulation unit to control the transmission of a defined number of data bytes. Provided the token-bucket unit features the required number of data volume tokens, data packets of different lengths can be subsequently processed. To transmit a data packet with of a length of 8 data volume tokens for example a data volume of 8 data volume tokens is to be taken by the regulation unit from the token-bucket unit. On overflow of the token-bucket unit, i.e. if the token generator generates more tokens than can be stored in the token-bucket unit, the superfluous data volume tokens generated are discarded. The maximum capacity for accepting data volume tokens defines the length of the data burst that can be processed by the token-bucket unit.
A bandwidth limiter implemented in accordance with the token bucket method takes account of various factors in the subsequent processing of data packets. One of the factors is for example the number of data bytes of a data packet. For successful subsequent processing of this data packet, with a length of P data volume tokens for example, it is necessary for the number of data volume tokens corresponding to the length of the data packet to be forwarded and thus the corresponding transmission bandwidth to be available in the token-bucket unit. For the subsequent processing of these data packets the corresponding number of data volume tokens is taken out of the token-bucket unit and the “occupancy” of the token-bucket unit thereby reduced by P data volume tokens. In the case in which the token-bucket unit does not have any data volume tokens or does not have sufficient data volume tokens required for subsequent processing, the data packet is buffered in a memory unit until such time as the further data volume tokens generated by the token generator unit are sufficient to provide the required transmission bandwidth.
The transmission bandwidth to be monitored by the token bucket method is defined in this case by the constant rate of generation of data volume tokens set in the token generator.
The technical implementation of a bandwidth limiter based on the token-bucket method requires, especially for a number of different transmission bandwidth-monitoring bandwidth limiters, a high outlay in hardware and computing since a constant rate of data volume tokens has to be permanently generated. This necessitates extensive, cost-intensive computing resources or the corresponding hardware units.
The object of the present invention can be seen as specifying an innovative method for transmission bandwidth allocation in a packet-oriented communications facility which can be realized with a reduced technical computing overhead.
The object is achieved by the claims.
The major advantage of the method in accordance with the invention for transmission bandwidth allocation lies in the fact that, in a packet-oriented communications facility, featuring at least one token-bucket unit consisting of a time-token-bucket unit and a byte credit unit, a data volume token representing a defined data volume is stored in the byte credit unit in each case. In this case the time-bucket unit is assigned a token generation time interval and a token generation time. In addition each data packet is assigned a processing time before subsequent processing and in the time-bucket unit the transmission time interval available for subsequent processing of a data packet is determined. Only if the token generation time interval is exceeded by the available transmission time interval determined is a part of the available transmission time interval converted into data volume tokens, these tokens stored in the byte-credit unit and the token generation time updated. Finally the data volume required for the subsequent processing of the data packets is allocated in such a way that the number of data volume tokens corresponding to the data volume is taken from the byte-credit unit.
The difference between the processing time and the token generation time in this case particularly advantageously defines the available transmission time interval or the occupancy level of the time-bucket unit relevant to the subsequent processing of the data packets.
Furthermore a token generation time interval is defined for the time-bucket unit which is assigned to a corresponding number of data volume tokens on the byte-credit unit side, which defines the desired transmission bandwidth. Only if there are not sufficient data volume tokens in the byte-credit unit for the current data packets to be processed and if at the same time the available transmission time interval is greater than the token generation time interval is a part of the available transmission time interval of the size of the token generation time interval converted into the corresponding volume of data volume tokens, this part stored in the byte-credit unit and also the token generation time updated in accordance with the time interval taken. Depending on the values selected for token generation time interval and the corresponding volume of data volume tokens, this step can also be executed a number of times. Thus a check is made particularly advantageously in the time-bucket unit using the computed time differences, as to whether the token-bucket unit or the byte-credit unit needs to be filled up for subsequent processing of the data packets. Subsequently the data volume required for subsequent processing of a data packet is allocated via the byte-credit unit. In this case the allocation of the actual data volume is separated on the basis of the data volume token from the determination of the available transmission time interval on the basis of the time-bucket unit. Advantageously further data volume tokens are generated exclusively if the token generation time interval is exceeded by the available transmission time interval, i.e. the as yet “unused” transmission time of a connection with a fixed assigned transmission bandwidth is determined and converted into an allocatable data volume in the form of data volume tokens. This in its turn is allocated for the subsequent processing of the relevant data packets. This means that the computing resources within the packet-oriented communications facility are exclusively only occupied by the computing operations involved in filling up the token-bucket unit or the byte-credit unit if subsequent processing of one or more data packets requires this. This allows resource-saving processing of data packets from different data connections with different transmission bit rates.
Advantageously the available transmission time interval is determined by forming the time difference between processing time and token generation time. This enables the allocation of a predetermined transmission rate to be realized using simple addition or subtraction operations. This allows the compute-intensive multiplication and division operations to be avoided. For example the permitted size of a data burst is implemented by limiting the available transmission time interval. This is achieved in particular in that, before or after the processing of a data packet, the size of the available transmission time interval is checked to see if a predefined value has been exceeded and subsequently the token generation time is adapted appropriately if necessary.
A further aspect of the invention can be seen in the fact that conversion of a part of the available transmission time interval into data volume tokens updates the token generation time by adding the token generation time interval to the token generation time. The inventive allocation of available transmission time to data volume tokens representing a data volume ensures that in the byte-credit unit the available data volume represented in the time-bucket unit by a transmission time interval is available for allocation to the data packets as part of the subsequent processing.
A further advantage can be seen in the fact that with a number of token bucket units provided in the packet-oriented communications facility, each token-bucket unit is assigned an individual transmission bandwidth token generation time interval. This is particularly advantageous in that it allows each individual token-bucket unit to be assigned an individual maximum transmission bandwidth.
Further advantageous embodiments of the invention are described in the dependent claims.
The invention will be explained below in greater detail with reference to a number of exemplary embodiments with the aid of a block diagram as well as a number of flowcharts.
The data packets DP arriving at the communications facility KE are directed in the packet-oriented communications facility KE to the queue unit WSU for example, in which these packets are buffered before being subsequently processed by the subsequent processing unit DU.
The data packets DP can be different lengths and arrive at different times t in the communication device KE. In addition data packets DP of different connections with different transmission bandwidths can arrive consecutively in the packet-oriented communications facility KE.
The token-bucket unit TBU, especially the byte-credit unit BCU features a plurality of data volume tokens T each of which represents a defined data volume. In this case the number N of the data volume tokens T contained in the byte-credit unit BCU defines the maximum data volume Dmax that can be allocated by the byte-credit unit BCU. This type of byte-credit unit can be implemented in different ways, for example with the aid of counter parameter values which are incremented or decremented by a defined value when a data volume token T is added.
The data volume tokens T are generated in the token generation unit TGU—under the control of the time-bucket unit TMB—and forwarded to the byte-credit unit BCU. The forwarding of the data volume token T shown in
The transmission bandwidth allocation as well as the filling up of the byte-credit unit BCU with data volume tokens T is controlled by the evaluation routine BWR executed in the time-bucket unit TMB. The parameter values determined or updated by the evaluation routine BWR are stored In the memory unit SU arranged in the time-bucket unit TMB for example. These types of parameter values include the data volume DDP required for subsequent processing of a data packet DP or the number k of volume tokens T corresponding to this, the number N of data volume tokens T currently present in the token-bucket unit TBU, a processing time Tnow as well as a token generation time TB and a token generation time interval TEI. The meaning as well as the determination and updating of these parameter values will be explained in greater detail below.
The time-bucket unit TMB is assigned a token generation time interval TEI and a token generation time TB. When this is done the token generation time interval TEI corresponds to the time required for the transmission of a data packet of a defined length for the desired transmission bandwidth. For example this time can correspond to the time required for the transmission of a data packet with the maximum processable length. The token generation time TB, together with the processing time Tnow defines the occupancy level of the time bucket unit TMB relevant for the subsequent processing of the data packet DP which is referred to below as the transmission time interval TV. The token generation time TB is updated accordingly each time that a data volume token T is generated in the token generation unit TGU. The token generation time TB together with the token generation time interval TEI is stored in the memory unit SU of the time-bucket unit TMB.
The execution sequence of the method for transmission bandwidth allocation is explained by the example in
The processing time Tnow determined for the data packet DP to be processed is compared with the token generation time TB and in this way the available transmission time interval TV is determined. In
Subsequently a check is made as to whether the byte-credit unit BCU has a sufficiently large number N of data volume tokens T in order to subsequently process the data packet DP to be processed. Only if this is not the case is a check made to see whether the available transmission time interval TV has exceeded the token generation time interval TEI. If the available transmission time interval TV exceeds the token generation time interval TEI, a conversion of available transmission time into data volume tokens T within the allocatable transmission bandwidth is possible and a filling up of the byte-credit unit BCU before the subsequent processing of the data packet DP is required. To this end a defined number z of data volume tokens T is generated in the token generation unit TGU and loaded into the byte-credit unit BCU. The occupancy level or the number N of the data volume tokens T present in the byte-credit unit BCU is then updated and stored in the memory unit SU. The number z is selected here such that the number of data volume tokens T is sufficient to subsequently process a data packet DP with the maximum permitted data packet length. Alternatively (not shown in
In accordance with
Subsequently a check is made in accordance with the evaluation routine BWR as to whether the number N of data volume tokens T available in the byte-credit unit BCU is sufficient for the subsequent processing of the data packet DP. To do this the number N of data volume tokens available in the token-bucket unit TBU is compared with the data volume DDP required for subsequent processing of the data packet or with the number k of data volume tokens T required for subsequent processing and, depending on the result of the comparison, the data packet DP is discarded (or alternatively left in the queue unit WSU) or the required data volume DDP is allocated. If the available number N of data volume tokens T exceeds the required number k of data volume tokens T for the allocation of the data volume DDP, then in the next step the number N of data volume tokens T available in the token-bucket unit TBU is reduced by the number k and the data volume DDP is allocated in this way. The processed data packet DP is directed to the output of the packet-oriented communications facility KE. If the available number N of data volume tokens T falls below the threshold, i.e. number N<number k, the data packet DP is discarded or alternatively subsequently processed in a different way.
After the filling up of the byte-credit unit BCU the first data packet DP1 is allocated the first data volume DDP1 required for its transmission in the form of the first number k1 of data volume tokens T. The number N of the data volume tokens T available in the byte-credit unit BCU is subsequently updated, i.e. reduced by the allocated first number k1 of data volume tokens T, and the updated number N is stored in the memory unit CU.
Because of processing undertaken shortly beforehand, the token generation time interval TEI exceeds in
The allocation of data volumes DDP with the aid of the byte-credit unit BCU is in no way restricted to the granularity “byte” but the granularities which make sense for the relevant application, for example “Bit” or “XBits” can be used.
In addition, in a packet-oriented communications facility KE a number of token-bucket units (TBU) can be provided, to which at least one individual transmission bandwidth token generation time interval TEI and one token generation time TB will be allocated in each case. This the method described is suitable for transmission bandwidth allocation of data connections featuring a number of different transmission rates, with for each connection a set of parameters consisting at least of the relevant token generation time interval TEI and the relevant token generation time TB being provided, which will be evaluated
and updated with the aid of the evaluation routine BWR.
The length of the token generation time interval TEI is for example selected such that the length of the token generation time interval TEI corresponds to length of the transmission time interval Tvmax required for the processing of a data packet DP corresponding to the maximum allocatable data volume Dmax, i.e. the token generation time interval TEI corresponds to the number of data volume tokens T required for the subsequent processing of a data packet DP having the maximum packet length. The size of the token generation time interval can be defined for individual connections. A typical value for this, with provision for a bandwidth restriction of 20 Mbit/s and a maximum packet length of 1600 bytes for example at 640 μs [(1600 bytes*8 bit/byte)/20 000 000 bit/s].
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|U.S. Classification||370/235, 370/468|
|International Classification||H04L12/801, H04L12/819, H04L12/841, H04L12/26|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L47/215, H04L47/28, H04L47/10, H04L47/39|
|European Classification||H04L47/28, H04L47/39, H04L47/10, H04L47/21A|
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