US 7430248 B2 Abstract A digital communications transmitter (
100) includes a digital linear-and-nonlinear predistortion section (200) to compensate for linear and nonlinear distortion introduced by transmitter-analog components (120). A direct-digital-downconversion section (300) generates a complex digital return-data stream (254) from the analog components (120) without introducing quadrature imbalance. A relatively low resolution exhibited by the return-data stream (254) is effectively increased through arithmetic processing. Linear distortion is first compensated using adaptive techniques with an equalizer (246) positioned in the forward-data stream (112). Nonlinear distortion is then compensated using adaptive techniques with a plurality of equalizers (226) that filter a plurality of orthogonal, higher-ordered-basis functions (214) generated from the forward-data stream (112). The filtered-basis functions are combined together and subtracted from the forward-data stream (112).Claims(45) 1. A digital predistortion circuit for compensating nonlinear distortion introduced by analog-transmitter components of a digital communications transmitter, said predistortion circuit comprising:
a source of a complex-forward-data stream configured to digitally convey information;
a basis-function generator coupled to said complex-forward-data-stream source and configured to generate a complex-basis-function-data stream in response to said complex-forward-data stream, wherein said complex-basis-function-data stream is responsive to X(n)·|X(n)|
^{K}, where X(n) represents said complex-forward-data stream, and K is an integer greater than or equal to one;a filter coupled to said basis-function generator and configured to generate a complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream in response to said complex-basis-function-data stream; and
a combination circuit for combining said complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream and said complex-forward-data stream to compensate for said nonlinear distortion.
2. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
3. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
4. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said complex-forward-data stream exhibits a forward resolution; and
said return-data stream exhibits a return resolution less than said forward resolution.
5. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
6. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said equalizer implements an estimation-and-convergence algorithm to determine said filter coefficients;
said estimation-and-convergence algorithm is responsive to said complex-basis-function-data stream and to said return-data stream;
said complex-forward-data stream and said return-data stream exhibit forward-error and return-error levels, respectively, with said return-error level being greater than said forward-error level; and
said estimation-and-convergence algorithm is configured to transform increased algorithmic processing time into reduced effective-error level for said return-data stream.
7. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
8. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said equalizer is a non-adaptive equalizer configured to be programmed with said filter coefficients; and
said predistortion circuit additionally comprises an adaptation engine selectively coupled to said non-adaptive equalizer and configured to implement an estimation-and-convergence algorithm which determines said filter coefficients.
9. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
10. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said non-adaptive equalizer is a complex equalizer having an in-phase path, a quadrature path, an in-phase-to-quadrature path, and a quadrature-to-in-phase path;
a first set of said filter coefficients is programmed in said in-phase and quadrature paths, and a second set of said filter coefficients is programmed in said in-phase-to-quadrature and quadrature-to-in-phase paths; and
said adaptation engine accommodates a partial complex equalizer and has first and second paths, said first and second paths being configured in one mode to determine said filter coefficients for said in-phase and quadrature paths, and being configured in another mode to determine said filter coefficients for said in-phase-to-quadrature and quadrature-to-in-phase paths.
11. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
12. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said filter is a first equalizer that processes a first one of said plurality of complex-basis-function-data streams;
one or more additional equalizers respectively process other ones of said plurality of complex-basis-function-data streams; and
said first equalizer and said one or more additional equalizers couple to said combination circuit.
13. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said first equalizer and said one or more additional equalizers are non-adaptive equalizers; and
said predistortion circuit additionally comprises an adaptation engine selectively coupled to said non-adaptive equalizers, said adaptation engine being configured to implement an estimation-and-convergence algorithm which determines filter coefficients for said non-adaptive equalizers.
14. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
for each of said non-adaptive equalizers, a first set of said filter coefficients is programmed in said in-phase and quadrature paths, and a second set of said filter coefficients is programmed in said in-phase-to-quadrature and quadrature-to-in-phase paths; and
said adaptation engine accommodates a partial complex equalizer and has first and second paths, said first and second paths being configured in one mode to determine filter coefficients for said in-phase and quadrature paths, and being configured in another mode to determine said filter coefficients for said in-phase-to-quadrature and quadrature-to-in-phase paths.
15. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said basis-function generator is configured to generate a plurality of substantially orthogonal basis functions;
each of said basis functions is responsive to X(n)·|X(n)|
^{K}, where X(n) represents said complex-forward-data stream and K is an integer greater than or equal to one; andeach of said basis functions produces a complex-basis-function-data stream.
16. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said predistortion circuit additionally comprises a heat estimator adapted to receive a signal responsive to said complex-forward-data stream and to generate a heat signal responsive to relative power in said complex-forward-data stream; and
said heat estimator couples to said filter so that said heat signal influences said complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream.
17. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
18. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
19. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
20. A digital predistortion circuit for compensating nonlinear distortion introduced by analog-transmitter components of a digital communications transmitter, said predistortion circuit comprising:
a source of a forward-data stream configured to digitally convey information;
a basis-function generator coupled to said source and configured to generate a basis-function-data stream in response to said forward-data stream;
a heat estimator adapted to receive a signal responsive to said forward-data stream and to generate a heat signal responsive to power of said forward-data stream;
a digital equalizer section coupled to said basis-function generator and to said heat estimator, said equalizer section being configured to generate a filtered-basis-function-data stream in response to said basis-function-data stream and said heat signal; and
a combination circuit for combining said filtered-basis-function-data stream and said forward-data stream to compensate for said nonlinear distortion.
21. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
22. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said adaptive equalizer determines filter coefficients so that said basis-function-data stream is filtered into said filtered-basis-function-data stream in response to said filter coefficients; and
said adaptive equalizer is configured to maximally correlate changes in said filter coefficients with changes in magnitude exhibited by said complex-forward-data stream.
23. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
24. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
25. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
26. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said equalizer section includes an adaptive equalizer that generates filter coefficients and is responsive to said heat signal;
said adaptive equalizer is configured to generate a filter-coefficient-change signal responsive to changes in said filter coefficients; and
said heat estimator is configured to delay said heat signal into temporal alignment with said filter-coefficient-change signal.
27. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
28. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said forward-data stream exhibits a forward resolution; and
said return-data stream exhibits a return resolution less than said forward resolution.
29. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
30. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said equalizer section includes a plurality of equalizers;
a first one of said plurality of equalizers processes a first one of said plurality of basis-function-data streams;
one or more additional ones of said plurality of equalizers respectively process other ones of said plurality of basis-function-data streams; and
said first equalizer and said one or more additional equalizers couple to said combination circuit.
31. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said first equalizer and said one or more additional equalizers are non-adaptive equalizers; and
said equalizer section additionally comprises an adaptation engine coupled to each of said non-adaptive equalizers, said adaptation engine being configured to implement an estimation-and-convergence algorithm which determines filter coefficients for said non-adaptive equalizers.
32. A predistortion circuit as claimed in
said forward-data stream is a complex data stream;
said basis-function generator is configured to generate a plurality of basis functions;
each of said basis functions is responsive to X(n)·|X(n)|
^{K}, where X(n) represents said forward-data stream and K is an integer greater than or equal to one; andeach of said basis functions produces a complex-basis-function-data stream.
33. A method of digitally compensating for nonlinear distortion introduced by analog-transmitter components of a digital communications transmitter, said method comprising:
providing a forward-data stream configured to digitally convey information;
generating a basis-function-data stream responsive to X(n)·|X(n)|
^{K}, where X(n) represents said forward-data stream, and K is an integer greater than or equal to one;filtering said basis-function-data stream to generate a filtered-basis-function-data stream; and
combining said filtered-basis-function-data stream and said forward-data stream to compensate for said nonlinear distortion.
34. A method as claimed in
down-converting a feedback signal obtained from said analog-transmitter components to generate a return-data stream; and
processing said return-data stream to generate said filter coefficients.
35. A method as claimed in
said return-data stream exhibits a lower resolution than is exhibited by said forward-data stream; and
said return-data stream exhibits a lower resolution than is exhibited by said basis-function-data stream.
36. A method as claimed in
generating a heat signal in response to said forward-data stream; and
adjusting said filter coefficients in response to said heat signal.
37. A method as claimed in
38. A method as claimed in
down-converting a feedback signal obtained from said analog-transmitter components to generate a return-data stream;
processing said forward-data stream and said return-data stream to generate said filter coefficients;
generating a heat signal in response to said forward-data stream; and
processing said filter coefficients and said heat signal to generate heat-sensitivity coefficients; and
adjusting said filter coefficients in response to said heat signal and said heat-sensitivity coefficients.
39. A method as claimed in
40. A method as claimed in
said filtering activity filters said basis-function-data stream in response to filter coefficients;
said filtering activity is performed by a programmable digital equalizer section which includes a non-adaptive equalizer selectively coupled to an adaptation engine; and
said method additionally comprises coupling said adaptation engine to said non-adaptive equalizer to determine said filter coefficients, then decoupling said adaptation engine from said non-adaptive equalizer.
41. A method as claimed in
each of said forward-data stream, said basis-function-data stream, and said filtered-basis-function-data stream is a complex-data stream;
said non-adaptive equalizer is a complex equalizer having first and second sets of filter coefficients;
said adaptation engine accommodates a partial complex equalizer; and
as a result of said coupling activity, said adaptation engine identifies said first set of filter coefficients, then after identifying said first set of filter coefficients identifies said second set of filter coefficients.
42. A method as claimed in
said generating activity generates a plurality of basis functions, with each of said basis functions being responsive to X(n)·|X(n)|
^{K}, where X(n) represents said forward-data stream and K is an integer greater than or equal to one, and with each of said basis functions producing its own basis-function-data stream;said filtering activity filters each of said plurality of basis-function-data streams to generate a corresponding plurality of filtered-basis-function-data streams; and
said combining activity combines said plurality of filtered-basis-function-data streams with said forward-data stream to compensate for said nonlinear distortion.
43. A method as claimed in
down-converting a feedback signal obtained from said analog-transmitter components to generate a return-data stream; and
processing said return-data stream to sequentially generate said filter-coefficient sets.
44. A method as claimed in
said filtering activity is performed by a digital equalizer section which includes a plurality of non-adaptive equalizers and an adaptation engine; and
said method additionally comprises sequentially coupling said adaptation engine to each of said non-adaptive equalizers so that said adaptation engine will converge upon one of said filter-coefficient sets, then programming said one of said filter-coefficient sets into a corresponding one of said non-adaptive equalizers, and decoupling said adaptation engine from said corresponding one of said non-adaptive equalizers.
45. A method as claimed in
Description This patent is related to “Predistortion Circuit and Method for Compensating Linear Distortion in a Digital RF Communications Transmitter” and to “A Distortion-Managed Digital RF Communications Transmitter and Method Therefor”, each invented by the inventor of this patent, and each having the same filing date as this patent. The present invention relates generally to the field of digital RF communications. More specifically, the present invention relates to the control and reduction of inaccuracies introduced into a digital communication signal by analog components of a transmitter. Vast amounts of digital processing can be applied to a communication signal in a digital communications transmitter at low cost. Even a relatively wideband communications signal may be described digitally and processed digitally at great accuracy for a reasonable cost. The digital description of the signal comes from providing a stream of samples at a rate suitable for the bandwidth and at a desired resolution. But the digitally-described-communications signal is nevertheless conventionally converted into an analog form, upconverted, filtered, and amplified for transmission by analog components. Unlike digital components, analog components achieve only limited accuracy. Moreover, even poor levels of analog accuracy tend to be relatively expensive, and greater accuracy is achieved only at even greater expense. Consequently, a recent trend in digital communications transmitters is to replace analog processing by extending the digital processing as far as possible toward an antenna from which an RF communications signal will be broadcast. Two other recent trends are the use of modulation forms that require linear amplification and the use of less expensive, but also less accurate, analog components. The modulation forms that require linear amplification are desirable because they allow more information to be conveyed during a given period, over a given bandwidth, and using a given transmission power level. Using less expensive components is always a desirable goal, but it is also an important goal in applications that have mass-market appeal and/or highly competitive markets. A linear power amplifier is an analog component that is one of the most expensive and also most power-consuming devices in the transmitter. To the extent that a linear power amplifier fails to reproduce and amplify its input signal in a precisely linear manner, signal distortion results. And, as a general rule the distortion worsens as less-expensive and lower-power amplifiers are used. One type of power-amplifier distortion that has received considerable attention is nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is a particularly prominent characteristic of linear power amplifiers and refers to the extent to which any inaccuracy in an amplifier's output signal fails to be linearly related to the amplifier's input signal. Nonlinearity is particularly troublesome in an RF transmitter because it causes spectral regrowth. While an amplifier's RF-input signal may be well-confined in a predetermined portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, any amplifier nonlinearity causes intermodulation so that the amplifier's RF-output signal covers a larger portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmitters desirably utilize as much of the spectrum as permitted by regulations in order to efficiently convey information. Consequently, spectral regrowth would typically cause a transmitter to be in violation of regulations. To avoid violating regulations, linear power-amplifiers desirably amplify the communications signal they process in as precisely a linear manner as possible. Another trend faced in digital-communications-transmitter designs is that standards and regulations are continually tightening the spectral-regulatory masks within which transmitters must operate. So the need to minimize the spectral-regrowth consequences of power amplifier nonlinearity is greater than ever. One way to address the spectral-regrowth consequences of power amplifier nonlinearity is to use a higher-power amplifier and operate that higher-power amplifier at a greater backoff. Backoff refers to the degree to which an amplifier is producing a weaker signal than it is capable of producing. Typically, power amplifiers become increasingly linear as they operate further beneath their maximum capabilities, and a greater backoff maintains amplifier operation in the amplifier's more highly linear operating range. Not only does this solution require the use of a more-expensive, higher-power amplifier, but it also usually requires operating the power amplifier in a less efficient operating range, thereby causing the transmitter to consume more power than it might if the amplifier were operated more efficiently. This problem becomes much more pronounced when the communications signal exhibits a high peak-to-average power ratio, such as when several digital communications signals are combined prior to amplification. And, the practice of combining several signals prior to amplification is a common one in cell-site base stations, for example. Another way to address the consequences of power-amplifier nonlinearity is though digital predistortion. Digital predistortion has been applied to digital communications signals to permit the use of less expensive power amplifiers and also to improve the performance of more expensive power amplifiers. Digital predistortion refers to digital processing applied to a communications signal while it is still in its digital form, prior to analog conversion. The digital processing attempts to distort the digital communications signal in precisely the right way so that after inaccuracies are applied by linear amplification and other analog processing, the resulting communications signal is as precisely accurate as possible. To the extent that amplifier nonlinearity is corrected through digital predistortion, lower-power, less-expensive amplifiers may be used, the amplifiers may be operated at their more-efficient, lower-backoff operating ranges, and spectral regrowth is reduced. And, since the digital predistortion is performed through digital processing, it should be able to implement whatever distortion functions it is instructed to implement in an extremely precise manner and at reasonable cost. While prior digital predistorting techniques have achieved some successes, those successes have been limited, and the more modern regulatory requirements of tighter spectral-regulatory masks are rendering the conventional predistortion techniques inadequate. Predistortion techniques require knowledge of the way in which analog components will distort the communications signal in order to craft the proper inverse-predistortion-transfer function that will precisely compensate for distortion introduced by the analog components. The more accurate conventional digital predistortion techniques use a feedback signal derived from the power amplifier output in an attempt to gain this knowledge in real time and to have this knowledge accurately reflect the actual analog components and actual operating conditions. Conventionally, in response to monitoring this feedback signal, an extensive amount of processing is performed to derive a distortion-transfer function. Then, after deriving the distortion-transfer function, the inverse of the distortion-transfer function is computed and translated into instructions that are programmed into a digital predistorter. In many conventional applications, the transmitter is required to transmit a predetermined sequence of training data to reduce the complexity and improve the accuracy of the extensive processing needed to derive a distortion-transfer function. Less accurate or narrowband conventional predistortion techniques may resort to configuring a digital predistorter as a simple communications-signal filter that is programmed to implement the inverse-transfer-function as best it can. But in many of the more accurate, and usually more expensive, conventional applications, the digital predistorter itself includes one or more look-up-tables whose data serve as the instructions which define the character of the predistortion the digital predistorter will impart to the communications signal. At the cost of even greater complexity, prior art techniques in high-end applications attempt to compensate for memory effects. In general, memory effects refer to tendencies of power amplifiers to act differently in one set of circumstances than in another. For example, the gain and phase transfer characteristics of a power amplifier may vary as a function of frequency, instantaneous power amplifier bias conditions, temperature, and component aging. In order to address memory effects, predistorter design is typically further complicated by including multiple look-up-tables and extensive processing algorithms to first characterize the memory effects, then derive suitable inverse-transfer functions, and alter predistorter instructions accordingly. The vast array of conventional predistortion techniques suffers from a variety of problems. The use of training sequences is particularly undesirable because it requires the use of spectrum for control rather than payload purposes, and it typically increases complexity. Generally, increased processing complexity in the path of the feedback signal and in the predistorter design is used to achieve increased accuracy, but only minor improvements in accuracy are achieved at the expense of great increases in processing complexity. Increases in processing complexity for the feedback signal are undesirable because they lead to increased transmitter expense and increased power consumption. Following conventional digital predistortion techniques, the cost of digital predistortion quickly meets or exceeds the cost of using a higher-power amplifier operated at greater backoff to achieve substantially the same result. Thus, digital predistortion has conventionally been practical only in higher-end applications, and even then it has achieved only a limited amount of success. More specifically, the processing of the feedback signal suffers from some particularly vexing problems using conventional techniques. An inversing operation is conventionally performed to form an inverse-transfer function to use in programming a digital predistorter. While the inversing operation may be somewhat complex on its own, a more serious problem is that it is sensitive to small errors in the feedback signal. Even a small error processed through an inversing operation can result in a significantly inaccurate inverse-transfer function. Using conventional predistortion techniques, the feedback signal should be captured with great precision and accuracy to precisely and accurately compute the inverse-transfer function. Using conventional techniques, this requires high precision analog-to-digital conversion circuits (A/D) to capture the feedback signal, followed by high resolution, low error, digital circuitry to process the feedback signal. To complicate matters, the feedback signal typically exhibits an expanded bandwidth due to the spectral regrowth caused by power amplifier nonlinearity. To accurately capture the expanded bandwidth of the feedback signal using conventional techniques, the A/D should also consist of high-speed circuits. But such high speed, high-resolution A/D's are often such costly, high-power components that they negate any power amplifier cost savings achievable through digital predistortion in all but the most high-end applications. In order to avoid the requirement of high-speed, high-resolution A/D's, some conventional predistortion techniques have adopted the practice of processing only the power of the out-of-band portion of the feedback signal. But the power of the out-of-band portion of the feedback signal only indirectly describes analog-component distortion, again causing increased errors and reduced accuracy in inverse-transfer functions. Even when conventional designs use high-speed, high-resolution A/D's to capture feedback signals, they still fail to control other sources of error that, after an inversion operation, can lead to significant inaccuracy in an inverse-transfer-function. Phase jitter in clocking the A/D adds to error, as does any analog processing that may take place prior to A/D conversion. And, conventional practices call for digital communications signals to be complex signals having in-phase and quadrature components which are conventionally processed separately in the feedback signal prior to A/D conversion. Any quadrature imbalance introduced in the feedback signal by analog processing leads to further error that, after an inversion operation, can cause significant inaccuracy in an inverse-transfer function. Linear distortion introduced into the communications signal by analog components is believed to be another source of error that plagues conventional digital predistortion techniques. Linear distortion refers to signal inaccuracies that are faithfully reproduced by, or introduced by, the power amplifier and fall in-band. Examples of linear distortion include quadrature gain, phase, and group delay imbalances. And, as the communication signal becomes more wideband, frequency-dependent gain and phase variances assert a greater linear-distortion influence. Linear distortion is typically viewed as being a more benign form of error than nonlinear distortion because it does not lead to spectral regrowth. Typically, linear distortion is compensated for in a receiver after the transmission channel and the receiver's front-end-analog components have added further linear distortions. But in at least one example, a communication system has been configured so that the receiver determines some linear-distortion-correction parameters that are then communicated back to the transmitter, where the transmitter then implements some corrective action. The reduction of linear distortion in a transmitted communications signal is desirable because it reduces the amount of linear distortion that a receiver must compensate for in the received signal, which leads to improved performance. And, reduction of linear distortion becomes even more desirable as the communications signal becomes more wideband. But using a receiver to specify the corrective action that a transmitter should take to reduce linear distortion is undesirable because it does not separate channel-induced distortion from transmitter-induced distortion. Since multipath usually asserts a dynamic influence on a transmitted RF communications signal as the signal propagates through a channel, such efforts are usually unsuccessful. In addition, it wastes spectrum for transmitting control data rather than payload data, and it requires a population of receivers to have a compatible capability. Not only is the failure to address linear distortion in conventional transceivers a problem in its own right, but it is believed to lead to further inaccuracy in characterizing nonlinear transfer functions. Most algorithms which transform raw data into transfer functions are based upon amplifier models that are reasonably accurate under controlled conditions. But the use of linearly-distorted signals to derive transfer functions based upon such models, and particularly over wide bandwidths, can violate the controlled conditions. Consequently, the transfer functions derived therefrom are believed to be less accurate than they might be, and any inverse-transfer functions calculated for use in a digital predistorter can be significantly inaccurate as a result. It is an advantage of at least one embodiment of the present invention that an improved predistortion circuit and method for compensating nonlinear distortion in a digital RF communications transmitter are provided. Another advantage of at least one embodiment of the present invention is that a complex-digital-subharmonic-sampling downconverter is adapted to receive a feedback signal from analog-transmitter components to improve accuracy in capturing the feedback signal. Yet another advantage of at least one embodiment of the present invention is that estimation and convergence algorithms are used to process a feedback signal obtained from analog components to minimize processing complexity while at the same time reducing errors in the feedback signal. Another advantage of at least one embodiment of the present invention is that a basis-function generator generates at least one complex-basis function in response to a complex-forward-data-stream, and that a filter filters the basis function to generate a complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream that is combined back with the complex-forward-data-stream to compensate for nonlinear distortion. Another advantage of at least one embodiment of the present invention is that an equalizer is included in a digital communications transmitter to filter a basis function to exhibit characteristics that cause it to compensate nonlinear distortion. Still another advantage of at least one embodiment of the present invention is that heat-induced memory effects are compensated for with little increase in complexity. These and other advantages are realized in one form by an improved digital predistortion circuit for compensating nonlinear distortion introduced by analog-transmitter components of a digital communications transmitter. The predistortion circuit includes a source of a complex-forward-data stream configured to digitally convey information. A basis-function generator couples to the complex-forward-data-stream source and is configured to generate a complex-basis-function-data stream in response to the complex-forward-data stream. A filter couples to the basis-function generator and is configured to generate a complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream in response to the complex-basis-function-data stream. A combination circuit combines the complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream and the complex-forward-data stream to compensate for the nonlinear distortion. A more complete understanding of the present invention may be derived by referring to the detailed description and claims when considered in connection with the Figures, wherein like reference numbers refer to similar items throughout the Figures, and: In transmitter Modulators In one preferred embodiment, modulators An output of combining section In addition, peak-reduction section In the preferred embodiment, feedback signal Accordingly, feedback signal Peak-reduction section Analog components The two complex legs of the analog signal pass from D/A's BPF HPA In the preferred embodiment, linear-and-nonlinear-predistortion circuit Through monitoring these feedback signals, linear-and-nonlinear-predistortion circuit In the preferred embodiment, forward-data stream The forward data stream output from multiplier passes to a high-pass filter (HPF) An increased-rate-complex-forward-data stream Likewise, heat-change-estimation section In the preferred embodiment, all basis-function-data streams All complex-basis-function-data streams For the purposes of this description, an equalizer, such as any of equalizers In the preferred embodiment, equalizers An output of combining circuit An output of time-alignment section Linear predistorter In the preferred embodiment, linear predistorter Linear predistorter Referring to Downconversion section Complex-return-data stream Adjustable attenuator Equalizer An output of multiplexer Delayed-complex-forward-data stream Aligned-complex-forward-data stream Outputs from multiplexers In the preferred embodiment, accumulator Section An output of attenuator The direct-subharmonic-sampling-downconversion process performed by A/D In particular, A/D In the preferred embodiment, linear-and-nonlinear-predistortion circuit The processing of the feedback signal upstream of A/D In particular, the digital-data stream output from A/D Process Process Following task Subprocess Next, a task After task When that correlation solution occurs, an initializing task When task When task Referring back to Task When task Referring back to Delayed-complex-forward-data stream Within each CORDIC cell Within each CORDIC cell In the I leg of each CORDIC cell Each CORDIC cell
Each cell's rotation is slightly more than ½ of the previous cells' rotation. Thus, by selectively combining the rotation of various CORDIC cells 1004, any angle within the range of 0°-90° may be achieved, to a resolution determined by the number of CORDIC cells included in phase rotator 1000.
Referring to After task Following task While tasks When all four quadrants have been tested or otherwise evaluated, a task Following task When task Referring back to Following task Referring to I-node Each tap Each tap Multiplexers Each heat-adapter unit When filter coefficients and optional heat-sensitivity coefficients are supplied from adaptation engine Referring to The I and Q legs of the “ideal” aligned-complex-forward-data stream Selective inversion elements Respective outputs of adders Respective outputs of multipliers Subsequent processing of filter coefficients is directed to the heat-related memory effect. In particular, the filter coefficients “w” output from respective adders An average-coefficient output in each filtering circuit is provided by adder It is the change in filter coefficients determined in response to average filter coefficient values over a preceding duration that can correlate with changes in temperature when HPA The outputs of adders In one alternative embodiment of adaptation engine Referring back to Subprocess Of course, nothing requires adaptation engine In particular, following task After task Next, a task Following task At this point, a query task When task Task Decoupling may be accomplished by selecting the controller data input at the subject multiplexer Following task Referring back to Referring back to high-pass filter Upon the completion of subprocess After task Following phase realignment in task After task Referring to the Wiener-Hammerstein HPA model depicted in This operation further compensates for linear distortion appearing at the output of HPA Next, a task Following task Referring back to Subprocess In the preferred embodiments, the basis functions are substantially orthogonal to one another. By being orthogonal to one another, filtering applied to one of the basis functions will have a minimal impact on other basis functions. Moreover, when the filtering changes for one basis function, those changes are less likely to influence the other basis functions. Complex-forward-data stream But in order to achieve substantial orthogonality, each basis function equals the sum of an appropriately weighted X(n)·|X(n)| Those skilled in the art will appreciate that basis-function-generation section Referring back to Following task Referring back to Complex-forward-data stream Programmable time-alignment section The IIR filter provides an average-magnitude output at an output of an adder Thus, the long-term average magnitude signal reflects the average magnitude, or a power greater than one thereof, over time of forward-data stream Referring back to Referring to Task After task Next, a task Following task At this point, a query task When task Referring back to Distortion introduced by peak-reduction section Accordingly, after task Then task Following task After task In summary, an improved predistortion circuit and method for compensating linear distortion in a digital RF communications transmitter is described herein; an improved predistortion circuit and method for compensating nonlinear distortion in a digital RF communications transmitter are described herein; and, an improved distortion-managed digital RF communications transmitter and method are provided. A feedback-driven equalizer section is included in a digital communications transmitter to filter a digital communications signal and to compensate for frequency-dependent-quadrature-gain-and-phase imbalance introduced by analog-transmitter components. A complex-digital-subharmonic-sampling downconverter is adapted to receive a feedback signal from analog-transmitter components to improve accuracy in capturing the feedback signal. Estimation-and-convergence algorithms are used to process a feedback signal obtained from analog components to minimize processing complexity while at the same time reducing errors in the feedback signal. An equalization section which filters a digital communications signal includes an adaptive equalizer that implements an estimation and convergence algorithm to determine filter coefficients that compensate for frequency dependent quadrature gain and phase imbalance introduced by analog-transmitter components. A basis-function-generation section generates at least one complex-basis function in response to a complex-forward-data-stream, and a filter filters the basis function to generate a complex-filtered-basis-function-data stream that is combined back with the complex-forward-data-stream to compensate for nonlinear distortion. An equalizer is included in a digital communications transmitter to filter a basis function to exhibit characteristics that cause it to compensate nonlinear distortion. Heat-induced memory effects are compensated for with little increase in complexity. A linear predistorter is trained to compensate for linear distortion prior to training a nonlinear predistorter to compensate for nonlinear distortion to improve accuracy in the training of the nonlinear predistorter. Although the preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described in detail, it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention or from the scope of the appended claims. For example, differential-mode-time-alignment section Patent Citations
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