|Publication number||US7430598 B2|
|Application number||US 10/722,009|
|Publication date||Sep 30, 2008|
|Filing date||Nov 25, 2003|
|Priority date||Nov 25, 2003|
|Also published as||US20050114174|
|Publication number||10722009, 722009, US 7430598 B2, US 7430598B2, US-B2-7430598, US7430598 B2, US7430598B2|
|Inventors||Gary P. Raden, Eduardo da Fonseca Melo, Tolga Bayram Ekmekci, Thomas M. Soemo, Lisa M. Butler, Richard J. Moerloos, Jr.|
|Original Assignee||Microsoft Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (18), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (32), Classifications (19), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to network administration and control, and more particularly to systems and methods for providing health monitor alert management and control for networked systems.
Computers were developed to aid people with repetitive tasks that were deemed to be extremely time consuming. Most of the early computers were used for complex mathematical problem solving. The first computing machines were extremely large compared to computers utilized today. Despite their enormous size, the early machines had vastly less computing power than today's machines. The sizes of computing devices were typically driven by the sizes of the existing electronic components of that era. This meant that only large research facilities or big businesses could employ computing machines. As new technology allowed for smaller electronic devices to be developed, computing devices also diminished in size. Although still lacking in power by today's standards, the size of the computing machine was reduced enough that it could be placed on a typical desk. Thus, the “desktop computer” was born. This allowed users to have computing technology available in locations other than a central computing building. People found that having the capability to utilize computing technology at their work desk, rather than submitting computing problems to a central location, made them much more productive at their jobs. To make these remotely located computers more accessible, connections were made between the computers to form “networks.” This allowed a greater exchange of information from one computing location to another, and, in some cases, effectively creating one large computing system. Eventually, the idea of moving the desktop computer to the home environment to provide even more convenience for doing work became a reality and networks were extended to include these and other “offsite” locations as well.
With the advent of Internet applications, computing system requirements and demands increased dramatically. Many businesses, for example, have made important investments relating to Internet technology to support growing electronic businesses such as e-commerce. Since companies are relying on an ever increasing amount of network commerce to support their businesses, computing systems generally have become more complex in order to ensure that servers providing network services never fail. Consequently, system reliability, usage, and management are important aspects to the modern business model. These aspects are generally heightened, especially with small businesses which must control overages and waste tightly in order to remain competitive in tight markets.
A first approach for providing powerful and reliable services utilized a large multiprocessor system (e.g., mainframe) for managing servers, for example. Since more than one processor may be involved within a large system, services can continue even if one of a plurality of processors fails. Unfortunately, these large systems can also be extraordinarily expensive and available to only the largest of corporations. A second approach for providing services involves employing a plurality of lesser expensive systems (e.g., off-the-shelf personal computers) individually configured as an array to support a desired service. Although these systems can provide a more economical hardware solution, system management and administration of individual servers is generally more complex and time consuming.
Currently, management of a plurality of servers is a time-intensive and problematic endeavor. For example, managing server content (e.g., software, configuration, data files, components, etc.) requires administrators to explicitly distribute (e.g., manually and/or through custom script files) new or updated content and/or configurations (e.g., web server configuration, network settings, etc.) across the servers. If a server's content becomes corrupted, an administrator often has no automatic means of correcting the problem. Furthermore, configuration, load-balance adjusting/load balance tool selection, and monitoring generally must be achieved via separate applications. Thus, management of an entity (e.g., a plurality of computers acting collectively) as a whole, generally requires individual configuration of loosely coupled services that inherently increases errors and time expenditure.
The problems are often compounded when usage of the system includes resource utilization that is outside the scope of normal business activity. This taxes the resources of the system and reduces profitability of businesses. Some examples of this type of activity include, personal emails, web “surfing,” and network gaming and the like that are counter to a business' goals. Thus, administrators are not only tasked with keeping a network system up and running, they may also be required to assist the business with fine tuning usage of the network itself. This requires information beyond what is typically available to a system administrator. This problem is compounded by the fact that most small businesses cannot afford to have their own system administrators “in house.” Therefore, most activities are performed from a remote location by a provider who may also be servicing many other network systems for other businesses. Thus, the amount of information required to efficiently perform normal health monitoring and statusing of multi-systems becomes an overwhelming task, especially if a business also expects facilitation with improving a system's utilization.
The following presents a simplified summary of the invention in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the invention. This summary is not an extensive overview of the invention. It is not intended to identify key/critical elements of the invention or to delineate the scope of the invention. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts of the invention in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.
The present invention relates generally to network administration and control, and more particularly to systems and methods for providing health monitor alert management and control for networked systems. A data gathering service is leveraged to provide information regarding a system's health state via a computing entity, local and/or remote. This provides an optimized means to aggregate a single network's data and/or multiple networks' data, decreasing the amount of effort required by system administrators to manage health related alerts. By providing customizable aggregated health data, an administrator can efficiently maintain more networks in substantially the same amount of time it took to previously manage a substantially smaller amount of networks. The administrator also gains an ability to provide health related system state information to a customer that requests network-related health data. In one instance of the present invention, a data gathering service aggregates health data from systems administered by the administrator and provides access to this information via a communication means, such as the Internet, for example. This permits administrators to interface with pertinent information virtually anywhere they can find access to the communication means. Thus, the present invention vastly improves administrative productivity while enhancing the utilization of systems being administered to. In another instance of the present invention, aggregated, averaged data is utilized to provide manual and/or automatic control and/or management facilitation of health monitoring related tasks.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, certain illustrative aspects of the invention are described herein in connection with the following description and the annexed drawings. These aspects are indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the invention may be employed, and the present invention is intended to include all such aspects and their equivalents. Other advantages and novel features of the invention may become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the drawings.
The present invention is now described with reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It may be evident, however, that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to facilitate describing the present invention.
As used in this application, the term “component” is intended to refer to a computer-related entity, either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. For example, a component may be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a service, a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a server and the server can be a computer component. One or more components may reside within a process and/or thread of execution, and a component may be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. A “thread” is the entity within a process that the operating system kernel schedules for execution. As is well known in the art, each thread has an associated “context” which is the volatile data associated with the execution of the thread. A thread's context includes the contents of system registers and the virtual address belonging to the thread's process. Thus, the actual data comprising a thread's context varies as it executes. A “state” of a networked system refers to a condition of the networked system in relation to, but not limited to, performance, health, and usage parameters. A state can be a snapshot of a system's status relating to an historical instance in time and/or to a current instance in time and/or a future instance in time.
Generally speaking, the systems 106-112 generate health, performance, usage, and other data that enables an administrative agent to monitor, control, and report different aspects of the systems 106-112. Owners of these systems 106-112 are usually small businesses that hire an administrative agent to set up, maintain, and control their system. The administrative agent, who is generally in business to provide these services, must also provide similar services to other customers. Thus, the administrative agent typically oversees multiple systems owned by multiple clients at a remote location to the systems. This creates a huge influx of information that must be assessed by the administrative agent. In one aspect of the present invention, the data gathering service component 116 aggregates system information such as health, usage, and performance information and stores it in the database engine component 118. This permits the administrative agent to access the information and generate aggregated reports. This substantially cuts down on the amount of information that must be assessed by the administrative agent. It also permits trends and patterns of system errors to be tracked not only on a single system but over multiple systems to possibly permit prediction of common mode failures/errors of a common piece of hardware for instance. Historical time-based trends can also be tracked. This permits a system utilizing the present invention to provide historical, computer network, and/or multi-site data mining. System reports provided by access to the aggregated data permits control responses to be initiated manually by the administrative agent and/or automatically by the control component 114. The automatic responses can be default responses and/or programmed responses by the administrative agent. Thus, if a particular user of a system is over utilizing an internet bandwidth connection, the present invention provides a means to respond to reduce that particular utilization. This permits a case-by-case assessment without requiring a system-wide mandate to curb a particular system asset. Control can be accomplished for such assets as e-mail, internet access, faxing, CPU utilization, and the like. For example, reports regarding a particular user's send and receive habits can be generated and provided to a client. This adds value to an administrative agent's business. It also provides value to the system's owner who can utilize the reports to determine productivity of individual users of the system.
By utilizing the aggregated data, the present invention can also reduce faulty or “noise” errors. A system employing the present invention can connect to a service that updates/predicts/assists with known bugs/noise errors, and this information can be reported to an administrator of the system and/or automatically incorporated as adjusted threshold alert values and/or changes to a system's state such as updating system software and the like to prevent any further bogus errors from occurring. The aggregated data can also be incorporated into a learning system employing artificial intelligence (AI) to predict and/or pattern a system into a more productive model. A system, such as an AI system, employing the present invention can also be utilized to perform management tasks to increase productivity of end-users of the system through employment of aggregated utilization information.
The servicing center component 206 provides a central entity that services multiple VAPs by aggregating information and/or providing control of systems administered by those VAPs. Thus, system service component 1 214 aggregates information and/or provides control of systems administered by VAP “A.” System service component 2 216 aggregates information and/or provides control of systems administered by VAP “B.” Likewise, system service component “R” 218 aggregates information and/or provides control of system administered by VAP “C.” Although only three sets of VAP systems are shown, one skilled in the art can appreciate that there can be any number of VAP system groupings from 1 to infinity. There also can be system overlapping such as when a client has multiple VAPs overseeing various aspects of a single and/or multiple networks within the client's organization. In this example of an instance of the present invention, the user interface 202 represents an interface for VAP “B.” VAP B is chosen only for illustrative purposes. The user interface 202 can be an interface for any VAP and/or multiple VAPs. The servicing center component 206 provides the service component 2 216 to administer data aggregation and/or control of VAP B's clients (i.e., networks and the like). This alleviates VAP B of the requirement of having equipment that can process and handle the throughput of all of their clients' system data. The data aggregation and/or control is provided by the system service component 2 216, along with any CPU and/or resources required to process the data and/or provide control. This permits VAP B to access system service component 2 216 via the communication means 204 at any remote location serviced by the communication means 204. Thus, this instance of the present invention provides relief of asset possession and relief of limited accessibility of information and/or control by a VAP, minimizing the workload of the VAP. The servicing center component 206 additionally has the ability to cross-compare various systems for making a determination if an error, such as a hardware error, for example, is a common mode error/failure pertinent to a particular entity that may be found in multiple systems. This allows the servicing center 206 to notify VAPs of a potential for common errors/failures with regard to a particular entity such as common software and/or hardware entities and the like. It also permits erroneous errors and/or software bugs to be eliminated through filtering and/or software updates, accomplished manually and/or automatically.
A small business server environment desires robust administration tools without imposing extensive burdens and complexities on system administrators. The present invention can be incorporated in a system that provides for accumulating tailored information about the health of a server's environment and utilizing information to provide useful administrative guidance. In one instance of the present invention, the present invention provides a simplified user interface to a server environment health monitoring and alert system—providing for definition and implementation of alerts based on instantaneous measurements and time averaged data. Thus, the present invention can, for example, bring together a health monitor process and an historical system state utilizing a database engine component such as Microsoft's SQL's MSDE engine in order to provide a user a historical view of relevant data to enable a better understanding of related alerts. Furthermore, the present invention also provides a simple user interface for setting thresholds in a process such as, for example, the health monitor process. Historical data is very effective in facilitating a user to select a threshold for alerting. Each system and network runs differently, and the present invention provides a rolling average of data. Ultimately, this helps minimize frivolous alerts and time spent by a system's owner, both in setting alerts and in responding to alerts.
In order to provide information for enhancing system interaction with a user, the present invention provides a means to gather historical data that can be utilized to facilitate a user's administration of the system. In
The present invention can be incorporated in a system that provides for accumulating tailored information about a state of a system such as, for example, the health of a server environment and utilizes gathered information to provide useful administrative guidance. In one instance of the present invention, collection of information is facilitated by bringing together a distributed database engine such as, for example, an SQL MSDE engine and several sources of system information to provide for historical monitoring of an entire system state. System information can be collected from running processes such as, for example, a health monitor process and also collected from logged data such as, for example, an event log, an Exchange log, an IIS log, and a fax log. The system information is then inserted into a server such as, for example, an SQL server, where customized reports can be generated and provided to the customer. The present invention enables users/clients to more accurately and quickly monitor the overall health and utilization of their server and network, reducing system operating costs. It also provides for rich data mining of system data by utilizing, for example, a custom schema installed into a database engine component such as MSDE. Thus, when data is collected, it can be inserted into a structured format such as, for example, schema tables. The data can then be retrieved utilizing predefined user interfaces or “views,” for example, for web viewing and e-mail reporting.
Another instance of the present invention provides a system administrator with periodic reports on system utilization based on user and system defined criteria and the like. The present invention brings together utilization data from a variety of administrator and system defined sources to create these reports and/or provide utilization control of the system. In
In a typical example of the present invention, a data collection service runs once daily and collects a wide range of system data. It then stores this set of collected information in a database engine component, viewable via a defined view of system utilization data based on the set of collected information. This view or report can be based on user input based on a wide base set of statistics the user finds useful. Providing users with this type of report saves them from having to log on to a system and pour through logs from many different sources. This ultimately saves time and money to a user's client or owner of the system. A system utilization report shows a client how their system users are interacting with their system. This provides information that a client can utilize to enhance the performance of the system and/or utilize to enhance the performance of the system's user. For example, if a particular system user or employee has a high e-mail send and/or receive usage along with hours of internet usage per day, an employer (i.e., the client) can adjust the situation directly by confronting the employee about productivity and/or the employer can inform a system's administrator (i.e., user) to restrict that particular employee's internet bandwidth and emailing capabilities. Thus, the present invention goes beyond just enhancing a system's performance, but can also be utilized to enhance the productivity and/or management of employees utilizing a client's system. Similarly, the present invention can be used to directly monitor employee activities to provide a substantially real-time monitor of their productivity. Reports and/or controlling actions can be implemented manually and/or automatically based upon the aggregated utilization data. Beyond solely monitoring employee activity, the present invention can also be utilized to actually enforce business rules based on a business owner's preferences utilizing positive feedback. For example, a business rule could require that no single employee can utilize more than 5% of available bandwidth allotted by a system administrator for non-critical utilization such as, for example, internet web browsing, This naturally enforces the business rule while protecting a networked system's bandwidth for critical applications such as, for example, system backup and/or e-mail applications.
Yet another instance of the present invention brings together historical data collection services and data storage engines such as, for example, an MSDE engine, for data storage in order to present a system administrator/user and system client/owner a unified view of overall health of a system. Looking at
In one instance of the present invention, a data collection service runs once per hour and collects a wide range of system health and/or performance data. It then stores this collected set of information in a database engine component such as an MSDE store. The present invention provides a user/administrator with a view/interface of system health and performance data utilizing the set of collected information. Based on customer input and/or system defaults, a system health and performance report is defined with a wide base set of statistics that are relevant and useful to a user and to a user's client. Providing users with this type of report saves them from having to log on to a system and pour through logs from many different sources. This ultimately saves time and money to a system's owner/client, showing explicitly any performance and/or functionality problems with a server and/or network.
In view of the exemplary systems shown and described above, methodologies that may be implemented in accordance with the present invention will be better appreciated with reference to the flow charts of
The invention may be described in the general context of computer-executable instructions, such as program modules, executed by one or more components. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, objects, data structures, etc., that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. Typically the functionality of the program modules may be combined or distributed as desired in various embodiments.
The present invention additionally employs the supra structures and methods to provide graphical user interfaces to facilitate information dissemination to a user such as, for example, a system administrator and/or a system owner such as, for example, a system administrator's client. Different UI configurations can be created utilizing the present invention. In one instance of the present invention, a health monitor configuration UI is provided. This UI permits a user to configure appropriate alerts and settings relating to a server and/or a system that the user administers. In this manner the user can modify and set such aspects of a health monitor function such as alert thresholds, notification means for alerts, and which alerts to monitor for a server and/or a network and the like. An example UI for setting alert notifications is illustrated in an alert notifications UI 1400 shown in
Another instance of the present invention facilitates a user in becoming more proactive in addressing issues with a client's networks through proper monitoring and reporting. It can also configure monitoring and reporting such that a client can have direct report access. A monitoring configuration UI 1700 as illustrated in
Yet another instance of the present invention facilitates monitoring utilization of a system and/or server and the like. Additional UI's are employed to provide clients with valuable information about utilization of their network by network users, to ensure information is relevant and applicable to clients through re-settable data collection and/or specific data collection time period selections, to provide statistics for a network's core services, to facilitate a new channel of value for users such as VAPs, for example, to account for server and/or network downtime, and to conserve disk space on a network and/or server and the like. A client, with access privileges, can interface with an activity report UI 3100 as shown in
Still yet another instance of the present invention facilitates statusing of servers and/or networks health and/or performance such as reporting performance parameters and errors and the like. An overall summary for a particular server in a network can be provided via an overall server summary performance report UI 4000 such as that shown in
In order to provide additional context for implementing various aspects of the present invention,
As used in this application, the term “component” is intended to refer to a computer-related entity, either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. For example, a component may be, but is not limited to, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a program, and a computer. By way of illustration, an application running on a server and/or the server can be a component. In addition, a component may include one or more subcomponents.
With reference to
The system bus 4508 may be any of several types of bus structure including a memory bus or memory controller, a peripheral bus, and a local bus using any of a variety of conventional bus architectures such as PCI, VESA, Microchannel, ISA, and EISA, to name a few. The system memory 4506 includes read only memory (ROM) 4510 and random access memory (RAM) 4512. A basic input/output system (BIOS) 4514, containing the basic routines that help to transfer information between elements within the computer 4502, such as during start-up, is stored in ROM 4510.
The computer 4502 also may include, for example, a hard disk drive 4516, a magnetic disk drive 4518, e.g., to read from or write to a removable disk 4520, and an optical disk drive 4522, e.g., for reading from or writing to a CD-ROM disk 4524 or other optical media. The hard disk drive 4516, magnetic disk drive 4518, and optical disk drive 4522 are connected to the system bus 4508 by a hard disk drive interface 4526, a magnetic disk drive interface 4528, and an optical drive interface 4530, respectively. The drives 4516-4522 and their associated computer-readable media provide nonvolatile storage of data, data structures, computer-executable instructions, etc. for the computer 4502. Although the description of computer-readable media above refers to a hard disk, a removable magnetic disk and a CD, it should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that other types of media which are readable by a computer, such as magnetic cassettes, flash memory cards, digital video disks, Bernoulli cartridges, and the like, can also be used in the exemplary operating environment 4500, and further that any such media may contain computer-executable instructions for performing the methods of the present invention.
A number of program modules may be stored in the drives 4516-4522 and RAM 4512, including an operating system 4532, one or more application programs 4534, other program modules 4536, and program data 4538. The operating system 4532 may be any suitable operating system or combination of operating systems. By way of example, the application programs 4534 and program modules 4536 can include an aggregated system data scheme in accordance with an aspect of the present invention.
A user can enter commands and information into the computer 4502 through one or more user input devices, such as a keyboard 4540 and a pointing device (e.g., a mouse 4542). Other input devices (not shown) may include a microphone, a joystick, a game pad, a satellite dish, wireless remote, a scanner, or the like. These and other input devices are often connected to the processing unit 4504 through a serial port interface 4544 that is coupled to the system bus 4508, but may be connected by other interfaces, such as a parallel port, a game port or a universal serial bus (USB). A monitor 4546 or other type of display device is also connected to the system bus 4508 via an interface, such as a video adapter 4548. In addition to the monitor 4546, the computer 4502 may include other peripheral output devices (not shown), such as speakers, printers, etc.
It is to be appreciated that the computer 4502 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers 4560. The remote computer 4560 may be a workstation, a server computer, a router, a peer device or other common network node, and typically includes many or all of the elements described relative to the computer 4502, although, for purposes of brevity, only a memory storage device 4562 is illustrated in
When used in a LAN networking environment, for example, the computer 4502 is connected to the local network 4564 through a network interface or adapter 4568. When used in a WAN networking environment, the computer 4502 typically includes a modem (e.g., telephone, DSL, cable, etc.) 4570, or is connected to a communications server on the LAN, or has other means for establishing communications over the WAN 4566, such as the Internet. The modem 4570, which can be internal or external relative to the computer 4502, is connected to the system bus 4508 via the serial port interface 4544. In a networked environment, program modules (including application programs 4534) and/or program data 4538 can be stored in the remote memory storage device 4562. It will be appreciated that the network connections shown are exemplary, and other means (e.g., wired or wireless) of establishing a communications link between the computers 4502 and 4560 can be used when carrying out an aspect of the present invention.
In accordance with the practices of persons skilled in the art of computer programming, the present invention has been described with reference to acts and symbolic representations of operations that are performed by a computer, such as the computer 4502 or remote computer 4560, unless otherwise indicated. Such acts and operations are sometimes referred to as being computer-executed. It will be appreciated that the acts and symbolically represented operations include the manipulation by the processing unit 4504 of electrical signals representing data bits which causes a resulting transformation or reduction of the electrical signal representation, and the maintenance of data bits at memory locations in the memory system (including the system memory 4506, hard drive 4516, floppy disks 4520, CD-ROM 4524, and remote memory 4562) to thereby reconfigure or otherwise alter the computer system's operation, as well as other processing of signals. The memory locations where such data bits are maintained are physical locations that have particular electrical, magnetic, or optical properties corresponding to the data bits.
In one instance of the present invention, a data packet transmitted between two or more computer components that facilitates networked system health alert determination, the data packet is comprised of, at least in part, information relating to health alert monitoring of a networked system, the information including, at least in part, aggregated health related data that is time-averaged data of health related parameters corresponding to at least one system component of the networked system.
In another instance of the present invention, a data packet transmitted between two or more computer components that facilitates networked system state determination, the data packet is comprised of, at least in part, information relating to a state of a networked system, the state determined via aggregation and analysis of data from at least a subset of system components of the networked system.
In yet another instance of the present invention, a data packet transmitted between two or more computer components that facilitates networked system monitoring, the data packet is comprised of, at least in part, information relating to monitoring of a networked system, the information including, at least in part, state related data based, at least in part, upon aggregated state data corresponding to at least one system component of the networked system.
It is to be appreciated that the systems and/or methods of the present invention can be utilized in aggregating system data for facilitating computer components and non-computer related components alike. Further, those skilled in the art will recognize that the systems and/or methods of the present invention are employable in a vast array of electronic related technologies, including, but not limited to, computers, servers and/or handheld electronic devices, and the like.
What has been described above includes examples of the present invention. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methodologies for purposes of describing the present invention, but one of ordinary skill in the art may recognize that many further combinations and permutations of the present invention are possible. Accordingly, the present invention is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. Furthermore, to the extent that the term “includes” is used in either the detailed description or the claims, such term is intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term “comprising” as “comprising” is interpreted when employed as a transitional word in a claim.
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|U.S. Classification||709/224, 725/32, 709/219, 715/719, 717/121, 455/186.1, 707/999.005|
|International Classification||G06F15/173, G06F15/177, G06F15/16, H04L12/24|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L41/0681, G06Q50/22, H04L43/0817, Y10S707/99935|
|European Classification||H04L43/08D, G06Q50/22, H04L41/06E, H04L12/24D1|
|Apr 12, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:RADEN, GARY P.;DA FONSECA MELO, EDUARDO;EKMEKCI, TOLGA B.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015200/0140;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040316 TO 20040330
|Mar 1, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 9, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICROSOFT TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, LLC, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICROSOFT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:034541/0477
Effective date: 20141014
|Mar 16, 2016||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8