|Publication number||US7432874 B2|
|Application number||US 11/186,656|
|Publication date||Oct 7, 2008|
|Filing date||Jul 21, 2005|
|Priority date||Jul 22, 2004|
|Also published as||US20060017634|
|Publication number||11186656, 186656, US 7432874 B2, US 7432874B2, US-B2-7432874, US7432874 B2, US7432874B2|
|Original Assignee||Feig Electronic Gmbh|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (23), Referenced by (20), Classifications (9), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 the benefit of German patent application Ser. No. 10 2004 035 621.1, filed Jul. 22, 2004 and European patent application Ser. No. 04/028778.1, filed Dec. 4, 2004, which are incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates to an antenna array that is part of a radio frequency Identification (RFID) system for wireless or contact-free data transmission, particularly for reading from and writing to wireless contact-free data carriers, such as transponders.
2. The Prior Art
According to the state of the art, an RFID system comprises an RFID antenna that consists of at least one antenna loop that represents an inductance and is formed from one or more windings, an adaptation circuit; a read/write station having an integrated transmission, a receiver, and control unit; and a connecting line between the read/write station and the RFID antenna.
The RFID antenna of an RFID system has the following tasks: On the one hand, the transmission of power to the transponder, and on the other hand, the transmission of data to and from the transponder. The power and data transmission is based on the magnetic coupling of the alternating fields of the reader and the transponder in the close vicinity of the antenna.
A requirement for an RFID reader antenna is the power transmission to the transponder. For this purpose, the reader antenna, in turn, is supplied with power via a transmitter. To optimally transmit the power from the end stage of the reader to the antenna, the reader end stage and the reader antenna must possess the same input and output resistance, respectively. An RFID reader antenna therefore requires a certain input impedance, so that the power is optimally transmitted to the antenna from the reader end stage.
Furthermore, the reader antenna must be tuned as well as possible to the operating frequency of the RFID system, to achieve a high current and therefore a high magnetic field intensity.
If the resonance frequency of the reader antenna is tuned to the operating frequency of the RFID system, there is a high power transmission at a high quality for the reader antenna.
An adaptation circuit can adapt the input and output resistance, respectively, and balance the reader antenna with the operating frequency. This circuit is generally located in the direct vicinity of the antenna loop.
According to the state of the art, transponders consist of an integrated microelectronic component (IC) a resonance capacitor and an antenna coil, whereby the resonance capacitor is frequently already integrated into the microelectronic component. The antenna coil and the resonance capacitor form an electrical oscillating circuit and are, for example, tuned to the operating frequency of 13.56 megahertz (MHz).
If a transponder gets into the detection region of the reader antenna, the transponder receives power for operating the integrated circuit (IC), via the magnetic coupling with the antenna. The amount of the power is dependent on the field intensity, for example, on the number of field lines that penetrate the transponder, and the angle of the field lines to the transponder. The transponder receives the maximal power in the case of an angle of 90 degrees between field lines and transponder. If the angle between field lines and transponder is very acute or actually 0 degrees, the transponder is not penetrated by any field lines and therefore also does not receive any power.
If the power is sufficient, the microelectronic component is set into its base state and begins to work.
The range in which the transponder has sufficient power and can communicate with the RFID system is called the detection region.
The size of the detection region is determined by the following factors: antenna area, antenna shape, and current in the antenna loop (antenna current). The current, in turn, is dependent on the quality of the oscillation circuit, the output power of the RFID reader, and the inductance of the antenna loop, and reaches its maximum when the antenna is tuned to the resonance frequency.
To achieve the largest possible detection region, the largest possible antenna area would consequently have to be operated at the greatest possible antenna current. In practice, however, this is limited by various restrictions.
On the one hand, the output power of the end-stage amplifier of the RFID reader is limited, to keep the effort and expense as low as possible. Because of the antenna or of the adaptation circuit that can be heated during use, as well as experience the high voltages at the components in the resonance circuit, these effects also make the design and the development of cost-advantageous solutions for high transmission power more difficult.
The dependence of the magnetic field intensity on the current and the size of the antenna can be represented, fundamentally, using the following formula for a round antenna:
If the distance x between transponder and antenna loop is chosen to be equal to zero (transponder lies in the same plane as the antenna loop), the formula can be simplified as follows:
The formula shows that the field intensity in the antenna center decreases at 1/r. If one assumes that the RFID reader is able to drive only a certain maximal current into an antenna array, it becomes clear that starting from a certain size of the antenna, the magnetic field intensity in the center of the antenna is no longer sufficient to operate a transponder.
On the other hand, the inductance becomes greater and greater for large antennas, as a function of the conductor length, for example, the area surrounded by the conductor. With higher frequencies (for example at 13.56 MHz), there are very small capacitances. Thus, according to the following equation, with these small capacitances it would be necessary to balance the antenna with the required resonance frequency.
The calculation of the resonance frequency can occur using the following formula:
These small capacitances in the resonance circuit make the antennas difficult to balance, and the sensitivity to changes in the ambient conditions becomes greater.
Large antennas and high transmission power furthermore lead to a disadvantage of exceeding the valid limit values of the national radio interference regulations.
Also, it is not possible to determine the position of the transponder within the large antenna area.
Another problem of a large antenna area occurs if the RFID reader is supposed to be able to communicate with a transponder even if a large number of transponders are located in the detection region of the reader antenna at the same time. In this case, the RFID power is divided up over the large antenna area, causing the local field intensity at each point in the detection region to drop. In this case, the resonance frequency of the transponders can change because of the reciprocal coupling with one another. This can occur particularly if the transponders are spaced apart at short distances from one another, thereby causing the field intensities that the transponder requires for operation to increase.
Furthermore, simple large antennas having a large area have the disadvantage that the transponders can only be read in one orientation, since the field lines exit from the antenna area perpendicular to it, and must also penetrate the transponder as perpendicular as possible, so that the necessary power is transmitted to the transponder.
A solution for the disadvantages discussed is described in a prior art reference WO 03/026067 A1, which was published as U.S. Pat. No. 2003/0052783 to Sizman on Mar. 20, 2003, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. The desired detection region of an antenna is built up by way of the sum of the detection regions of several small antenna loops. Here, the individual antenna loops are brought together, in pairs, with an adaptation circuit, and additional antennas are connected with the RFID reader via power splitters or power dividers.
Disadvantages of the solution described are that the balancing of the antennas to the resonance frequency is very difficult, since the antennas, which are at small distances from one another, can reciprocally influence one another as a function of their distance from one another. Furthermore, gaps in the detection field occur between the antennas, or the range of the detection region is significantly lower at these locations. Thus, a continuous detection region exists only in the vicinity of an antenna, since the detection regions of the adjacent antennas only overlap slightly.
Another solution is proposed in another set of prior art references (DE 201 10 926 U1 and DE 299 21 752 U1). There, an active antenna connected with the reader is supplemented with one or more passive antennas. Here, the adaptation circuit of a passive antenna generally consists mainly of a capacitor that tunes the antenna to the resonance frequency. The antenna has no electrical connection with the reader and receives its power, just like the transponders do, only by way of the magnetic coupling with the active antenna.
With this solution, again, gaps occur in the detection region of the structure, due to superimposition of the magnetic field lines. This is because the field lines have different directions and phase positions relative to one another. As a result, the transponder has few field lines flowing through it if it is oriented parallel to the antenna, and therefore does not receive sufficient power.
Furthermore, the signal strength of the response telegrams from the transponders is reduced by the coupling factor between the active and the passive antenna, if a transponder is located outside of the detection region of the active antenna but in the vicinity of the passive antenna. This can have the result that although the transponder has sufficient power, it cannot be read.
If the antennas are overlapped, as described in a prior art reference (EP 1 298 573 A2), electromagnetic coupling occurs between the individual antenna loops, thereby changing the resonance frequency of the antennas and causing the transmission output of the reader to be distributed over all the coupled antennas, thereby resulting in a general reduction or a detection region having gaps.
Antennas with a small distance from one another or overlapping antennas have the property of being strongly coupled into one another. This has the result that balancing of the antennas is difficult and complicated, since they reciprocally influence one another.
When the antenna is put into operation, part of the transmission power goes into the adjacent antennas, because of the coupling. This power is lost to the transmission antenna, and this results in reduced field intensity values and reading ranges.
If the phase position of the currents of two antennas is the same-phase in the overlap region, holes occur in the detection region, in the region of the overlap, since the field lines are counter-current there.
Nevertheless, the division of a large antenna area into smaller individual antennas is already described in a prior art reference (WO 03/026067 A1 and EP 1 298 573 A2), whereby fundamental advantages of overlapping antennas are also already mentioned in EP 1 298 573 A2. Other Patents are known, for example, EP 01 86 483; U.S. Pat. No. 6,703,935 to Chung (the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference); WO 03/090310 to Yang; and EP 06 54 840.
The technical problem underlying the invention is to create an antenna array for large, cohesive detection spaces, which avoid the disadvantages mentioned above.
The present invention relates to an antenna array for RFID antennas for large cohesive detection spaces, having an operating frequency between 100 kHz to 30 MHz, which is connected with at least one read/write station. There can also be at least one antenna comprising or consisting of an antenna loop having at least one winding. The antenna array can include at least two antennas that are disposed in a plane, wherein the antenna loops of the individual antennas overlap. There can also be at least one multiplexer which is disposed between the read/write station and the antennas of the antenna array, for selected activation of the antennas. Because of this antenna array, the disadvantages discussed above do not occur. Furthermore, the invention results in the possibility of being able to read transponders in several orientations.
The invention can rely on different embodiments to cover large detection spaces via several overlapping antennas and eliminate the disadvantages of the reciprocal influence of the overlapping antennas and the difficult antenna balancing of the individual antennas.
In one embodiment, the degree and the position of the overlap of the antenna loops can be adjusted so that the electromagnetic coupling between the antenna loops assumes a minimal value, so that reciprocal influence of the antenna loops on one another no longer occurs.
In another embodiment, each antenna loop has with it a device for opening the antenna loop, which makes it possible to open an antenna loop when it is switched to be inactive, so that no electromagnetic influence on adjacent active antenna loops proceeds from the antenna loop that has been shut off.
In one embodiment, only one antenna of an antenna loop is activated at the same time, in each instance.
In another embodiment, the antenna array can be built up from at least three antennas, and wherein these antennas are connected with the reader by way of at least one additional power splitter, so that at least two antennas are activated at the same time.
In this case, the current in adjacent antennas can have the same current direction.
Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is to be understood, however, that the drawings are designed as an illustration only and not as a definition of the limits of the invention.
In the drawings, wherein similar reference characters denote similar elements throughout the several views:
The antennas 1, 2 do not couple into one another if the sum of the field lines of the first antenna 1 that enter into the second antenna 2 is equal to the sum of the field lines of the first antenna that exit from the second antenna 2, and vice versa.
A precise mathematical calculation of the precise position of the antennas 1, 2 relative to one another is possible using vectorial addition of the electromagnetic fields, but in most cases, a practical determination is more simple.
The position at which the coupling of the two antennas 1, 2 practically cancels itself out can be determined via measurement technology, using two independent methods.
With the first method, shown in
With the second method, the two antennas 1, and 2 must first be brought into a position in which they do not influence one another, and tuned to their working point (resonance frequency) in this position.
Afterwards, the two antennas 1, and 2 must be pushed one over the other, very slowly, whereby again, only one of the two antennas 1, or 2 is actively supplied with RF power by reader 3. As they are being pushed one over the other, the input impedance of antennas 1, and 2 is observed. The position being sought has been reached once the input impedance corresponds to the antenna that was previously uninfluenced. Measurement of the input impedance can alternatively occur via a standing wave ratio measurement device (SWR-meter) 3 a, wherein the ratio between the transmitted and reflected power is measured. As soon as the standing wave ratio assumes its minimum, the overlapping position being sought has also been found.
If antennas 1, and 2 were to be displaced further, the reciprocal influence would increase once again and reach its maximum when the two antennas 1, and 2 overlap completely.
The overlap width (X2) can be influenced slightly via the perpendicular distance (Y2) between the two antennas, as shown in
In this embodiment, the overlap of the antennas 1, 2, 4 can be selected almost without restrictions. For this purpose, there is at least one switch 5, 6, or 7 which is disposed at every antenna loop 1, 2, or 4, wherein the antenna loop 1, 2, or 4 itself can be opened, so that it no longer contains any inductance. For example, the loop no longer represents an oscillation circuit together with the oscillation circuit capacitors of the adaptation circuit, wherein this antenna loop overlapping the antenna loop could couple into the oscillation circuit electromagnetically. Only at the time point when the antenna is connected with the reader, must the antenna loop be closed by way of a switch so that it is ready for operation.
With the opening the antenna loop, any overlap that can be imagined is possible, since the split-up antennas 1, 2, and 4 can no longer couple into the other antenna. Therefore, the detection region can be built up of individual antennas, in accordance with the application.
With the dividing of the large antenna area up into overlapping smaller antenna areas, the following results are achieved:
1. The antenna arrays having a variable antenna area can be built up from standard antennas, and therefore the number of variants of the required antenna sizes becomes less;
2. The local magnetic field intensity in the useful region of the antenna increases on the basis of the smaller antenna area, thereby guaranteeing reliable operation even if a plurality of transponders is located in the detection region of the antenna array;
3. The maximal range of the antenna array can be more precisely predicted, because it results from the maximal range of an individual antenna of the antenna array;
4. A continuous detection region is formed over the antenna array;
5. The remote field emitted by the antenna becomes less which, while no longer sufficient for operating a transponder, is not allowed to exceed a certain limit for national radio interference regulations; and
6. The position of the transponder within the detection region can be determined more precisely.
As shown in
If the antennas 1, 2, 4 are connected with the reader 3 via the multiplexer 8, only one antenna is connected with the reader 3, at a specific time.
The individual antennas can be combined to create a large antenna array. These individual antennas can be connected with multiplexer 8. With this design, the power of RFID reader 3 is concentrated on a smaller area of an antenna, and a high magnetic field intensity is generated in the detection region of the individual antenna. This design thus, satisfies the radio interference regulations.
Because of the high field intensity values in the detection region of the smaller antenna, even several transponders that are at a small spatial distance from one another or small transponders having low sensitivity can be reliably read.
Because of multiplexer 8, only one reader 3 is needed for all of the antennas 1, 2, and 4, and this further reduces the effort and expense. If multiplexer 8 is controlled by reader 3, the position of the transponder in the detection region can be determined, since the antennas 1, 2, and 4 currently connected with reader 3 are known.
In the embodiment shown in
The advantages of this array, result in a large antenna area, which is formed from smaller individual antennas switched together by way of power splitter 9. This effect results in the reduction in the remote field of antenna array 10 and the ability to more precisely determine the maximal range of the antenna array, thereby reducing an unintentional influence of a separate, adjacent antenna array that might be present.
If, in addition, the current direction in the antenna loops is selected so that the current in the antenna loops has the same direction, this makes the current counter-phase in the overlap region. This design results in a detection region in which the read distance (Y) is greater, over the entire antenna array 10, than would be the case if every antenna of antenna array 10 were activated separately. This is because the magnetic fields of the antennas in the overlap region add up, making it possible to communicate even with a transponder that is located in the region (Z) and at a distance (Y) between the two antennas.
This makes it possible to activate the antennas in pairs, sequentially. For example, the sequence can occur in a first step, with antennas 4, and 2, and in a second step, with antenna 2, and 1, thereby forming a detection region that changes spatially and has no gaps. If the switching speed takes place analogous to the movement speed of the transponder, the time for communication with the transponder increases, and this is advantageous, for example, for data exchange of large amounts of data.
It is also possible to implement the antenna array shown in
The antenna arrays described above are primarily designed so that a transponder 11 is oriented in an orientation that is as plane-parallel to the antenna area as possible, as shown in
Only as transponder 11 enters into and exits from the detection region of the antenna array, can communication take place with a transponder 11 oriented in such an orthogonal manner, for a short distance.
To read even transponders 11 that are oriented orthogonally, and to ensure that large detection spaces are covered by the antenna array, there is another set of antennas 1, 2, and 4 of another embodiment, shown in
At another time point, antennas 1 and 4 of the antenna array are then switched to be of the same-phase, so that the field possesses an essentially vertical orientation, to communicate for a certain short period of time with transponders 11 that are located essentially area-parallel to the antenna array.
If one considers the current progressions in the two antennas over time, as shown in
Therefore, a resulting electromagnetic alternating field is formed that constantly alternates, at twice the transmission frequency, between the predominantly vertical and the predominantly horizontal orientation.
All of the structures described above can be implemented with practically any antenna shape. Also, antennas having different shapes can be overlapped and combined into antenna arrays.
Frequently, the shape of the antenna is also determined by the application, because it must fit into a certain design, for example, or mechanical default values are present.
To communicate even with those transponders 11 that are oriented essentially orthogonal-perpendicular, as shown in
With this shape, antenna loop 14, as shown in
With this design, the lengths of sides a to e are selected so that a right angle of 90 degrees is formed between sides b and c, c and d, and d and e, while the angles between sides a and b and a and e form an obtuse angle that advantageously lies between 132 degrees and 138 degrees. This is so that the sum of the angles of the pentagon amounts to 540 degrees again. Acute angles would have the disadvantage that a particularly high magnetic field intensity would occur in the region of the acute angles, resulting in a non-homogeneous magnetic field of the antenna array, which would result in losses in the read range of the antenna array.
Another advantage of this shape of antenna loops 14 and 15 is that with an overlap of antenna loops 14 and 15, the sides of the one antenna loop 14 do not run directly parallel over a side of the other antenna loop 15 at any point. This is because the two antenna loops 14 and 15 merely have two intersection points 16 and 17 when they overlap, while the sides (a) of the two antenna loops 14, and 15 that are guided to be parallel already run at a certain distance from one another.
Because no conductive part pieces are guided to be directly parallel to one another at intersection points 16, and 17, the capacitative coupling of antenna loops 14, and 15 with one another is minimized. This capacitative coupling would otherwise result in a negative influence on the antenna array, if one of the antenna loops 14, and 15 were opened via a switch to prevent magnetic coupling of antenna loops 14 and 15 with one another.
With this design connection, antenna loop 18 is formed from an essentially rectangular base body 19 that has a symmetrical constriction 20 in its horizontal axis of symmetry. The feed-in point 21 of antenna 18, is the location at which the current is fed into antenna loop 18, and is located in the symmetrical center of constriction 20. With this structure, an 8-shaped antenna having two parallel antenna loop halves is formed.
This special shape and the location of feed-in point 21 has the advantages that because of the quasi parallel-switching of the two antenna loop halves, a low inductance of the antenna is obtained, since the following applies for inductances switched in parallel:
Furthermore, the interference sensitivity against interference coupled in from the outside is less, because the current in the two conductive loops runs in opposite directions. Thus, there is a large compensation for interference coupled into the two antenna loop halves from the outside.
Furthermore, the different current directions in the two conductive loops results in a reduced field intensity in the remote field. This result significantly facilitates a radio interference permit, because the magnetic field that exits in one antenna loop half enters again in the other antenna loop half. Thus, there is the formation of only a small scatter field that can be measured at a distance.
Because of the overlap of antennas 18 and 22, as shown in
As shown in
With a placement of the antenna array 10 and 23 as a gate, there are other advantages for being able to communicate with transponders in a large detection space.
For example, by using the gate antenna array 23, it ensures that when a transponder is moved through between the two planes of the antenna array, in linear manner, communication with the transponder can occur, independent of the location and the orientation of the transponder.
In addition, the distance between the two antenna fields 23, also called gate width, can have twice the read range/detection region of an array having one plane.
The complete space between the two antenna fields can be scanned by sequentially switching on the antennas 24, 25, 26, and 27 by way of multiplexer 8.
As shown in
With this design, the field lines of the opposite antenna planes 10 and 23 are superimposed to produce a total magnetic field. This has the result that the vectors of the magnetic fields of the two antennas add up within the gate, and this results in a significantly greater field intensity.
If a transponder requires a minimal field intensity of 100 mA/m (milliamperes per meter), for example, and if this minimal field intensity can still be measured at a distance of 60 cm, for example, in the case of a single antenna, the maximal range is also 60 cm. If two antennas are installed at a distance of 1.40 m, for example, with an area-parallel orientation to one another, and switched according to the Helmholtz principle, the read hole in the middle of the device closes. With a superimposition of the field lines, a field intensity of 160 mA/m results at a distance of 70 cm (gate center), from two times 80 mA/m, for example, and this is sufficient for operation of the transponder.
However, the effective field intensity in the center of the gate is reduced slightly, at a constant gate width and a constant output power of the RFID reader. This intensity is compared with the embodiment in which the directly opposite antennas are activated, since the field lines do not run precisely in the same direction. Superimposition of the field lines also occurs, but the field intensity values are not as great as described above.
If communication is also supposed to occur with transponders that are oriented orthogonal to the antenna area, there can be another embodiment of the antenna array, wherein a phase shift between the currents of the antennas of the first and the second plane amounts to 180 degrees, if these are connected with the reader at the same time.
The resulting field progression is shown in
To take equal advantage of the Helmholtz principle and the anti-Helmholtz principle, for example, to compensate for their specific disadvantages, the current is changed over, in another embodiment, via the antenna loops, constantly and at high frequency (more than 100 times per second), for example by means of a multiplexer. This changeover occurs so that the magnetic field of the antenna array constantly alternates between the Helmholtz principle and the anti-Helmholtz principle.
Subsequently, the two configurations can also be implemented on the next antenna pair of each plane of the gate.
The phase shift can occur, for example, using a phase shifter, coaxial cable, or by switching the polarity of the two leads of the antenna cable.
Switching between the Helmholtz principle and the anti-Helmholtz principle, between the two planes of the gate antenna array, can also occur via a 90 degree phase shifter, in another embodiment.
In this way, again, a resulting magnetic field is formed between the opposite antenna loops that are active, in each instance, of each plane of the antenna array. In this array the field constantly alternates between the Helmholtz principle and the anti-Helmholtz principle, at twice the frequency of the current.
Therefore, it is also possible to read transponders in two orientations.
All of the examples shown here can also be implemented with a larger number of antennas.
Accordingly, while many embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it is obvious that many changes and modifications may be made thereunto without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||343/867, 343/742|
|International Classification||H01Q11/12, H01Q21/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H01Q1/22, H01Q1/2216, G06K7/10356|
|European Classification||H01Q1/22C2, H01Q1/22|
|Jul 21, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FEIG ELECTRONIC GMBH, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MEISSNER, WOLFGANG;REEL/FRAME:016803/0339
Effective date: 20050720
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