|Publication number||US7437749 B1|
|Application number||US 08/990,973|
|Publication date||Oct 14, 2008|
|Filing date||Dec 15, 1997|
|Priority date||Dec 23, 1988|
|Publication number||08990973, 990973, US 7437749 B1, US 7437749B1, US-B1-7437749, US7437749 B1, US7437749B1|
|Inventors||Elizabeth A. Smith, Lee R. Johnson|
|Original Assignee||Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (95), Referenced by (4), Classifications (44), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a division of application Ser. No. 08/265,941, filed Jun. 27, 1994, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,754,940; which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 07/960,261, filed Oct. 13, 1992, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,355,480; which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 07/342,987, filed Apr. 20, 1989, now abandoned; which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 07/289,218, filed Dec. 23, 1988, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,987,486, and entitled “Automatic Inter-active Television Terminal Configuration” and is related to U.S. Application Serial Nos.: 07/340,642, entitled “Cable Television Transaction Terminal”; 07/340,731, entitled “Terminal Authorization Method”; 07/340,659, entitled “Terminal Polling Method”; 07/340,967, entitled “Interactive Television Terminal with Programmable Background Audio or Video”; and 07/340,660, entitled “Interactive Room Status/Time Information System”, filed concurrently herewith.
This invention relates generally to two-way interactive cable television systems in which entertainment services, information and data signals are provided over cable facilities from a system manager location to a user location, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for controlling the storage of data in local storage at the user location.
Two-way interactive cable television systems are known for transmitting entertainment, information and data signals over a cable facility toward a plurality of users. Data may be transmitted and addressed to a particular subscriber over a separate data channel or over a so-called “in-band” data channel. In a downstream direction, addressed control data may represent services authorized to a particular terminal or control commands to that terminal. In an upstream direction from a terminal to the service provider or system manager location, control data may represent selections made by a user in response to a polling request or at the time of user selection.
In a hotel environment, the system manager delivers video signals, e.g., television programming, to user terminals located, for example, in various hotel rooms over cable lines, and the system manager also transmits digital messages to receivers at each room location. Similarly, information and data generated at each room are transmitted upstream to the system manager via the cable.
It is known in the prior art to provide an interactive terminal at a user location including a local processor for controlling access to a host computer located at the system manager location and a local data store connected to the local processor. Such terminals also normally consist of a display for displaying messages to the user or details of the transaction being conducted, and a keyboard or remote key pad comprising a number of keys by which the user can enter data and initiate functions.
Typically, a central data storage is provided at the system manager location for storing a complete data base, and a smaller sub-set of that data base is maintained in the local store at the user terminal. Because faster response times can be achieved if a requested transaction can be completed without the need for repeatedly accessing the central data base, configuration of the local store becomes an important design consideration. Prior methods of local storage management have been based upon last use or recency of use, and systems are also known in which those items in the data base most frequently requested by the user terminals are retained in the local store. These methods have not, however, been entirely satisfactory, and have not uniformly achieved the desired reduction in response time. Accordingly, there is a need for a more efficient technique for choosing data items to be stored in a local storage of an interactive terminal system.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved method of local storage management for an interactive terminal which ensures faster response times and which reduces the need for repeatedly accessing the central data base.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a method of local storage management for an interactive terminal which updates the local store in accordance with the relative priority of data entries.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide a method of local storage management which updates the local store in accordance with the system service requested by the user.
An interactive terminal, according to the present invention, comprises a processor, a local data store connected to the processor, a character generator responsive to processor control for generating a television signal output to an associated television receiver, a key pad or remote control for inputting information to the processor, and a power supply input.
In a hotel environment, the interactive terminals are located in individual hotel rooms and are coupled, via 2-way RF communications, to a central hotel location, designated as the system manager, where the terminals are accessed by polling for monitoring and servicing the guests' requests. The local storage capacity of the interactive terminal is provided for storing data and a number of character screen commands, accessed from a central data base at the system manager, for use in generating prompting screens displayed on the television receiver. Thus, in use, a hotel guest may call for a variety of services, e.g., pay TV programs, room service and the like, by operating the input keys of the key pad to cause a prompting screen to be displayed on the television receiver.
According to the invention, character screen commands are stored at the terminal according to an assigned priority. The stored screen commands also include pointers which are used by the terminal processor to prefetch other screens which follow the current screen in a decision tree structure manner. These screens are downloaded from the system manager for storage at the terminal so that they are available for display if and when called for. In operation, if a particular branch of a decision tree is not selected by the user, screens associated with that branch are deleted from terminal memory as needed to make room for new screens. The terminal memory is also controlled so that character screen commands are swapped in and out of memory based on their relative priority.
On the other hand, the embodiment of
In particular, at the system control center, a satellite signal may be received at satellite antenna 2 and then received and decoded at satellite receiver decoder 3 for distribution via modulator 5 over a distribution cable 6 to the interactive terminals 7, 8 or 9 of the pre-sent invention. Additionally, a band of cable television channels received over cable facilities 1 are received and, if necessary, descrambled at cable receiver/descrambler 4. The descrambled video signals are then modulated at modulator 5 for distribution over facilities 6 to interactive terminals 7, 8 or 9. If desired, an optional scrambler may be provided for scrambling premium channel transmissions to interactive terminals 7, 8, or 9. Of course, terminal 7, 8, or 9, then, would comprise descrambler circuitry capable of descrambling the scrambled premium channel transmissions. Such circuitry is not shown in either
According to the exemplary embodiment of
The generation of complete screens of characters for transmission to a terminal according to the present invention for display is not required because the terminal (
Also according to
Besides specifically addressed data communications with the interactive terminals 7, 8 or 9, the system manager may also address communications globally to all interactive terminals which communications may or may not require a terminal to respond. Such global communications, for example, may be addressed to a global address representing all terminals in the particular hotel system or to a group address representing a group of terminals within the system having a commonality of interest.
In particular, a two-way interactive terminal according to the present invention comprises an up/down converter 201 for converting channels received over the facility 6 for display at an associated television receiver (not shown) or for transmitting data modulated to 25 megahertz by data transmitter 203 for transmission over facility 6. Up/down converter 201 passes data on the separate data carrier at 108 megahertz for demodulation and reception at data receiver 203. Received television entertainment signals are provided by up/down converter 201 to demodulator 202 which also provides automatic frequency control and gain control of up/down converter 201. Demodulator 202 provides video via on screen character generator 204 to channel ¾ modulator 205. In this manner, on screen character generation may appear superimposed upon an incoming video signal or displayed in the form of a teletext screen, for example, text on a plain colored background. Also at demodulator 202 the baseband audio channel is transmitted to audio output 211 or via channel modulator 205 to the television receiver at radio frequency. In addition, a baseband video output 213 may be provided from on screen character generator 204 at video output jack 213.
The interactive terminal of the present invention further comprises a processor 206 for controlling data transmission and reception at data receiver/transmitter 203. Processor 206 also controls character generation at character generator 204 via gate array 207. Also via gate array 207, the processor 206 controls a key pad 216 which may be directly coupled to the gate array or coupled via infrared or other remote control transmission link receiver 208. Random access memory (RAM) 217, provided with backup power by capacitor 218, stores character screen commands, downloaded feature data and other data received over the data transmission link via data receiver 203 from the system manager responsive to processor 206 control. The processor 206 also has access to a nonvolatile random access memory 222 and access via gate array 207 to an outboard read only memory (ROM) 219. Processor 206 receives remote control key commands from a remote control key pad via infrared or other remote control transmission receiver 208. Processor 206 may also control the operation of a phase lock loop 209 and bandpass filter 210 for controlling operation of the up/down converter 201.
Power is supplied via an alternating current input to power supply 215 which provides, for example, a plus 5 volt and a plus 12 volt DC input to various components of the terminal requiring such power. Furthermore, the alternating current power input to power supply 215 may be provided via a controlled switched outlet 214 to an associated device such as the television receiver associated with the terminal. The state of the switched outlet 214 is controlled via gate array 207 by processor 206. For example, the switched outlet 214 may continuously provide power to its associated device or provide power only when an “on” button of key pad 216 or a remote control key pad is set to an on condition.
Values inside of boxes or associated with boxes are exemplary of memory sizes, clock rates, or component types. For example, clock 220 for clocking the microprocessor operation may operate at 14.318 megahertz. The clock signal is divided down by gate array 207 for operation of the microprocessor 206 which may be a Motorola MC 6803U4 or for clocking other processes of the terminal. The on screen character generator 204, for example, may be a Mitsubishi M50455 component. RAM 217 may comprise 16 kilobytes of memory and ROM 219 may comprise 32 kilobytes of memory.
Referring now to
A Priority List is also stored in RAM 217 and consists of a plurality of pointers to the RAM locations at which the data blocks are stored. These pointers are arranged in order based on the relative priority of data stored within the screen data area, and the Priority List is updated whenever the contents of the screen area are changed. In the preferred embodiment, the Priority List contains forty seven entities which indicate, in priority order, the locations in RAM 217 at which data blocks are stored. Once a data block is stored in RAM 217, its location is never altered, but the data block may be updated with new information or replaced entirely, as will be explained.
Referring again to
Screen data may be any one of three types—“Special”, “Feature Start” and “Other”, and is further prioritized according to “type”. Screen data is also prioritized within each type according to an assigned priority number in the range from 0 to 7, with 0 being the highest priority and 7 being the lowest priority.
A Special screen is of higher priority than either of the other two screen types, and follows communications data in the priority order. Special screens include, for example, a screen associated with “Power Up”, a “Stand By” screen, and various other screens which are critical to the operation of the user terminal.
A Feature Start screen is next in the priority order. The Feature Start screen is the first screen of each feature, e.g., room service, in-room checkout, to be displayed to the user when the feature is selected. A channel map stored in RAM 217 correlates key pad entered channel numbers with either an EIA channel frequency to which the television receiver is to be tuned or with a unique screen number. The channel map thus correlates each of the Feature Start screens with a predetermined user entered channel number so that the Feature Start screen of a particular feature is displayed whenever the user enters the predetermined channel number via key pad 217 (
The third screen type is “Other”, and “Other” screens rank last in the priority order. These screens are, thus, the first to be analyzed for possible replacement to make room for other screens of higher priority or associated with the feature currently being viewed by the user, as will be explained. Once the “Other” screen area is exhausted, i.e., when no “Other” screen remain in memory which can be removed to make room for incoming screens, the other data types, i.e., Feature Start screens, Special screens, communications data, and header data, are also analyzed in reverse priority order, for possible deletion.
Focusing more specifically on the screen data, the data structure of the character screen commands stored in RAM 217 is shown in
The key template structure is shown in
An example of the key template is shown in
In addition to directing action at the user terminal, a key template is also provided, as shown in
Key templates for the user terminal and system manager are similarly associated with each of the expected key responses of screens 491 and 501, as shown in
There are two basic types of features and, thus, two different types of decision tree structures shown in
In contrast to the fan-out feature, in the serial chain type feature (
Besides the key template, a cannibal bit, shown in
As will be easily understood, the speed at which the system responds to a user request will largely depend upon whether a particular screen is stored locally or whether there is a need to access the central data base at the system manager location. Storage of all screens locally is impractical because this would require too much local storage. However, access is significantly improved by appropriately configuring the local store so that at any given time, the screens most likely to be requested are available in the terminal memory ready for display.
As explained above, when a user desires to activate a particular feature, e.g., in-room checkout, he first enters a predetermined channel number via the terminal keyboard associated with the feature in the channel map. This then causes the first screen of the selected feature to be displayed on the television receiver. The user may then follow the instructions on the screen to proceed through a sequence of screens associated with the selected feature.
In operation, whenever a user initiates a feature or requests a particular service by depressing a key of the key pad, processor 206 first determines whether the requested screen, i.e., either the Feature Start screen or the “go to” screen associated with the depressed key, is present in RAM 217. If it is, then the screen is accessed for display. If the screen is not present in RAM 217, processor 206 issues a screen request to the system manager which responds by issuing an “Add screen” command to processor 206 for the requested screen.
Aside from requesting a screen from the system manager when the processor determines that a screen requested by a user does not currently reside in memory, processor 206 may also prefetch screens into memory prior to their actual use. This prefetch function is tied to user viewing so that when a user views a screen, screens directly accessible by it, as defined by key template go-to's, and not already stored in memory, will be requested. It is also desirable once a user request has been completely serviced and the user is no longer waiting for a screen, e.g., because he is watching television or because he has left the room, to reconfigure terminal memory to an initialized state. Processor 206 will, thus, check a Special screen list maintained in RAM 217 to determine whether there are Special screens which are not already stored in memory, and if there are, these screens will be requested. The channel map will also be searched to identify the screen numbers of all Feature Start screens, a comparison will be made with those screens existent in terminal memory, and any Feature Start screens not present in memory will also be requested.
The basic mechanism for adding screens to RAM 217 is through the “Add screen” command and its companion “Conditional add screen” command. The “Add screen” command is issued by the system manager to processor 206 responsive to a screen request by the user terminal or when the system manager has a new screen to add to the configuration. The “Conditional add” is issued when the system manager wishes to address a screen globally to all of the interactive terminals in the system, and may also be used to address a screen to a particular terminal.
In operation, when the “Add screen” command is issued, processor 206 determines whether vacant space is available in RAM 217 for storing the incoming screen. If space is available, the new screen is stored in the first empty location, and the Priority List is updated so that the memory address of the new screen is appropriately positioned in the list in accordance with the relative priority of the screen. Otherwise, if the RAM is full, it is necessary to remove screen data from RAM 217, and the algorithm described below is used for this purpose.
In general, the removal method will depend upon the current screen i.e., the screen currently being displayed, and the feature with which it is associated. Thus, all “Other” screens, beginning with the screen having the lowest priority as reflected by the Priority List, are first analyzed for possible deletion by checking whether a particular candidate screen is associated with the current feature. Once a screen is found which is not part of the current feature scenario, that screen is replaced by the new screen. If the user is currently watching television, i.e., is not currently requesting any system service, there is no current feature, so that processor 206 will replace the first “Other” screen in the Priority List, i.e., the “Other” screen with the lowest priority, with the new screen.
If the user is currently viewing a screen and all of the “Other” screens in RAM 217 are associated with the current feature, processor 206 examines the cannibal bit of the incoming screen. If the cannibal bit is 1, processor 206 searches the “Other” screens, again beginning with the screen having the lowest priority, to locate screens not directly accessible from the current screen, i.e., screens that are not direct “go-to's” of the current screen. If a non-go-to screen is located, that screen is replaced by the incoming screen.
If all of the “Other” screens are “go-to” screens of the current screen, or if the cannibal bit is 0, processor 206 will then search the “Feature Start” screens and will choose the screen lowest in priority for removal, except that processor 206 will not remove any screen with a 0 priority and also will not remove the “Feature start” screen of the current feature.
If no “Feature start” screen is found which can be removed, a similar search is made of the Special screens, and the Special screen having the lowest priority will be removed. Again, no screens of 0 priority will be removed.
If no suitable screen can be found for removal, another search is performed depending upon whether the incoming screen was requested by the user terminal. This will generally mean that the screen is essential for continued operation. Thus, if the new screen is the result of a screen request, processor 206 will replace the lowest priority screen in memory, disregarding screens with a 0 priority, with the new screen.
The other mechanism for adding screens to RAM 217 is the “Conditional add screen” command which allows the system manager to address a screen globally to all of the interactive terminals in the system or to a particular terminal. The add command is “conditional” in that each terminal determines whether or not it will accept the new screen and, if the screen is accepted, will make room for the screen in accordance with the algorithm described above.
In determining whether a particular screen will be accepted, processor 206 first determines whether the screen corresponds to, i.e., has a same screen number as, a screen currently residing in memory. If it does, then the old screen is replaced with the new screen data.
If the user is watching television, i.e., is not requesting a system service, at the time the “Conditional add” command is issued, processor 206 will also accept and store all “Feature start” screens and all “Special” screens. This ensures that those screens critical to system operation as well as those screens likely to be needed and requested first are available for immediate display.
If, on the other hand, the user is viewing a screen at the time the “Conditional add” command is issued, the criteria for accepting the incoming screen are different. In particular, if the terminal is currently waiting for this particular screen, the screen will be accepted. Otherwise, “Special” screens and “Feature start” screens with a priority of 0 will be accepted, and “Other” screens will be accepted only if the new screen has the same feature number as the screen currently being viewed and is either a direct “go-to” of the current screen or has a cannibal bit of 0.
This invention has been described in detail in connection with the preferred embodiment. However, it will be easily understood by those skilled in the art that other variations and modifications can be made within the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
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|US8966542||Jun 17, 2013||Feb 24, 2015||At&T Intellectual Property I, L.P.||System and method for providing media content and interactive content|
|US20030159142 *||Jan 2, 2003||Aug 21, 2003||Howe Wayne R.||System and method for providing television services|
|U.S. Classification||725/50, 725/37, 725/151, 725/139, 348/E07.069, 725/105, 348/E07.037, 725/38, 725/104, 725/78, 725/68, 348/E07.071, 725/39, 348/E05.105, 725/142, 348/E07.056, 725/61, 348/E07.063, 725/36, 725/64, 725/85, 725/44, 725/134, 725/131|
|International Classification||G06F13/00, G06F3/00, H04N7/088, H04N7/173, H04N5/445, H04N7/167, H04N7/16|
|Cooperative Classification||H04N21/478, H04N5/44543, H04N7/173, H04N7/1675, H04N7/17318, H04N7/165, H04N7/0888|
|European Classification||H04N5/445M, H04N7/173B2, H04N7/16E3, H04N7/167D, H04N7/173, H04N7/088S|
|Apr 16, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 19, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CISCO TECHNOLOGY, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SCIENTIFIC-ATLANTA, LLC;REEL/FRAME:034300/0001
Effective date: 20141118
Owner name: SCIENTIFIC-ATLANTA, LLC, GEORGIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:SCIENTIFIC-ATLANTA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:034299/0440
Effective date: 20081205