|Publication number||US7440283 B1|
|Application number||US 11/777,679|
|Publication date||Oct 21, 2008|
|Filing date||Jul 13, 2007|
|Priority date||Jul 13, 2007|
|Publication number||11777679, 777679, US 7440283 B1, US 7440283B1, US-B1-7440283, US7440283 B1, US7440283B1|
|Original Assignee||Baker Hughes Incorporated|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (46), Classifications (9), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The disclosure relates to protecting and/or isolating heat sensitive components used in downhole applications.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Oil and gas are generally recovered from subterranean geological formations by means of oil wells. For the purposes of this disclosure, an oil well is a hole drilled through the Earth above such geological formations. Typically, the well is drilled to and more often through an oil producing formation. This hole is commonly referred to as a wellbore or bore hole of the oil well and any point within the wellbore is generally referred to as being downhole.
Wellbore temperatures can vary from ambient up to about 500° F. (260° C.) and pressures from atmospheric up to about 30,000 psi (206.8 mega pascals). Temperature and pressure conditions such as these can have an adverse effect on instruments used downhole. Heat especially can be undesirable for tools having electronic components. For example, wireline and/or Measurement While Drilling (MWD) logging tools for measuring certain formation characteristics and wellbore properties often use heat-sensitive electronic gauges and sensors. Elevated temperatures can restrict the amount of time that these wireline logging tools may be operated inside the wellbore, i.e., the temperature survival time. Generally speaking, exposure to excess heat can cause electronic components to work improperly or even fail.
Thus, there is a need for thermal isolation devices and methods that isolate downhole devices from the relatively high temperatures associated with subterranean wellbores and/or heat generated by downhole components.
In aspects, the present disclosure provides devices for isolating one or more heat sensitive components deployed in a downhole environment. In one arrangement, the device includes a heat sink positioned adjacent to a heat sensitive component. The heat sink is configured to have a stepped thermal response to an applied heat. In one embodiment, the heat sink includes two masses that are substantially thermally decoupled. The thermal decoupling may be achieved by positioning a nanoporous material between the two masses. The heat sink may also have more than two masses so arranged. The heat sensitive component and the heat sink may be positioned in an interior of a container that is configured to be deployed into a wellbore with a conveyance device. The container may be a Dewar-like flask. A connector may be used to connect the heat sink to the container. The connector operates as a thermal isolator that impedes the flow of heat into the interior of the container. The connector may be formed of stainless steel, titanium or other material having a low thermal conductivity. In one embodiment, the connector includes at least one bridge portion having a reduced cross-sectional area that impedes the flow of heat. In some arrangements, the connector may include one or more elongated openings aligned along a longitudinal axis of the connector. These openings also reduce the cross-sectional area through which heat can flow. In certain embodiments, a nanoporous material may be positioned in the container at locations that assist in thermally isolating the heat sink or other components from a heat applied by the downhole environment.
In aspects, one method provided by the present disclosure includes conveying a downhole tool into a wellbore using a conveyance device such as a wireline, a slickline, a coiled tubing, or drill pipe. To thermally isolate heat sensitive components associated with the downhole tool, the heat sensitive components may be positioned in the interior of a container coupled to the conveyance device. The heat sensitive components may be used in connection with downhole processing devices, sensors, transmitters, memory devices, communication devices, electronic devices, etc. During deployment downhole, the container provides one thermal barrier for these heat sensitive components. A connector connects the components inside the container to the container. The low thermal conductivity of the connector along with reduced cross-sectional areas also forms a thermal barrier against heat applied by the downhole environment. Within the container, a heat sink positioned adjacent to the heat sensitive component absorbs heat that does enter the container interior that would otherwise detrimentally affect the heat sensitive components. As described earlier, the heat sink may be configured to have a stepped thermal response to an applied heat and may absorb heat applied by the downhole environment as well as heat generated by components inside the container.
It should be understood that examples of the more important features of the invention have been summarized rather broadly in order that detailed description thereof that follows may be better understood, and in order that the contributions to the art may be appreciated. There are, of course, additional features of the invention that will be described hereinafter and which will form the subject of the claims appended hereto.
The disclosure is best understood with reference to the accompanying figures in which like numerals refer to like elements, and in which:
The present disclosure relates to devices and methods isolating heat sensitive components from a wellbore environment and/or heat generated by downhole components. The term “heat sensitive component” shall hereinafter be used to refer to any tool, electrical component, sensor, electronic instrument, structure, or material that degrades either in performance or in integrity when exposed to temperatures above 200 degrees centigrade. For purposes of discussion, a wellbore may be considered “hot” if the ambient temperature compromises or impairs the structural integrity, operating efficient, operating life, or reliability of a given tool, device, or instrument.
Aspects of the present disclosure may be utilized to increase temperature survival time of downhole tools and thereby increase the time heat sensitive equipment may be deployed in a wellbore. As will be appreciated, the present invention is susceptible to embodiments of different forms. There are shown in the drawings, and herein will be described in detail, specific embodiments of the present invention with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered an exemplification of the principles of the invention, and is not intended to limit the invention to that illustrated and described herein. Further, while embodiments may be described has having one or more features or a combination of two or more features, such a feature or a combination of features should not be construed as essential unless expressly stated as essential.
Referring initially to
As will be discussed in greater detail below, the thermal isolation device 100 and the container 106 cooperate to provide passive cooling for the electronics package 102 by isolating the electronics package 102 from applied heat and/or self generated heat. The mechanisms for providing thermal isolation include providing a barrier to heat flow and absorbing heat.
In one embodiment, the thermal isolation device 100 includes one or more heat sinks 110 and a thermal isolator 120. The heat sinks 110 may be an object or mass configured to absorb and store thermal energy from internal heat-generating components and/or from the outside environment. Thus, the heat sinks 110 provide thermal isolation by diverting heat flow away from heat sensitive components. The heat sinks 110 may be solid elements or include cavities such as bores. In one embodiment, the heat sinks 110 are made from a eutectic phase changing material, such as bismuth alloys or lead with a high latent heat and low melting temperature. Eutectic materials change phase between their solid and liquid phases at the eutectic temperature (phase change temperature). The eutectic temperature stays substantially constant until the material completely changes the phase. In other embodiments, metals such as stainless steel may be used. As shown, a pair of heat sinks 110 may be utilized. In other embodiments, a single heat sink 110 may be used and in still other embodiments, three or more heat sinks 110 may be used. The heat sinks 110 may be configured to have the same thermal response or different thermal responses or absorb the same or different amounts of heat. For example, a first heat sink may be configured to have a stepped thermal response and a second heat sink may be configured to have a graduated (gradient) thermal response. Additionally, a first heat sink may be configured to absorb heat primarily from the electronics package 102 and a second heat sink may be configured to primarily absorb a heat applied by the wellbore environment. For instance, the heat sink 110 that is positioned proximate the thermal isolator 120 may be configured to absorb the heat applied by the wellbore environment whereas the heat sink 110 that is positioned distant from the thermal isolator 120 may be configured to absorb heat from the electronics package 102 and heat entering the interior of the container 106.
The thermal isolator 120 mechanically connects the internal components, such as heat sinks 110 and the electronics package 102, to the container 106. The chassis 103 may include a metallic plate to support a printed circuit board (PCB), electronics and sensors. The chassis 103 may also provide a medium to conduct heat from the electronics package 102 to the heat sinks 110 and therefore may be formed of a relatively high thermal conductivity material such as aluminum.
Referring now to
Referring now to
Referring now to
Referring now to
Referring now to
Turning now to
The logging tool 16 may include formation evaluation tools adapted to measure one or more parameters of interest relating to the formation or wellbore. It should be understood that the term formation evaluation tool encompasses measurement devices, sensors, and other like devices that, actively or passively, collect data about the various characteristics of the formation, directional sensors for providing information about the tool orientation and direction of movement, formation testing sensors for providing information about the characteristics of the reservoir fluid and for evaluating the reservoir conditions. The formation evaluation sensors may include resistivity sensors for determining the formation resistivity, dielectric constant and the presence or absence of hydrocarbons, acoustic sensors for determining the acoustic porosity of the formation and the bed boundary in formation, nuclear sensors for determining the formation density, nuclear porosity and certain rock characteristics, nuclear magnetic resonance sensors for determining the porosity and other petrophysical characteristics of the formation. The direction and position sensors preferably include a combination of one or more accelerometers and one or more gyroscopes or magnetometers. The accelerometers preferably provide measurements along three axes. The formation testing sensors collect formation fluid samples and determine the properties of the formation fluid, which include physical properties and chemical properties. Pressure measurements of the formation provide information about the reservoir characteristics.
The heat sensitive components associated with the logging tool are protected from the downhole environment using any of the thermal isolation devices previously described in connection with the electronics package 102 (
Referring now to
While a wireline conveyance device has been illustrated, it should be understood that other conveyance devices such as slicklines may also be utilized in certain applications. As is known, wirelines are generally configured to transmit data and/or power between the surface and the downhole tool 16 whereas slicklines are not configured for data and/or power transfer. Aspects of the present invention may also be utilized with rigid conveyance devices, such as coiled tubing and jointed drill pipe, as well as non-rigid conveyance devices such as wirelines and slicklines.
Referring now to
The BHA 40 as well as the logging tool 50 may include heat sensitive components. Such components include those that incorporate transistors, integrated circuits, resistors, capacitors, and inductors, as well as electronic components such as sensing elements, including accelerometers, magnetometers, photomultiplier tubes, and strain gages. The thermal isolation systems provided by the present disclosure, such as those shown in the Figures, may be utilized to protect these components from the hot wellbore environment. The BHA 40 may also include communication devices, transmitters, repeaters, processors, power generation devices, or other devices that may incorporate heat sensitive components. In many applications, the drilling system 30 may be operated for well over eight hours downhole. Given the extended time that the BHA 40 and logging tool 50 may be exposed to the downhole environment, a strictly passive thermal isolation system may not be sufficient to fully protect heat sensitive components from the heat applied by the downhole environment and/or the heat generated by devices such as electrical components. Thus, in embodiments, in conjunction with the thermal isolation systems previously described, an active cooling system 60 may be utilized to cool heat sensitive components. In one arrangement, heat sensitive electronic components are juxtaposed with one or more refrigeration devices such as sorbent coolers. The active cooling system 60 may be a powered device selected from a group consisting of a: (i) Peltier cooler; (ii) closed-loop cooling unit; and (iii) heat pump that employs one of: (a) Joule-Thompson effect and (b) Stirling Engine. Of course, active cooling may also be utilized with heat sensitive components conveyed by non-rigid conveyance devices.
The foregoing description is directed to particular embodiments of the present invention for the purpose of illustration and explanation. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art that many modifications and changes to the embodiment set forth above are possible without departing from the scope of the invention. It is intended that the following claims be interpreted to embrace all such modifications and changes.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2521294 *||Sep 25, 1944||Sep 5, 1950||Eastman Oil Well Survey Co||Well survey apparatus|
|US3859523 *||Jan 26, 1973||Jan 7, 1975||Dresser Ind||High temperature well logging instrument having increased utilization of dewar flasks|
|US5647429 *||Jan 24, 1996||Jul 15, 1997||Oktay; Sevgin||Coupled, flux transformer heat pipes|
|US6336408 *||Jan 29, 1999||Jan 8, 2002||Robert A. Parrott||Cooling system for downhole tools|
|US6638444 *||Mar 27, 2001||Oct 28, 2003||Claude Q. C. Hayes||Heat absorbing temperature control devices and method|
|US20050097911 *||Jun 18, 2004||May 12, 2005||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||[downhole tools with a stirling cooler system]|
|US20060102353 *||Nov 12, 2004||May 18, 2006||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Thermal component temperature management system and method|
|US20060191682 *||Dec 2, 2005||Aug 31, 2006||Storm Bruce H||Heating and cooling electrical components in a downhole operation|
|US20060213660 *||Mar 23, 2005||Sep 28, 2006||Baker Hughes Incorporated||Downhole cooling based on thermo-tunneling of electrons|
|US20070095543 *||Nov 1, 2005||May 3, 2007||Baker Hughes, Incorporated||Vacuum insulated dewar flask|
|1||Proceedings of 2nd Energy Nanotechnology International Conference; ENIC 2007; Sep. 5-7, 2007, Santa Clara, CA; ENIC2007-45007; Thermal Management of Downhole Oil & Gas Logging Sensors for HTHP Applications Using Nanoporous Materials; Saeed Rafie; Baker Hughes- INTEQ; Houston, Texas USA; Copyright 2007 by ASME.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8102653 *||Mar 18, 2008||Jan 24, 2012||Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha||Electric unit having capacitor|
|US8439106 *||Mar 10, 2010||May 14, 2013||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Logging system and methodology|
|US8453723||Jun 2, 2010||Jun 4, 2013||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Control of well tools utilizing downhole pumps|
|US8476786||Jun 21, 2010||Jul 2, 2013||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Systems and methods for isolating current flow to well loads|
|US8590609||Mar 3, 2011||Nov 26, 2013||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Sneak path eliminator for diode multiplexed control of downhole well tools|
|US8616290||Apr 9, 2012||Dec 31, 2013||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow using movable flow diverter assembly|
|US8622136||Apr 9, 2012||Jan 7, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow using movable flow diverter assembly|
|US8657017||May 29, 2012||Feb 25, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for autonomous downhole fluid selection with pathway dependent resistance system|
|US8699227||Aug 23, 2011||Apr 15, 2014||Norwegian Well Solutions As||Well logging tool|
|US8708050||Apr 29, 2010||Apr 29, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow using movable flow diverter assembly|
|US8714266||Apr 13, 2012||May 6, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for autonomous downhole fluid selection with pathway dependent resistance system|
|US8757266||Apr 6, 2012||Jun 24, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow using movable flow diverter assembly|
|US8757278||Jun 2, 2010||Jun 24, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Sneak path eliminator for diode multiplexed control of downhole well tools|
|US8808646 *||Mar 4, 2008||Aug 19, 2014||The Boeing Company||Wireless transmission of process data from within pressure vessels|
|US8931566||Mar 26, 2012||Jan 13, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for autonomous downhole fluid selection with pathway dependent resistance system|
|US8973675||Mar 3, 2010||Mar 10, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Flasked pressure housing|
|US8985222||Apr 9, 2012||Mar 24, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow using movable flow diverter assembly|
|US8991506||Oct 31, 2011||Mar 31, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Autonomous fluid control device having a movable valve plate for downhole fluid selection|
|US9068436 *||Jul 30, 2011||Jun 30, 2015||Onesubsea, Llc||Method and system for sampling multi-phase fluid at a production wellsite|
|US9080410||May 2, 2012||Jul 14, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.|
|US9109423||Feb 4, 2010||Aug 18, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Apparatus for autonomous downhole fluid selection with pathway dependent resistance system|
|US9127526||Dec 3, 2012||Sep 8, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Fast pressure protection system and method|
|US9133685||Jan 16, 2012||Sep 15, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.|
|US9260952||Apr 4, 2012||Feb 16, 2016||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow in an autonomous valve using a sticky switch|
|US9291032||Oct 31, 2011||Mar 22, 2016||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Autonomous fluid control device having a reciprocating valve for downhole fluid selection|
|US9404349||Oct 22, 2012||Aug 2, 2016||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Autonomous fluid control system having a fluid diode|
|US9416650||Apr 27, 2012||Aug 16, 2016||Welltec A/S||Downhole tool with thermally insulated electronics module|
|US20090225517 *||Mar 4, 2008||Sep 10, 2009||Nelson Karl M||Wireless transmission of process data from within pressure vessels|
|US20100014252 *||Mar 18, 2008||Jan 21, 2010||Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha||Electric unit having capacitor|
|US20100236790 *||Jun 2, 2010||Sep 23, 2010||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Control of well tools utilizing downhole pumps|
|US20110042075 *||Feb 24, 2011||Ahmed Hammami||Logging system and methodology|
|US20110203798 *||Nov 13, 2009||Aug 25, 2011||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Downhole Thermal Component Temperature Management System and Method|
|US20120082808 *||Jun 9, 2010||Apr 5, 2012||Aircelle||Method for installing heat shielding on a fixed internal structure of a jet engine nacelle|
|US20130025854 *||Jul 30, 2011||Jan 31, 2013||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Method and system for sampling multi-phase fluid at a production wellsite|
|US20140033816 *||Feb 22, 2012||Feb 6, 2014||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Multi-Phase Region Analysis Method And Apparatus|
|US20160183404 *||Dec 17, 2014||Jun 23, 2016||Schlumberger Technology Corporation||Heat Transferring Electronics Chassis|
|CN103518033A *||Apr 27, 2012||Jan 15, 2014||韦尔泰克有限公司||Downhole tool|
|EP2518265A1 *||Apr 29, 2011||Oct 31, 2012||Welltec A/S||Downhole tool|
|EP2607620A1 *||Dec 22, 2011||Jun 26, 2013||Services Pétroliers Schlumberger||Thermal buffering of downhole equipment with phase change material|
|WO2010104716A1 *||Mar 3, 2010||Sep 16, 2010||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||A flasked pressure housing|
|WO2011110957A3 *||Feb 3, 2011||Jul 5, 2012||Prad Research And Development Limited||Logging system and methodology|
|WO2011127416A2 *||Apr 8, 2011||Oct 13, 2011||Arnold Anthony P||Improved mechanical support for a thin-film thermoelectric cooling device|
|WO2011127416A3 *||Apr 8, 2011||Feb 2, 2012||Arnold Anthony P||Improved mechanical support for a thin-film thermoelectric cooling device|
|WO2012026825A1||Aug 23, 2011||Mar 1, 2012||Norwegian Well Solutions As||Well logging tool|
|WO2012146733A1 *||Apr 27, 2012||Nov 1, 2012||Welltec A/S||Downhole tool|
|WO2013096550A1 *||Dec 20, 2012||Jun 27, 2013||Services Petroliers Schlumberger||Thermal buffering of downhole equipment with phase change material|
|U.S. Classification||361/709, 361/704, 166/57, 166/302, 165/185|
|International Classification||H05K7/20, E21B36/00|
|Sep 10, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED, TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:RAFIE, SAEED;REEL/FRAME:019803/0750
Effective date: 20070716
|Apr 23, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Apr 6, 2016||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8