|Publication number||US7457910 B2|
|Application number||US 11/170,221|
|Publication date||Nov 25, 2008|
|Filing date||Jun 29, 2005|
|Priority date||Jun 29, 2005|
|Also published as||CN101213510A, CN101213510B, EP1896931A2, EP2159681A2, EP2159681A3, EP2270643A1, US7853772, US20070002612, US20090043984, WO2007002866A2, WO2007002866A3|
|Publication number||11170221, 170221, US 7457910 B2, US 7457910B2, US-B2-7457910, US7457910 B2, US7457910B2|
|Inventors||Robert C. Chang, Michael Holtzman, Farshid Sabet-Sharghi, Paul McAvoy, Bahman Qawami|
|Original Assignee||Sandisk Corproation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (26), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (31), Classifications (9), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to memory storage devices, and more particularly, to managing partitions in storage devices.
Conventional computer systems typically include several functional components. These components may include a central processing unit (CPU), main memory, input/output (“I/O”) devices, and mass storage. In conventional systems, the main memory is coupled to the CPU via a system bus or a local memory bus. The main memory is used to provide the CPU access to data and/or program information that is stored in main memory at execution time. Typically, the main memory is composed of random access memory (RAM) circuits. A computer system with the CPU and main memory is often referred to as a host system.
Mass storage is typically used to retain data. Generally, a program stored in mass storage is copied to main memory before being executed by the CPU. Common mass storage devices include floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks and tape drives. Additionally, flash memory may be used to provide non-volatile storage for a host system.
A host system interfaces with flash memory (also referred to as “flash device”, “flash” or “flash card” interchangeably throughout this specification) via an interface. Flash memory typically includes non-volatile memory cell arrays for storing information. Flash memory systems are most commonly provided in the form of a memory card or flash drive that is removably connected with a variety of hosts such as a personal computer, a camera or the like, but may also be embedded within such host systems.
A flash memory controller typically controls the operations of a memory array. The memory controller includes a microprocessor, some non-volatile read only memory (“ROM”), a volatile random-access memory (“RAM”) and one or more special circuits, for example, an error correction-code circuit (“ECC”) that calculates ECC from data as it passes through the memory controller.
In an early generation of commercial flash memory systems, a rectangular array of memory cells were divided into a large number of groups of cells that each stored the amount of data of a standard disk drive sector, namely 512 bytes. An additional amount of data, such as 16 bytes, are also usually included in each group to store an error correction code (ECC) and possibly other overhead data relating to the user data and/or to the memory cell group in which it is stored. The memory cells in each such group are the minimum number of memory cells that are erasable together. That is, the erase unit is effectively the number of memory cells that store one data sector and any overhead data that is included. Examples of this type of memory system are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,602,987 and 6,426,893. It is a characteristic of flash memory that the memory cells need to be erased prior to re-programming them with data.
When writing data to the flash memory via a logical interface, the host typically assigns unique logical addresses to sectors, clusters or other units of data within a continuous virtual address space of the memory system. The host typically maintains a file system and allocates file data to logical clusters, where the cluster size is typically fixed. A flash device is divided into plural logical sectors and the host allocates space within the clusters comprising of a plurality of logical sectors. A cluster is a sub-division of logical addresses and a cluster map is designated as a file allocation table (“FAT”). The FAT is normally stored on the storage device itself.
Like a disk operating system (DOS), the host writes data to, and reads data from, addresses within the logical address space of the memory system. A controller within the memory system translates logical addresses received from the host into physical addresses within the memory array, where the data are actually stored, and then keeps track of these address translations.
Typically, a memory device (for example, flash memory) is partitioned by the host system. Normally two partitions share a drive and each partition size is set by the host system. If one partition gets full and the other partition has more space left at any given time, it is useful to re-allocate the amount of space assigned to each partition. In conventional systems, the host performs this function by re-formatting the drive. This process involves copying all the data from the drive before reformatting and then re-allocating space to each partition. This process is tedious and time consuming, and hence undesirable.
Therefore, there is a need for a method and system that efficiently manages partitions for optimum usage of memory storage space.
In one aspect of the present invention, a mass storage memory system is provided. The system includes, re-programmable non-volatile memory cells, the memory cells being arranged in a plurality of blocks of memory cells that are erasable together and which are connected together in a plurality of series strings to define rows of memory cells for storing data, wherein the memory cells are divided into at least two memory partitions and each memory partition has a system area and a data area; and a controller including a microprocessor that is adapted to receive data via a logical interface from a host system; wherein the controller re-allocates memory space to a first memory partition that is either full or has reached a threshold value from a second memory partition that has unused storage space by using a mapping table, wherein the mapping table uses a virtual block address for the system area and the data area such that the system area and the data area appear contiguous to the host system; and a real logical block address that maps the virtual block address to an actual logical block address.
In another aspect of the present invention, the mass storage memory system includes, a controller with a microprocessor that is adapted to receive data via a logical interface from a host system; a first memory partition with a system area and a data area; and a second memory partition with a system area and a data area; wherein the controller re-allocates memory space from the second memory partition that has unused storage space to the first memory partition that is either full or has reached a threshold value, by using a virtual block address for the system area and the data area such that the system area and the data area appear contiguous to the host system.
In yet another aspect, a method for dynamically re-allocating data storage space between a first memory partition having a system area and a data area, and a second memory partition having a system area and a data area is provided. The method includes, determining if the first memory partition is full and/or has reached a threshold value; determining if the second memory partition has empty storage space that can be allocated to the first memory partition that is full and/or has reached a threshold value; and assigning some empty space from the second memory partition to the first memory partition, wherein a memory controller assigns the empty space.
This brief summary has been provided so that the nature of the invention may be understood quickly. A more complete understanding of the invention can be obtained by reference to the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments thereof in connection with the attached drawings.
The foregoing features and other features of the present invention will now be described with reference to the drawings of a preferred embodiment. In the drawings, the same components have the same reference numerals. The illustrated embodiment is intended to illustrate, but not to limit the invention. The drawings include the following Figures:
To facilitate an understanding of the preferred embodiment, the general architecture and operation of a host system/flash device will be described. The specific architecture and operation of the preferred embodiment will then be described with reference to the general architecture.
Computer system 100 includes a central processing unit (“CPU”) (or microprocessor) 175 connected to a system bus 155. Main memory 145 (for example, Random access main memory (“RAM”)) is also coupled to system bus 155 and provides CPU 175 with access to memory storage. When executing program instructions, CPU 175 stores those process steps in RAM 145 and executes the stored process steps out of RAM 145.
Read only memory (“ROM”) (not shown) is provided to store invariant instruction sequences such as start-up instruction sequences or basic Input/output operating system (BIOS) sequences.
Mass storage device 150 allows computer system 100 to permanently store data. Mass storage device 150 may be a flash memory device, a hard disk or another type of media storage device. The description of the adaptive aspects of the present invention below is based on a flash memory device but is applicable to other types of memory devices. Mass storage device 150 is also referenced as flash device 150.
There are currently many different flash devices (or flash memory cards) that are commercially available, examples being the CompactFlash (CF), the MultiMediaCard (MMC), Secure Digital (SD), miniSD, Memory Stick, SmartMedia and TransFlash cards. Although each of these cards has a unique mechanical and/or electrical interface according to its standardized specifications, the flash memory included in each is very similar. These cards are all available from SanDisk Corporation, assignee of the present application. SanDisk also provides a line of flash drives under its Cruzer trademark, which are hand held memory systems in small packages that have a Universal Serial Bus (USB) plug for connecting with a host by plugging into the host's USB receptacle. Each of these memory cards and flash drives includes controllers that interface with the host and control operation of the flash memory within them.
The non-volatile memory cards and flash drives identified above are commercially available with data storage capacity of 512 megabytes (MB), 1 gigabyte (GB), 2 GB and 4 GB, and may go higher.
Host systems that use such memory cards and flash drives are many and varied. They include personal computers (PCs), laptop and other portable computers, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), digital still cameras, digital movie cameras and portable audio players. The host typically includes a built-in receptacle for one or more types of memory cards or flash drives but some require adapters into which a memory card is plugged.
A NAND architecture of the memory cell arrays is currently preferred, although other architectures, such as NOR, can also be used instead. Examples of NAND flash memories and their operation as part of a memory system may be had by reference to U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,570,315, 5,774,397, 6,046,935, 6,373,746, 6,456,528, 6,522,580, 6,771,536 and 6,781,877 and U.S. patent application publication no. 2003/0147278.
Flash device 150 includes a memory controller module (may also be referred to as “memory system controller” or” “memory controller” or “controller”) and solid-state memory modules.
A host interface 150G interfaces with host system 100, while a flash interface 150F interfaces with memory modules 150B.
A block of memory cells is the unit of erase, the smallest number of memory cells that are physically erasable together. For increased parallelism, however, the blocks are operated in larger metablock units. One block from each plane is logically linked together to form a metablock. The four blocks 137-140A are shown to form one metablock 141. All of the cells within a metablock are typically erased together. The blocks used to form a metablock need not be restricted to the same relative locations within their respective planes, as is shown in a second metablock 143 made up of blocks 145-148.
Although it is usually preferable to extend the metablocks across all of the planes, for high system performance, the memory system can be operated with the ability to dynamically form metablocks of any or all of one, two or three blocks in different planes. This allows the size of the metablock to be more closely matched with the amount of data available for storage in one programming operation.
The individual blocks are in turn divided for operational purposes into pages of memory cells, as illustrated in
In the NAND architecture, a page is formed of memory cells along a word line within a block. However, in order to increase the memory system operational parallelism, such pages within two or more blocks may be logically linked into metapages. A metapage 151 is illustrated in
A continuous logical address space 161 is large enough to provide addresses for all the data that may be stored in the memory system. The host address space is typically divided into increments of clusters of data. Each cluster may be designed in a given host system to contain a number of sectors of data, somewhere between 4 and 64 sectors being typical. A standard sector contains 512 bytes of data.
Three Data Files 1, 2 and 3 are shown in the example of
When a File 2 is later created by the host, the host similarly assigns two different ranges of contiguous addresses within the logical address space 161, as shown in
The host keeps track of the memory logical address space by maintaining a file allocation table (FAT), where the logical addresses the host assigns to the various host files are maintained. The FAT table is typically stored in the non-volatile memory, as well as in a host memory, and is frequently updated by the host as new files are stored, other files deleted, files modified and the like. When a host file is deleted, for example, the host then de-allocates the logical addresses previously allocated to the deleted file by updating the FAT table to show that they are now available for use with other data files.
The host is not concerned about the physical locations where the memory system controller chooses to store the files. The typical host only knows its logical address space and the logical addresses that it has allocated to its various files. The memory system, on the other hand, through a typical host/card interface, only knows the portions of the logical address space to which data have been written but does not know the logical addresses allocated to specific host files, or even the number of host files. The memory system controller 150A converts the logical addresses provided by the host for the storage or retrieval of data into unique physical addresses within the flash memory cell array where host data are stored. A block 163 represents a working table of these logical-to-physical address conversions, which is maintained by the memory system controller 150A.
The memory system controller 150A is programmed to store data files within the blocks and metablocks of a memory array 165 in a manner to maintain the performance of the system at a high level. Four planes or sub-arrays are used in this illustration. Data are preferably programmed and read with the maximum degree of parallelism that the system allows, across an entire metablock formed of a block from each of the planes. At least one metablock 167 is usually allocated as a reserved block for storing operating firmware and data used by the memory controller. Another metablock 169, or multiple metablocks, may be allocated for storage of host operating software, the host FAT table and the like. Most of the physical storage space remains for the storage of data files.
The memory system controller 150A does not know, however, how the data received has been allocated by the host among its various file objects. All the memory controller 150A typically knows from interacting with the host is that data written by the host to specific logical addresses are stored in corresponding physical addresses as maintained by the controller's logical-to-physical address table 163.
In a typical memory system, a few extra blocks of storage capacity are provided than are necessary to store the amount of data within the address space 161. One or more of these extra blocks may be provided as redundant blocks for substitution for other blocks that may become defective during the lifetime of the memory. The logical grouping of blocks contained within individual metablocks may usually be changed for various reasons, including the substitution of a redundant block for a defective block originally assigned to the metablock. One or more additional blocks, such as metablock 171, are typically maintained in an erased block pool.
When the host writes data to the memory system, the controller 150A converts the logical addresses assigned by the host to physical addresses within a metablock in the erased block pool. Other metablocks not being used to store data within the logical address space 161 are then erased and designated as erased pool blocks for use during a subsequent data write operation.
MBR area 205 stores overall partition information, and if the media is a bootable device, then MBR 205 includes instructions to jump from MBR area 205 to PBR area 206. MBR area 205 also includes hidden area, which is reserved space between MBR area 205 and PBR area 206.
PBR area 206 includes partition/boot information for a partition (in this example, Partition 1). For example, PBR area 206 includes information for the type of FAT (for example, 12/16/32 bits); a label (i.e. name of the drive), size of the drive; cluster size (i.e. the number of sectors per allocation unit); number of FAT areas (2 FAT areas FAT 1 and FAT 2 shown in
FAT areas (207 and 208) contain cluster information for each file. For example, for FAT 12, each entry in areas 207 and 208 contains 12 bits and there are a total of 4096 entries. Cluster 0 and 1 are reserved for 0XFFFFF8 (for media type) and End of Cluster. A particular cluster (for example, cluster 4087) is used to indicate bad clusters. For a FAT 16, each entry contains 16 bits and for FAT 32, each entry contains 32 bits.
Root directory 209 contains entries for each file. Each directory entry includes a certain number of bytes for file name or directory (for example, 8 bytes); a number of bytes for extension (for example, 3 bytes), a number of bytes (for example, 1 byte) for file attributes (for example, if a file is read only, hidden, system file, volume label, directory or modified); a number of bytes indicating the time and date when a file was created; a certain number of bytes (for example 2) for a starting cluster; and a certain number of bytes (for example 4) indicating the file length.
The number of bytes for the starting cluster points to the first cluster in FAT and the last cluster may be indicated by 0xFFF, 0xFFFF or 0Xffffff.
In order to write a file name in the directory, the host system finds free cluster space in FAT 1 area 207 and data is written in data area 202. Both FAT 1 and FAT 2 entries are then updated. The directory entry i.e., the date/time/starting cluster/file length is also updated.
In one aspect of the present invention, memory controller 150A reallocates partition space when one partition becomes full or reaches a certain threshold value and the other partition has empty space. Thus one partition increases in size, while the other decreases. The threshold value can be programmed by memory controller 150A. A mapping scheme (referred to herein as a “virtual map”) is used to track cluster usage in both the partitions, as described below. This entire process is performed efficiently by memory controller 150A. The host system does not have to copy all the data and reformat the storage device.
In step S302, controller 150A determines if a partition is full. A partition is considered full when it can no longer store any more data or it has reached a certain threshold programmable value. If a partition is not full, then controller 150A waits until a partition is full.
If a partition is full (for example, Partition 1 in
If empty space is available, then in step S306, a certain amount of that empty space (for example, 202A) is allocated to the full partition. After the re-allocation, FAT entries for both the partitions are adjusted in step S308, as described below in detail. The directory entries are also adjusted in step S310, also described below in detail, and the process ends in step S312.
It is noteworthy that although the process flow above describes the memory partition re-allocation based on memory controller 150A detecting a “full partition”, the present invention is not limited to that situation alone. For example, a host may send a specific command (for example, “Re-partition Drive”) to controller 150A to re-partition the memory device, and the controller then performs the foregoing process steps to re-allocate memory space.
The example in
For Partition 1 system area 201 is assigned block numbers 0-5 and data area 202 are assigned block numbers 6-2047. When the file system writes to the first data cluster of Partition 1, it sends write operation to Logical Block Address 192 (where 192=6*32), i.e. block 6.
For Partition 2, system area 203 is assigned blocks 2048-2053 and data area 204 is assigned block numbers 2054-4095.
At the initial stage (
The system area entries (shown in column 410) for Partition 1 in row 400 and 401 are the same. Column 411 shows that Partition 1 is full, i.e. all block 6-2047 are used. Partition 2 has some empty blocks (shown as 3001-4000 in
Regarding Partition 2, the host sees the system area for partition area to be contiguous, i.e., from 2548-2553 (shown in row 400 and column 412), when in reality, the system area is from 2048-2053 (see row 401 and column 412).
The data blocks for the space used in Partition 2 are shown in column 413. Here again, the virtual block numbers are 2554-3500, while the real block numbers are from 2054-3000 (shown in row 401 and column 413). The entries for rows 400 and 401 and columns 415 and 416 are the same.
As shown by the foregoing example, the host does not copy data for re-allocating the partition space. By using and updating the mapping table 400A, unused space is re-allocated to the full memory partition.
Based on the foregoing example (
In one implementation, each partition of flash device 150 publishes itself to the host to have certain capacity that is available for the partition. For example, if the flash device 150 is 4 GB, then each partition publishes itself to be 2 GB. Hence, it is desirable to have enough FAT area available for each partition so that it can accommodate the entire flash device space. This extra FAT table space allows the partition to grow. Hence, under memory controller 150A, FAT 1 area 207 and FAT 2 area 208 are big enough to contain FAT entries for the entire flash memory device capacity.
Besides the FAT entries/area, the file name entries in the directory area are also adjusted (step S310,
Referring to the example in
The starting cluster of each file name entry for new partition area 2 (=n) is adjusted by 500 if it is located beyond block 1000. Hence, if n>=1000, then n′ (the adjusted file name entry) is equal to n−500. This adjustment is performed for all entries including those in areas 204B and 204C. If a file name entry shows that it is a directory or a sub-directory, then the directory (or sub-directory) entries are also adjusted.
In one aspect of the present invention, partition areas are re-allocated/adjusted by the memory device controller without copying all the data in a tedious time consuming operation. The host system does not have to perform the time consuming process of copying/re-formatting the drives in order to re-allocate partition storage space.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, these embodiments are illustrative only and not limiting. For example, although the foregoing illustrations are based on flash memory devices, they are equally applicable to other type of memory devices, for example, a hard disk. Many other applications and embodiments of the present invention will be apparent in light of this disclosure and the following claims.
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|International Classification||G06F12/02, G06F12/10|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F3/0644, G06F3/0679, G06F3/0608|
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|Jul 29, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SANDISK CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
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Owner name: SANDISK TECHNOLOGIES INC., TEXAS
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