US 747585 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 747,585. PATENTED DEC. 22, 1903. J. M. BROWNING.
APPLICATION FILED APR 3. 1902.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
PATE ED DEC. 22, 1903.
J.' M. BROWNING. AUTOMATIC FIREARM.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 3, 1902.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
No. 747,585. PATENTED DEC. 22, 1903. J. M. BROWNING.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 3. 1902. I
N0 MODEL. 3 SHEETS-SHEET 3..
- ll i UNITED STATES Patented December 22, .l 9013.
SPEGIFiCATION formingpart of Letters Patent No. 747,585, dated December 22,1903. Application filed April 3. 1902; Serial No. 101,159; (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, JOHN M. BROWNING, a citizen of the United Statesmesiding in Ogden, county of Weber, in the State of Utah, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Firearms, of which the following is a specification, reference being bad to the accompanying drawings, forming a part hereof.
Thisinvention relates to automatic firearms of that description in which the several op-.
erations-such as the opening of the breech after firing a shot, the ejection of the empty cartridge-shell, the cocking of the hammer, the presentation and introduction of a new cartridge to the chamber of the barrel, and the closing of the breech-are automatically eifected through or by the energy of the recoil of the breech-bolt or that part which at the time of firing closes the breech of the-barre], and morejespecially relates to firearms of this description in which energy is-stored during the opening movement of the breech-bolt. in a spring, there action of which is utilized to actuate the return or closing the breech-bolt.
The main object of the invention is to produce a firearm of this class .which shall be simpie and inexpensive in construction, reliable, and safe under all conditions of use.
Another object of the invention is to pro- .duce a firearm of this class in which the barrel to insure accuracy in firing shall be rigidly -he'ld upon but located entirely above the'flame near the sighting-line of the arm and in which the attachment of the barrel to theframe shall support the barrel rigidly, but shall allow the barrel at will and readily to be detached-and removed and to be replaced and attached without requiring the use of any tooll therefor.
Another object of'the invention is to produce a firearm of this class in which to insure the absolute safety of the user the cover or breech-slide, the movable abutment for the reaction-spring, and the breech-bolt shall be movement of ward direction alone, carrying with it the barrel previously disengaged from the frame. Another object of the invention is to produce a firearm of thisclass in which not only shall the possibility of any part of the arm I being thrown rearward be absolutely guarded against; but in which also the blowing rearward from the arm of escaping powder-gases, due to defective cartridges or their primers, shall be positively prevented.
Another object of the invention is to produce a firearm of this class in which for safety in handling and carrying the firing mechanism, with the exception of the trigger shall be entirely inclosed'and concealed in the arm "position, this lockingdevice shall thereby be automatically moved from its operative to its inoperative position and shall there be positively held until the .recocking of the firing mechanism shall again move the locking device to its operative position. r
A further object of. the invention is toprovide the firearm in the said device for automatically locking the concealed firing mechanisin when'cocked with a'reliable indicator for showing at a glance whether the firing mechanism is in the cocked or in thereleased position.
Another object of the invention isto pro d uce a firearm of" this class which for safety in handling and carrying, even; when cartridge is in the chamber of the'bat'rel and the firingmechanism iscocked, shall be provided with a safety device for at'will and readily locking the combined breech-slideand breechbolt in its closed forward position, at the same time positively locking the cooked li ring mechanism, or for as readily'unlocking these parts, and thereby adapting the arm for in- For safety and convenience while stant use, examining and cleaning the arm and while charging it with cartridges said safety device shall, further, be adapted at will to lockthc combined breech-slide and breech-bolt in its rearward open position and at the same time to lock the cooked firing mechanism or to as readily unlock these parts.
A further object is to provide the firearm in the said safetydevice forsimultaneouslylocking the breech-slide and the cooked firing mechanism with a-reliable indicator perceptible to touch, as well as-to sight, for showing if the arm is ready for instant use or not.
Another object of the invention is to produce a firearm in which for simplicity of construction and for prevention of, accidental firing the means by which the device for antomatically locking the cocked firing mechanism is acuated shall also be the means by which the safety device for at will locking the breech-slide simultaneously with looking the cocked firing mechanism is held or retained in its operative position.- Besides thus actuating both these lock-ing devices the same means, moreover, shall also be the means by which the firing mechanism when released is actuated to discharge a cartridge, so that whenever breakage or failure of the common means causes both the automatic locking device to become inoperative and the manual safety device to fail to remain in its operative position the firing mechanism shall simultaneously becomeincapable of exploding a cartridge.
These objects are attained by mechanism of simple and practical construction which is eflicient, perfectly safe in use, and not liable to get out of order.
The invention is shown herein as embodied in a gas-operated magazine-pistol; but it will be understood that the invention is applicable to other firearms. Thereforeitisnotintended to restrict the present invention to a magazine-pistol nor to any particular kind of firearm nor to the combination of the several features of improvementin a single structure.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein is illustrated an embodiment of the invention, Figure 1 is a left-hand side elevation of the pistol with the breech closed. Figs. 2 and 3 are respectively front and rear end views oi the same. Fig. 4 is a horizontal detail section on the plane indicated by the line 4 4 of Fig. 1. Fig. 5 is a longitudinal vertical sec- .tion of the pistol with the breech closed and the breech-slide on the plane indicated by the line 11 11 of Fig. 5, but with the breech-slide moved rearwardly, the barrel being shown in plan view. Fig. 12 is a detail rear-view of the lower part of the pistol-grip. Fig. 13 is a detail view of the combined trigger, sear, and magazine-catch spring. Fig. l4 is a detail view of the mainspring.
Si milar letters refer to similar parts throughout the several views.
The pistol represented in the drawings comprises three main parts-the frame a, the barrel b, and the breech-slide c.
The top surface of the frame a forms a straight seat for the reciprocating breechslide 0. In the upper portion of the frame is the receiver and beiow it the grip or handle a which is preferably made integral with the frame, but may be formed separately and attached thereto in any suitable manner.
The barrel 1) is securely engaged with the top of the frame to preventlongitudinal movement and without any longitudinal movement of the barrel during the act of locking by a series of transverse segmental ribs 1) at right angles to the axis of the barrel, projecting downwardly from the under side of the barrel near its rear end and fitting into a series of corresponding segmental grooves a in the open top of the frame in front of the receiver, the width of the series of ribs being substantiallyequal to the largest diameterof the barrel, two parallel surfaces extending from the sides of the barrel to the ends of the series of ribs. To look and to unlock the barrel to and from-the frame when the breechslide is in place, it is revolved on its longitu-' sidewise are respectively engaged with or disengaged from the grooves in the frame and clear the top surface of the frame. When the breech-slide is not in place, the barrel can be disengaged from the frame by lifting it.
slide is semicylindrical, and its straight bottom is fitted to slide rearward and forward upon the top of the frame. The sides of the breech-slide project downward, overlapping those'of the frame, and are provided wit h iongitudinai ribs 0, which interlocking with corresponding grooves a in the sides of the frame serve to secure the breech-slide upon the frame and to guide it in its reciprocation thereon. In rear of the barrel the breachsiide forms the breech-bolt c,forwardol which extends the tubular cover 0, which inciosoe the barrel and, like the barrehprojeots some distance forward of the frame. This projecting forward portion of the breech-slide carries the depending front abutment c, tubular in form and parallel to the axis of the barrel. In the forward portion of the frame is provided in longitudinal seat afor the reaction spring e, the axis of which, lies in the rearwardly-prolonged axis of the abutmentcfland the forward portion of the bore of the seat a. is enlarged and opened at the top, so that the depending abutment can enter and slide therein when the breech-slide moves rearwa rd. 'lhefrontopening of the abutment c is closed by a plug d, against which the forward end of the reaction-spring e bears, while the rear end of the spring 6 bears against the end of the seat a in the frame, the spring 8 thus exerting its tension in yieldingly supporting the breech-slide c in the forward position. As the depending abutment c is integral with and in its entire length strongly joined to the breech-slide and is projected intothe plane of the frame itself, the breechslide can be mounted upon and removed from the frame only from the front and is positively prevented from being thrown rearwardly from the frame, the shoulder formed by the enlarged bore of the seat a and the front end of the top of the framelitniting the rearward movement of the breech-slide by contact with the rear end of the abutment a This arrangement, besides forming an additional means ofsecuring the breech-slide upon the frame and guiding it in its movements thereon, provides .in theframe an abutment of great strength capable of absorbing the shock should the breech-slide be thrown rearward with unhsual violence, suc h as might/be caused by the firing of cartridges containing excessive powder charges. In order to prevent the central part of the reaction-spring e from bending during its compression bylhe rearward movement of the breech-slide, a pis-' ton e is inserted into the rear end of the spring e, the head of the piston bearing against the end of the seat a and its body extending through the spring far enough to project into the abutmentc of the breech-slide, thus providing a guide for the unsupported portion of the spring in the enlargement of the seat a Afterthe breech-slide has been mounted from the front upon the frame it is secured thereon by the interlocking of the barrel with the top of the frame,the rear end of the barrel forming an abutment 0n the top of the frame against which the face of the breech-bolt 0 will be yieldinglysupported bythe tension of the reaction-spring e. The barrel may he introduced into the breech-slide after the latter has been mounted upon the frame, and it may also be removed from the breech-slide while upon the frame; but with the present improvements the barrel maybe first introduced and adjusted in the barrel-covert ofthe breechslide, andthen breech-slide and barrel together be mounted upon the frame and there secured by the interlocking of the barrel with the frame.
formed than the mounting of these parts each separately upon the frame.
Forward of the breech-bolts the interior of-the barrel-cover c is bored out large enough for the passage through it of the rear end of the barrel enlarged by the projection form ing the series of locking-ribs b if said projection stands vertically below the barrel,
This method ispreferable, as itis simpler and may be more quickly'pera its movement on the frame.
After inserting the barrel into the breechsiide and turning it on its axis until the projecting ribs 1) stand in the recess 0 the fron end of the breech-slide is closed by the bushing f, which"supports the muzzle of the barrel and fits into the enlarged front end 0 of the bore of the barrel-cover. of the bushing fis reduced in diameter and Tlie rear end" carries a segmental locking-rib f, and in rear of the enlargement c a corresponding recess is cut in the barrel-cover, into which the rib f is entered by a partial rotation of i the bushing f on its axis, thus securing the bushing f to the breech-slide, with which it; reciprocates, the bushing sliding on the cylindrical front end of the stationary barrel.
At the front the bushing f has a flange f which bears against the'front of the breechslide and projects downward, partly overlapping the abutment c and provided with a segmental recess f which corresponds with I the bore of the abutment c fortningthe seat.
of the reaction-spring ewhen the bushingis in its locked position. The plugd, closing said seat at the front, is secured therein by a pin 01, passing transversely through the abut ment and the plug, the hole in the plugd be-' ing slightly elongated, so as to .allow a limited longitudinal movement of the plug d in.
the abutment c and so that under the, pressure of the reaction-spring e the plugd pro-o jects slightly from the front of the abutment and by entering the recess f in the flange'of the bushing locks the bushing against rotation.
With the barrel b and the bushing)" ad.-
justed as described in the breech-slide and the reaction-spring e, with the-piston 6, iii-- sorted in the seat a of the frame the breechslide is mounted upon the frame, the front end of the spring e bcingguidedinto the seat Pressing the breech-- in the abutment c slide rearward upon the frame will-carry the locking-ribs b of the barrel-over the grooves a, in the top of the frame, when-a partial rotation of the barrel will securely interlock barrel and frame, and thereby secure'the' breech-slide upon the frame; 0n releasing 'the breech-slide it will,'under the pressure of the reaction-spring, move to the forwardpo-- sition and close the. breech. For dismounting the. breech-slide it is-pressed rearward until the locking-ribs b may be turned into the recess 0 after which the breech-slide, with the barrel, in ay be d raw'n from the frame.
It will be observed that through the de scribed construction the assembling and the yes separation of the barrel, breech-slide, and frame can be accomplished without the aid of any tool or implement whatever.
The location of the recess prevents the accidental unlocking of the barrel, because it is so arranged that during the operation of the pistol the breech-slide is always in motion at the place where the locking-ribs b correspond with the recess, and it is carried rapidly beyond that position, so as to give the barrel no chance to rotate, but to always keep it securely interlocked with the frame.
The front sight and the rear sight are arranged upon the ends of the breech-slide, and thus the axis of the barrel, which rests on top of the frame and is merely covered by the shell of the breech-slide, is adjacent to the line connecting the sights by which the pistol is aimed.
The breech-bolt carries the firing-pin and the cartridge-shell extractor, and in front of the breech-bolt an opening is provided in the top of the breech-slide for the ejection of the cartridge-shells by the action of a shoulder in the receiver. by a detachable magazine seated in-the grip and provided with a springactuated follower by which the cartridges are succes- -sively raised to the receiver, where the forward motion of the breech-bolt carries the V topmost cartridge from the magazine to the chamber of the barrel. These devices may be as usual in this class of arms and do not require further description.
In rear of the grip the hammer h and the sear g are pivotally mounted in the frame,
while in front of the gripythe trigger 'i is ar-- ranged, a rearward extension 0; on the. trig-,
ri Iy drawn from a pocket, and the solid imperforate rear end of the breech-slide or wall of the chamberor recess 0", having no opening in line with the axis of the firing-pin, iti-vely prevents powder-gases escaping rem the chamber of the barrel through the seat of the firing-pin from being blown into the face. ofthe person firing the arm. This is especially important in gas-operated arms in which the rearward pressure of the gases of explosion is directly utilized for opening the breech of the arm and in which an ex cessive powder charge, a defective cartridgecase, a punctured primer, or the failure of thevreaetion-spring may each result in the rearwagd escape of'a portion of the burning powdei' gases. Against these the solid rear end of the breech-slide forms a shield.
The cartridges are supplied In order to leave the rear end of the breechslide solid the seat in the breech-bolt for the firing-pin is bored out from the front, and later a bushing c is fastened in the face of the breech-bolt, which allows only the point of the reduced front end of the firing-pin to project through it. To permit the introduction and removal of the firing-pin to and from the breech-bolt without each time removing this bushing, the firing-pin is divided in two sectionsj andj, each of which is short enough to enter into the seat from the rear through the chamber 0 thus allowing the front bushing to remain perinantentlyfixed in thebreech-bolt. The forward section j forms the firing-pin point and hasa head for the retraction-spring k to abut against) said spring being introduced with the piece into the breech-bolt and there confined between "the firing-pin head and the fixed front bushing. The rear piece j is cylindricaland is removably locked in the breech-bolt by a transverse pin pass- 1 ing through the breech-bolt and through a recess in the top of the piece j.
The entire firing mechanism of the pistol, with the exception of the trigger, being covered and concealed and it being, therefore, impossible to at will lock the hammer by the sear and the usual safety-notch in the hammer, a safety or grip lever n is provided in the rear side of the grip, which serves to au-. tomatically lock the firing mechanism if cocked and only to release it when the grip is grasped, as in firing the arm. The position of the lever n also indicates if the concealed hammer h is cocked or is in thereleased position. The lever n extends upward from its" pivot n, on which it has a limited swinging 'movement, and the mainspring-Z is seated upon a shoulder on the lever n above its pivot so as to yieldingly hold the lever in its rear-most position, in which the upper portion of the lever extends considerably from the rearof the grip, When the lever n is pressed forward, it'swiugs on its pivot until it is entirely in the grip andthe rear of the lever corresponds with the outline of the grip. 1 At its top the lever n has a forwardly-projecting hook or hooked projection n,,'whi'ch when the lever 11 is in its normal'rear position stands above a similar hook or hooked projection g, projecting rearward from the sear g, so thatithen the sear cannot bemoved on its pivot, and thereby the trigger is locked in its forward-position. When pressed into the grip, the lever n carries the hook n forward of the hook g on the scar to a position where a recess in the searetands below the hook it and a similar recess in the lever stands above the hook g, thus leaving the sear free to be moved by the trigger. The upper rear corner ofthe sear is fitted to enter the J cock-notch-of the hammer h, so as to support the hammer when cocked, the sear-spring m pressing the lower end of the sear forward and .through the extension 11' also'helding the trigger in its forward position. If new the trigger i is pulled while the levernis pressed into the grip, the trigger extension t" will move the sear g on its pivot and cause it to release the hammer and will simultaneously cause the hook g of the,sear to enter the recess in the lever-n, and thus toiuterlock with the book 71'' of the lever, thereby locking the lever n, so that it cannot be moved rearwardly out of the grip. As soon as the sear has released the hammer the mainspring Z causes the hammer to fall, thus carrying the hub of 'the hammer to the rear of the top of the sear, thereby positively locking the sear in its released position, in whichit continues to positively retain the gripdever n in the grip. On again cocking the hammer, as by. the rear movement of the breech-slide, the sear, actuated by the sear'spring, enters the notch in the hammer and simultaneously releases the hook n of .theilever 'n. Then the mainspring will move the lever n .rearward so as to project from the grip and also carry the hook at over the hook g of the sear, thereby again lockingthe scar and the trigger and preventing the release of the hammer. By this construction the cooked hammer cannot he released until the grip-lever is pressed into the grip, and the projection of the griplever from the grip is a positive indication that the hammer is cocked and locked, whereas if the grip-lever does not project from the grip it indicates that the hammer is in its released position and must be cocked before the pistol can be fired.
Pivoted to the left side of the frame convenient to be operated by the thumb of the hand grasping the grip is the manual safety,- lever o, the pivot 0'-of which is an integral partof. the lever and, passing through the center of the hammer h, at the saute time serves as the hammerpivot. This arrangement is not only simple and inexpensive, as it reduces the number of parts of the mechanism, but by it an important result is obtained, as hereinafter described.
The safety-lever 0 carries on its surface the checked thnmb-piece 0 at its top the hook-shaped projection 0 and on its inner side the projecting square stud 0 which extends through a small segmental opening in the wall of the frame to the side of the sear g, on which is provided a similar square stud or projection g near its upper rear corner, the remaining portion of the left side of the sear g above its pivot being cut away so as to allow the stud 0 on the safety-lever 0 to I freely move by the side of the sear into and out of the path of the stud g thereon.
In the left side of that portion of the breechslide which overlaps the frame two recesses" top of the sear, locks the sear in its released,
position, in which the stud g on the sear stands above the stud 0 on the safety-lever 0, and thus prevents the safety-lever from being moved until the hammer is again cocked. The safety-lever thus being held immovable is a positive indicator that the hammer is not cooked and that the pistol is not .ready for instant use, but that a rearward and forward movement of the breech-slide is required to cock the hammer. When,however,the closed breech-slide is locked by the safety-lever, it
indicates that the hammer is cooked and} locked and that by simply turning down the safety-lever the pistol is made ready for tiring as long as cartridges. are supplied by the magazine. The safety-lever 0 thus is an indicator of the condition of the pistol, not-only apparent at'a glance, but also perceptible in the dark, as the yielding of the lever or its immovable condition can at once be felt.
The cartridgemagazine 1.) is detachably held in the grip by the magazine-catch p, which is at p pivotally-monnted in the grip and is yieldingly held in operative position by the lower end of the combined sear and trigger-spring m. The spring m,'as shown in Fig. 13, is divided in two parts in its upper portion. The longer one, m, of these parts serves to actuate the sear, while the shorter one, m rests against the extension 11 of the trigger and holds it in its forward position. Below the division the spring 111; has a segmental lateral projection m, which fitsinto a corresponding segmental lateral recess a in the grip in rear of the magazine. In this manner the spring is held from moving ,uppr down in the grip, but the recess being considerably greater in depth than the thickness of the spring allows the spring some movement rearward and forward in the recess, whereby the spring is adapted to exert its elasticity through its entire length, and thus both ends of the spring may be utilized.
As shown in Fig. 7, the mainspring l is V- shaped, one litqb, l, bearing against the hammer, while the other shorter limb, 1 has a segmental projection Z which fits intoa corresponding segmental recess a. in the grip in rear of the sear and trigger-spring m, thus confining themainspring against moving up or down, but allowing it to exertits elasticity through its entire length. The projection on the mainspring and the corresponding recess in the grip being larger than the projection on the scar and trigger-spring and its recess, the short limb of the mainspring rests against a shoulder in the grip, thereby retaining the sear and trigger-spring in its recess, without, however, fully compressing it.
As heretofore described, the lower end of the mainspring rests against a shoulder on the grip-lever n above its pivot 01 and. presses the lever rearward its operative position,
. of the barrel.
in which the lever locks the sear, while the longer limb of the mainspring presses against the hammer, and by the hammer this pressure of the mainspring is transmitted to the hammenpivot o, and as this pivot is an integral part of the safety-lever o.the pressure of the mainspring serves to yieldingly support the safety-lever 0 in either of the positions to which it may be moved. By this construction the two safety devices for locking the firing mechanism, the grip -lever, and the safety or locking lever both depend for their efliciency on the mainspring, and therefore should either or both of these safety devices fail on account of the breakage or failure of the spring the pistol is yet safe from accidental firing, because the failure of the spring also makes the hammer unable to strike the blow necessary for exploding a cartridge.
From the foregoing description the operation of the improved firearm will be readily understood. A filled cartridge magazine is inserted in the grip and the breech-slide is once drawn rearward by hand. This opens the chamber of the barrel, extracts the empty cartridge-shell, and ejects the same, cooks the hammer, presents a cartridge in front of the breech-bolt, and compresses the reactionspring. When the breech-bolt is released, the reaction-spring returns it to the forward position and transfers the topmost cartridge from the magazine to the chamber of the barrel. On now pulling the trigger a shot is fired, and the rearward pressure of the powder-gases in the barrel is utilized to actuate the rearward movement of the breech-slide and to store energy in the reaction-spring to effect the forward movement of the same. These operations may be repeated so long as cartridges are supplied.
It will be understood that the breech-boltis not positively locked to the barrel in its closed position, but is yieldingly held in the closed position by the reaction-spring. By the improved construction the barrel and the frame are of such lightness that the breechbolt, barrel cover, and abutment, together constituting the breech-slide, may be of great strength and weight, and as the inertia of this part has to be overcome in opening the breech, in addition to the pressure of the reaction-spring, the weight is a reliable safeg uard which retards the opening of the breech until the bullet has passed from the muzzle The momentum of the heavy breech-slide completes the rearward movement after the pressure of the gases in the barrel has been relieved.
It will be understood that the several features of improvement herein described are not necessarily combined in the same struct-u re with one another nor with the other features of the firearm, which for purposes of explanation are shown and described herein, nor are theynecessarily employed in a firearm of the particular character of that shown. Obviously, also, various changes in form and arrangement of parts may be made within the scope of the invention.
I claim as my invention- 1'. In a firearm, the combination of a frame,
a barrel supported on top of the frame and engaged with the frame by transverse, segmental ribs and grooves to prevent longitudinal movement, a reaction-spring supported in the frame below the barrel, and a breechslide reciprocating on the frame and covering and fitting closely on the barrel to'hold it in engagement? with the frame, whereby the barrel is adapted to be disengaged from the frame by relativetransverse movement of the ribs and grooves when the barrel is uncovered and by relative rotary movement when .the barrel is covered.
2. In a firearm, the combination ofa frame, a barrel supported on top of the frame and engaged therewith by transverse, segmental ribs and grooves to prevent longitudinal movement, and a cover movable on the frame and holding the barrel in engagement with the frame, whereby the barrel is adapted to be disengaged from the frame by relative transverse movementof the ribs and grooves when the barrel-is uncovered and by relative rotary movement when the barrel is covered.
3. In a firearm, the combination of a frame, a barrel having projecting ribs in engagement with grooves in the frame, and a cover movable on the frame and holding the barrel in engagement with the frame, said cover having a recess to receive the projecting ribs of the barrel when the latter is rotated to disengage the ribs from the grooves of the frame.
4. In a firearm, the combination of a frame, a barrel having projecting ribs in engagement with grooves in the frame, a cover holding the barrel in engagement with the frame, and a bushing in .the forward endof the cover to support the muzzle of the barrel and removable to permit the projecting ribs of the barrel to pass through the forward end of the cover.
5. In a firearm, the combination of aframe, a barrel having projecting ribs in'engagement with grooves in the frame, a cover movable on the frame and holding the barrel in engagement with the frame, said cover having a recess to receive the projecting ribs of the barrel when the latter is rotated, and a bushingremovably held in the forward end of the cover to support the muzzle of the barrel and to permit the passage of the projecting ribs. 6. In a firearm, the combination of aframe, a barrel supported on the frame and having an enlarged rear end, a cover holding the barrel on the frame, a bushing in the forward end of the cover and having-a projection to engage a transverse groove in the cover, said bushing having a notched flange, and a movable plug engaging said notched flange to hold the bushing from rotation.
7. In a firearm, the combination of aframe, a barrel supported on the frame and having an enlarged rear end, a cover holding the barrel on the frame, a bushing in the forward end of the cover and having a projection to engage a transverse groove in the cover, said bushing havinga notched flange, and a springpressed plug supported by the cover and engaging said notched flange.
8. In a firearm, the combination of a frame having a longitudinal, tubular seat below the barrel, a barrel, a breech-slide comprising in one integral piece a breech-bolt in rear of the barrel, a cover for the barrel and a tubular abutment in front ofqaud projected into the plane of the frame, wherebysaid slide is movable from the frame in a forward direction only and is positively held from removal rearwardly', and a reaction-spring.located in said tubular seat and said tubular abutment.
9. In a firearm, the combination of a frame,
a' barrel, a breeohslide comprising in'one in-' tegral piece a breech-bolt in rear of the bar-- rel, a cover for the-barrel and an abutment in front of the frame, and a reaction-spring seated partly within said frameand partly within said abutment.
10. In afirearm,the combination ofa frame, a rotatable barrel having on its under side segmental ribs at right angles to the axis of the barrel in engagement with grooves in the upper side of the open frame,- and a breechslide comprising a cover holding the barrel in engagement with the frame and a breechbolt in rear .of the barrel.
.11. In a fi rearm,the combination ofa frame,
a rotatable barrel having projecting segmental ribs in engagement with grooves in the frame, and a breech-slide comprising a cover for the barrel, having a recess to receive the projecting ribs of the barrel, and a breechbolt in rear of the barrel.
l2. Ina firearm,the combination ofa frame,
'rel being adapted to be engaged with the frame by partial rotation, a breech-slide comprising a cover forthe barrel to hold it in engagement with the frame, a breech-bolt in rear of the barrel, and an abutment in front of the frame, and a reaction-spring inter-.
posed between the abutment and the frame.
13. In a firearm,the eombinationofaframe, a barrel adapted to be engaged with theframe by rotation and having an enlarged rear end, a breech-slide comprising a cover for the barrel, a breech-bolt in rear of the barrehand an abutment in front of the frame, a removable. bushing in the forward end of the cover,
and a reaction-spring interposed between the abutment and the frame.
14. In afirearm,thecombinationofaframe, a barrel, interlocking ribs and grooves on the frame and barrel at right angles with the axis of the barrel, a breech-slide comprising in one integral piece a cover fitting overthe barrel, a breech-bolt in rear of the barrel, a solid imperforate wall in rear of the breechbolt with a recess for the hammer between the breech-bolt and said wall, and an abutment projected into the plane of the frame in front of the same, and a reaction-spring cooperating with said abutment.
15. In afireartmthe combination ofa frame, a barreha hammer mounted in a recess in the frame, and a breech-slide reciprocating on the top of the frame and comprising a cover for the barrel and a brecchbolt in rear of the barrel said breech-slide having in rear of the breech-bolt a recess to receive the hammer, whereby the hammer is always covered.
16. In afirearm,the combination of a frame, a barrel, a breech-slide reciprocating on top ofthe frame and having an integral abutment projected into the plane of the frame in front of the same, a reaction-spring cooperating with said abutment, abreechfbolt, and a solid imperforate wall in rear of the breech-bolt with a recess for the hammer between the breech-bolt and said wall, a firing-pin carried in the breech-bolt and having its forward end reducedin diameter, said breech-bolt having aseat to receive the firing-pin, and a bushing in the forward end of said seat surrounding the front portion of the tiringpin.
17. In a firearm,the combination ofaframc, a barrel, abreech-slide havinga breech-bolt and a solid, imperfqrate wall in rear ofthe breech-boltand separated therefrom by a recess shorter than the breech-bolt, said breechboltbeing bored to receive thefi ringpin, and a firing-pin longer than said recess and divided in two parts whereby the parts of the firing-pin can be removed successively from the breech-bolt-through said recess.
18. In a firearm, the combination of a hammer, a sear codperating with the hammer, a
grip-lever adapted to engage and lock the sear, and'a mainspring cooperating with the hammer and with the grip-lever.
19. In a firearm, the combination of a ham-' mer, a. grip-lever and a soar cooperating bothwith the hammer and with the grip-lever, said sear beingformed to engage the hammer and to be held from movement when the ham mer isdown, said sear also having a part which engages the grip-levertohold the same from movement when the hammer is down and a part which is engaged by the grip-lover |'nterengaging projections whereby the gripone position the ends of the projectionspppose each other to lock the sear and in another position the projections interlock to lock the grip-lever.
22. In a firearm,the combination ofa frame, a reciprocating breech -slide, and a safetylever pivoted on the frame said breech-slide having forward and rearward recesses for engagem cut with said safety-lever, whereby the breech-slide is held either in its forward or rearward position on the frame.
23. In a firearm,the combination of a frame, a reciprocating breech-slide, a safety-lever pivoted on the frame, said breech-slide having recesses for engagement with the safetylever, a hammer, and a mainspring cooperating withthe hammer, said safety-lever having a rigid pivotal shaft n pon which the hammer is loosely pivoted, whereby the pressure of the mainspring holds the safety-lever in position.
24. In a firearm,the combination Qfa frame, a reciprocating breech-slide, a safety-lever adapted to engage the breech-slide and a sear, said safety-lever and sear having cooperating projections whereby the movement of the safety-lever to engage the breech-slide locks the sear against movement.
25. In a firearm,the combination of a frame, a safety-lever pivoted on the frame, a sear, and a hammer, said-searand safety-lever having cooperating. projections, whereby when the hammer is down the projection .on the sear stands in the path of the projection on the safety-lever and prevents movement of the latter.
26. In a firearm,the combination of a frame, a reciprocating breech-slide, a safety-lever pivoted on the frame and adapted to engage the breech-slide, and a sear pivoted within the frame and having a projection,said safetylever having a projection extended through a slot in the frame to cooperate with the projection on the sear.
27. In a firearm,the combination of a frame, a sear, a magazine-catch and asear and maga-.
zine-catch spring having lateral projections engaging lateral recesses in the frame with. a depth greater than the thickness of the projections, whereby the spring is heldfrom moving up or down but with both ends free and with freedom to exert its elasticity through its entire length.
28. In a firearm,the combination ofaframe.
greater than the thickness of the projections, whereby the spring is held from moving up or down and the elasticity of the whole spring may be utilized. v
30. In a firearm, thecombination of a'frame having stepped,lateral recesses, a sear, a hammer, a sear-spring having lateral projections engaging the inner portionsof said stepped, lateral recesses, and a mainspring having lateral projections engaging the outer portions of said stepped, lateral recesses and retaining the sear-spring. 31. Inafirearm,thecombination ofaframe, a reciprocating breech-slide, a safety-lever adapted to engage the breech-slide and having a rigid pivotal shaft, a hammer loosely pivoted on the shaft of the safety-lever,a sear, a grip-lever cooperating with the sear, and a mainspring cooperatinglwith the gripleverandthe hammer and exciting pressure through the hammer on the shaft ofithe safetylever.
This specification signed and witnessed this 21st day of March, A. D. 1902.
- JOHN M. BROWNING. In presence of LOUISE ELDREDGE, HENRY WILLIAMS.