|Publication number||US7476210 B2|
|Application number||US 11/320,866|
|Publication date||Jan 13, 2009|
|Filing date||Dec 29, 2005|
|Priority date||Jan 4, 2001|
|Also published as||US20060106331|
|Publication number||11320866, 320866, US 7476210 B2, US 7476210B2, US-B2-7476210, US7476210 B2, US7476210B2|
|Inventors||Reynolds G. Gorsuch, Tommy Gene Cooper, Harold H. Handley, Jr., Harold W. Peters|
|Original Assignee||Transvivo Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (37), Non-Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (9), Classifications (14), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/408,657 filed Apr. 4, 2003 now abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/754,773, filed Jan. 4, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,659,973.
In U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,950,224 and 5,151,082, there are disclosed methods and apparatus for carrying out in-vivo plasmapheresis for separating plasma from other blood components within the body and blood vessels of a patient. In the apparatus pumping is used to create a trans-membrane pressure and motivate the flow of fluid from within the in-vivo system, whereby blood plasma is pumped from the patient to a treatment system such as a dialyzer or other apparatus in which toxic metabolic waste in the plasma is removed. After the plasma is treated for removal of waste products, excess fluids, toxins, and/or other deleterious plasma proteins, the treated plasma is returned and reintroduced to the patient's blood stream. Methods of toxin removal from blood using plasma, or portions of the plasma, as taught by the aforesaid patents are unique from and substantially superior to conventional hemodialysis as presently practiced for both acute and chronic kidney failure, primarily because removal of whole blood from the patient's vasculature is eliminated. The methods and apparatus described in the aforesaid patents are incorporated herein by reference.
In U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,802,820 and 6,802,971, there are disclosed specialized hollow fiber membranes which are superior in biocompatibility, performance and morphology for carrying out in-vivo plasmapheresis. In U.S. Pat. No. 6,899,692 there is disclosed a plasmapheresis filter device and catheter assembly incorporating the aforesaid specialized hollow fiber membranes. In U.S. Pat. No. 6,849,183 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/078,016, filed Mar. 11, 2005 (TRANSVI.011CP1) there are disclosed apparatus and methods for therapeutic apheresis and patient fluid management, respectively, using the aforesaid specialized hollow fiber membranes, filter device and catheter assembly. Such fibers, filter device, catheter assembly, apparatus and methods as disclosed in the aforesaid patents and application are incorporated herein by reference.
In the aforesaid systems, the hollow fiber membranes function as filters, where the primary purpose of said membranes is separation of specific blood or plasma components from whole blood. In such systems, the blood (permeate) flows on the outside of the fiber and the plasma (exudate) is diffused through the fiber membrane to the interior lumen of the hollow fiber. However, as use is continued, performance of the fibers as filters becomes degraded over time. For example, clogging or fouling of the filter occurs on the surface of the filter as the pore void spaces become more occluded with particulate matter from the permeate building up within the pore void such that the minute volume of the exudate is progressively degraded to the point of failure and cessation of exudate flow. Such clogging or fouling of the filter membranes, as well as clotting problems with filter systems such as disclosed in the aforesaid patents causes major operational and economic problems with current ex-vivo systems performing Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) for acute and chronic kidney failure. It is reported by Ramesh, Prasad, et al., in Clinical Nephrology, Vol. 53, p. 55-60 (January 2000), that over 50% of such filters fail in 10 hours and over 75% fail in 30 hours of usage. Because short-term filter replacement is both undesirable and unacceptable, clogging or fouling failure of filters used in in-vivo systems described in the aforesaid patents would be totally unacceptable for both medical and economic reasons.
According to the method described herein, in-vivo plasmapheresis is periodically interrupted and a backflush fluid is directed into the interior of the hollow fibers of an implanted filter device for a duration and at a flow rate sufficient to substantially clear the pores of the filter. After a sufficient duration, the backflush is terminated and the plasmapheresis extraction is resumed. The apparatus for carrying out the method includes a filter device comprising the fibers and a multiple lumen catheter secured to the implanted filter device having a first lumen for directing backflush fluid into the hollow fibers, a second fluid for directing plasma from the filter assembly, and a third lumen for returning treated plasma to the patient. The apparatus also includes one or more pumps for pumping the backflush fluid into the filter assembly. In one embodiment of the method the backflush fluid contains an anticoagulant or antithrombotic agent. In another embodiment the backflush fluid contains one or more patient treatment medications.
As illustrated in
In the embodiment illustrated in
A preferred filter device to be implanted comprises one or more elongated hollow tubes and a plurality of elongated microporous hollow fibers secured to the one or more tubes. In a preferred embodiment of a filter device illustrated in
A preferred fiber membrane used in the filter assembly is disclosed in aforesaid U.S. Pat. No. 6,802,820. The morphology of the fiber walls is asymmetrical between the inner fiber lumen and the outer fiber wall which is in direct contact with the blood flowing in the vasculature in which the device is implanted. The microporous fiber wall structure is a substantially continuous change in mass density as the pore size changes between the fiber walls and comprises a continuum of voids bounded by solid frames as shown in the aforesaid patent. Such a membrane may be described as a plurality of mass density zones between the inner and outer wall surfaces, each zone having a different mass density than the mass density of an adjacent zone. The membrane fiber wall may have two, three or four or more mass density zones with a lower mass density zone at the inner wall surface and a higher mass density zone at the outer wall surface. Each zone is characterized by a different average nominal pore size, with a lower mass density zone having a nominal average pore size of between about 1 um and about 60 um and a higher mass density zone having a nominal average pore diameter of between about 0.3 um and about 1 um. A preferred membrane has the capability of extracting up to 0.75 (ml/min)/(cm2Śmm Hg) at transmembrane pressures of between about 5 mm and about 50 mmHg. An implanted filter assembly is illustrated in
The backflush cycle is periodic and preferably provided at a high transmembrane pressure and low volume, i.e., a low multiple of the volume contained in the membrane lumens of the hollow fibers of the filter and the extraction header. The combination of high pressure and relatively short injection times for backflushing clears the pores and dislodges adhered proteins, thereby restoring pore integrity and density of the virtual filter area to maintain or improve performance level after each backflush cycle. Thus, the process of the invention not only prevents degradation due to clogging, but over time improves the yield of trans-membrane exudate flux in terms of (ml/min)/(cm2Śmm Hg) by progressively adjusting and thus optimizing the backflush parameters. Backflush pressures used are between about 100 and about 450 mm Hg which are substantially less than the transmembrane pressure which is deemed safe since the burst pressures of the membranes are greater than 760 mm Hg.
As previously noted, the pumps used in the apparatus are positive displacement roller pumps. Thus, the fluid flows for both exudate extraction via catheter lumen 24 and backflush fluid injection via catheter lumen 22 are functions of the diameter of the tubing used and the pump revolutions per second. The microprocessor/controller is calibrated to the parameters of the tubing diameter and pump revolutions, thereby equating fluid volume pumped to the time of operation. For example, the setting of the parameters for the control and regulation of the pumps may be empirically determined for equating the volume and time for exudate extraction and backflush injection functions of the apparatus. Such parameters found to be useful for plasmapheresis have been empirically determined for an exudate extraction period of between about 240 and about 600 sec, and a backflush duration of between about 5 and about 50 sec, thereby yielding a preferred backflush fluid flow of between 5 and 50 ml/min. For example, a preferred backflush duration is 5 sec with a flow rate of 30 ml/min. The settings for such parameters are determined by catheter design and by blood flow conditions around the filter and plasma extraction membrane. Again, it is desired and preferred to deliver a minimum amount of saline backflush fluid for cleansing the hollow fiber membrane pores. Moreover, the volume of the backflush injection bolus must be greater than the dead space volume of the catheter extraction header, the inner lumen of the hollow fibers, and the interstitial space in the membrane walls. In addition to the dead space volume, a certain amount of saline is needed to wash out the material that fouls the membrane. The volume of this washing fluid is dependent upon the surface area of the membrane and may be expressed as a bolus flux in ml/cm2. By way of example, a bolus flux used for either in-vivo or in-vitro pre-clinical studies, was between 0.03 ml/cm2 and 0.2 ml/cm2. Again, the injection bolus volume is determined from the dead space volume and the membrane surface areas set by the catheter design.
The time between backflush periods may be determined by how quickly the membrane becomes clogged. Unnecessarily short intervals between backflushes results in higher average backflush volumes, thereby reducing the amount of plasma removed. On the other hand, where backflush intervals are overly long, plasma flow rates decline due to filter fouling. For example, an empirically determined interval between backflushes of 300 sec has been found to be useful for existing catheter designs.
The flow rate for backflush fluid injections is determined by pressure limitations of the catheter, the effect of flow velocity for substantially cleansing or clearing the membrane, and the amount of backflush or bolus volume required. A rise in pressure is a result of resistance to flow due to clogged membranes and is a function of the backflush flow rate, membrane surface area, and level of membrane clogging. The flow rate is also limited by the amount of pressure that the inner lumen of the catheter and fibers can withstand without failure. As previously noted, the velocity or pressure of the backflush fluid must be sufficient to dislodge the clogging material in all of the membrane surface. The duration of the backflush bolus may also be lengthened or shortened to adjust the backflush flow volume. While the period between backflush intervals and the flow rate are closely related to membrane clearing requirements, the duration is not, thereby making it an obvious choice for adjustment of bolus volume. For example, a catheter with a dead volume of 2.0 ml and a surface area of 40 cm2 requires a bolus volume of 2.5 ml. A plasma extraction period of 300 sec and a backflush flow rate of 30 ml/min results in a backflush duration of about 5 sec.
The clogging or fouling of the filtration membrane is a function of the flow rate of exudate through the extraction filter assembly, the size of which, i.e., cm2 of membrane surface area, is dictated by the clinical application to be served. Generally, the more advanced disease state of organ failure to be served requires greater exudate flow rate and a greater membrane surface area, resulting in earlier degradation of extraction performance and requiring a more aggressive program for backflush cleansing of the membrane. Thus, for example, treatment of advanced acute renal failure (ARF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) requires substantially higher fluid extraction rates for optimum clinical results as compared to fluid management systems for treating congestive heart failure (CHF).
A comparison of a system using backflush components and methods with a system having no backflush is illustrated in the graph of
Useful backflush fluid may be a normal saline containing other desirable components. In one embodiment, the backflush fluid incorporates an anticoagulant or antithrombosis agent to provide systemic anticoagulation, or to provide localized anticoagulation protection to the fibers for reducing or inhibiting thrombosis or clotting at or near the fiber surface and within the fiber wall itself. Some very useful fiber polymers will not have anticoagulant component retaining sites, while other useful polymers may include antithrombosis activity, for example, polymers with heparin, citrate or NO donor receptors. Where such antithrombotic properties are not permanent, for example, where the anticoagulant component is not, permanently bound to the polymer, backflushing with heparin, citrate or NO donor containing fluid will replenish the membrane with anticoagulant for continued thromboresistance throughout the in-vivo plasmapheresis. Desired and useful concentrations of heparin, citrate or NO donors or other pharmaceutical anticoagulents (such as coumadin, warfarin, etc.) in the backflush fluid may be determined by those skilled in the art. For example, useful amounts of heparin in a backflush fluid such as a normal saline solution for sustaining the thromboresistance of fibers are of at least 1 IU and preferably 2 IU or more per kilogram of human patient body weight for backflushing at 5 minute intervals, the specific amount being sufficient for local anticoagulation but insufficient to provide systemic anticoagulation. For treating the fibers for continuing thromboresistance, heparin concentrations of between about 25 IU and 300 IU per ml and preferably between about 75 IU and about 150 IU per ml of backflush fluid may be used. The backflush fluid may also be used to induce systemic anticoagulation. For example, a single backflush 2.5 ml bolus containing between about 25 IU and about 150 IU heparin and preferably between about 50 IU and about 100 IU heparin per kilogram of human patient body weight should be sufficient to induce systemic anticoagulation. Moreover, systemic anticoagulation may be maintained using heparin backflush concentrations somewhere between the aforesaid fiber treatment and systemic inducement concentrations. However, other concentrations of heparin may be used or adjusted where desired or as determined or prescribed, depending on current anticoagulation therapy of the patient backflush intervals, duration, and other process and backflushing variables such as described herein. The heparin may be conventional unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight (fractionated) heparin (LMWH).
Where the use of heparin is contraindicated, other anticoagulants/antithrombotic agents may be used. A useful anticoagulant is a citrate, which may be provided in any suitable form including citric acid and citrate salts such as alkali or alkaline earth metal salts, e.g. trisodium citrate. Again, it may be desirable to use citrate concentrations sufficient for local anticoagulant but insufficient for systemic anticoagulation. Useful amounts of sodium citrate (trisodium citrate) in the backflush fluid in a normal saline solution are at least 0.1 mol/liter, preferably greater than about 0.2 mol/liter, e.g. about 0.3 mol/liter to about 1.0 mol/liter. For example, 0.5 mol/liter sodium citrate delivered at a rate of about 10 mmol/hour may be suitable to induce systemic anticoagulation. Other concentrations of sodium citrate may be used depending on backflush intervals, duration and other process variables. Protons or and/or metal cations may also be provided such as described in U.S. patent application publication (US 2005/0119598), incorporated herein by reference. Calcium chloride may be used in the sodium citrate backflush fluid to provide desirable ionized calcium concentration such as described in Kidney International, vol. 56, (1999), pp. 1578-1583. Other anticoagulants may be used in the backflush, for example, warfarin, acenocoumarol, phenindione, prostacyclin, 1,3-indanedines, bivalirudin and others known to these skilled in the art.
Nitric oxide or NO donors may also be used to provide anticoagulance and thromboresistance. A number of useful nitric oxide donors and their nitric oxide release reactions and applications are reported by Wang, et al. in Chemical Reviews, 2002, vol. 102, No. 4, pp. 1091-1134. Specific examples of such NO donors include organic nitrates, organic nitrites, N-nitrosimines, nitrosothiols(RSNOs), sydnonimines, C-nitroso compounds, furoxans and benzofuroxans, oxatriazale-5-imines, oximines, N-hydroxyguanidines, and diazeniumdiolates as well as others disclosed in the article and known to those skilled in the art. Desired and useful concentrations of such NO donors used in the backflush fluid will be determined by those skilled in the art. Other compositions that may be used in the backflush are those capable of generating nitric oxide production, for example, catalysts capable of reducing endogenous NO donors such as nitrites, nitrates or nitrosothiols. Exemplary catalysts include enzymes such as mammalian xanthine oxidase or biomimetic catalysts such as copper (II)-ligand complexes that convert nitrite, nitrate or nitrosothiols to NO. Such catalysts are described in U.S. patent application Publication Nos. 2002/0115559 and 2004/02248600, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Yet other anticoagulant/thromboresistant compositions for treating the fiber membranes are fibrin or thrombin reducing enzymes. For example, small amounts of one or more of such enzymes may be added to the backflush. Examples of such enzymes include proteolyic enzymes, aprotinin, and others known to those skilled in the art.
Patient medications may also be administered via the backflush fluid. Any number of such medications, for example, antihistamines, antidepressants, antihypertensives, antibiotics, statins, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, analgesics and the like may be incorporated in the backflush fluid and directed through the fiber walls into the patient's bloodstream during a backflush cycle, or as an adjunct procedure using the backflush fluid and procedure, with or without an anticoagulant or antithrombotic agent. Thus, such medications may be administered within the normal or prescribed backflush cycle or at other times, cycles and/or using fluid volumes, pressures and durations independent from those used in the typical backflush for clearing and cleansing the fiber pores.
Medical applications of systems using the aforesaid methods include fluid management such as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/078,016 filed Mar. 11, 2005 (TRANSVI.011CP1) for patients in decompensated congestive heart failure and prevention of pre-renal kidney failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, treatment of refractive congestive heart failure and acute renal failure, for therapeutic apheresis systems such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,849,183, for immune system disease and blood component therapy, edema, management systems for ascites, lymphedema, and selective systemic edema, post surgical and traumatic edema, tissue engineering applications including bioreactors and hybrid bio-organs, and dialysis systems for end stage renal disease. Other uses and applications will be appreciated by those skilled in the art.
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|U.S. Classification||604/6.04, 604/6.09, 604/4.01, 604/5.04, 604/6.01, 604/6.11|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M25/0082, A61M1/3661, A61M1/3672, A61M2025/0037, A61M25/0068, A61M2025/0031|
|Dec 29, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: TRANSVIVO, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GORSUCH, REYNOLDS G.;COOPER, TOMMY GENE;HANDLEY, HAROLD H., JR.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:017430/0195
Effective date: 20051214
|Jun 2, 2009||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Aug 27, 2012||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jan 13, 2013||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Mar 5, 2013||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20130113