|Publication number||US7481802 B2|
|Application number||US 10/321,483|
|Publication date||Jan 27, 2009|
|Filing date||Dec 18, 2002|
|Priority date||Dec 28, 2001|
|Also published as||US7797810, US20030125692, US20090083961|
|Publication number||10321483, 321483, US 7481802 B2, US 7481802B2, US-B2-7481802, US7481802 B2, US7481802B2|
|Original Assignee||Sca Hygiene Products Ab|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (43), Non-Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (1), Classifications (18), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/342,760, filed in the United States on Dec. 28, 2001, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.
1. Technical Field
The present invention relates to an absorbent article of pants-like shape, such as incontinence pants, pants diapers or sanitary towel pants, comprising an elastic waist portion, an absorbent element, which has a length and a width and is intended to at least cover the genitals of the wearer during use of the article. The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing such absorbent articles of pants-like shape.
2. Background Art
Absorbent disposable products for taking up urine, feces or menstrual blood have developed greatly since they came into more general use during the 1960s and 1970s. As they are disposable products, it is necessary that they can be manufactured and sold at a very low price. At the same time, it is important that the products function well and reliably. Good fit and comfort are also important characteristics. The first disposable diapers were made of two-part products, consisting of an outer pant made of plastic, intended to be re-used, and a rectangular absorbent insert for disposable use. The absorbent material in these inserts initially consisted of cellulose tissue. Later, better absorption materials made of what is known as fluff pulp made of cellulose were developed. The fit and comfort of these early diapers were poor. The products were unwieldy and uncomfortable for the wearer. Towards the end of the 1970s, the first complete disposable diapers arrived, that is to say diapers in which the absorption bodies were integrated with a liquid-impermeable outer layer. The absorption materials have developed and improved, which has resulted in the possibility of the absorption bodies being adapted better to the anatomy of the wearer. Hourglass-shaped absorption bodies with a narrower crotch portion between the two end portions are now predominant. The trend has also been towards increasingly thin products, which has been made possible by the inclusion of what are known as superabsorbent materials in the absorption body. There are many reasons why thinner and even smaller absorption bodies are desirable. A thinner, smaller absorption body is more comfortable and more discreet, which is especially important for adult incontinent wearers. A reduction in volume is also very important financially because the product then requires less storage space and is easier to transport and takes up less shelf space in shops. This is important for the financial management of the shops, and if a manufacturer can produce products requiring less space in the shops than the products of the competitors, this affords a not inconsiderable competitive advantage. Moreover, there is increased pressure from authorities, in particular as far as disposable articles are concerned, to use as little material as possible for the purpose of reducing the burden on the environment.
The smaller the absorption bodies become, the more important it becomes that the absorption bodies come to lie in the correct place directly in front of the genitals of the wearer and remain in place during use even when the wearer is very active and moves a great deal. The demands of consumers for discretion, comfort and reliable functioning are also increasingly exacting. Requirements for the absorption body to come to lie correctly when put on and then be retained in the correct place have therefore increased the need for good fixing of the article on the body and the need for very good adaptability to the body when the wearer moves, at the same time as requirements have increased for the article always to come to lie in the correct place when the article is put on the wearer. This has led to the development of what are known as pants diapers, which have elastic portions for improved fit and comfort and increased flexibility during movements of the wearer compared with conventional absorbent articles.
An early patent publication relating to pants diapers of the disposable type is GB 2 112 267-A. However, this publication from 1983 discloses primitive pants diapers which did not become a commercial product. Not until the 1990s did absorbent articles of pants-like shape and construction become a major commercial product. Pants-like articles now exist in the form of diapers for infants and diapers for adults and to some extent sanitary towel pants for absorption of menstrual fluid. Previously commercially available pants diapers have been designed in principle like conventional diapers with a front portion and a rear portion and also an intermediate crotch portion, the front and rear portions being interconnected by a side seam between each leg opening and the waist opening of the pants. The pants diapers have been produced by plane diaper-like pieces being produced in a continuous web, the individual pants diapers being formed by diaper-like blanks being folded double and provided with said side seams to form pants diapers. These side seams project laterally from the finished product and are undesirable because they project and interfere with the fit of garments worn over the top. On account of their shape, they are visible through garments worn on top of the pants diapers and fitting closely around the body. They can also snag in clothing and even cause tears in nylon tights. Such projecting side seams can also chafe and give rise to pressure sores on wearers who spend a lot of time lying on their side.
WO 00/61049 has proposed improved pants diapers, in which the projecting sides seams have been eliminated. In this construction, the side seams have been eliminated by virtue of elastic side portions extending continuously in one piece from the front portion of the pants diapers to their rear portion on both sides of the pants diapers. However, the pants diapers according to WO 00/61049 have a number of disadvantages. The pants diapers according to said publication have what is referred to as a chassis, which extends over the entire pants diapers and forms the front portion, the crotch portion and the rear portion and is most reminiscent of a conventional diaper, and also said elastic side panels which each overlap the chassis at both the front and the rear on the pants diapers. These overlapping portions do not serve any actual purpose on the finished product and are in fact undesirable because a lot of material is wasted, that is to say they are used for no other purpose than joining together. The overlapping, joined-together portions are less of a nuisance and less uncomfortable for the wearer than the projecting side seams on previously known pants diapers. Owing to their unfavorable positioning, particularly at the rear, the overlapping portions can still give rise to a risk of chafing and back sores on wearers who spend a lot of time lying on their back. Another disadvantage of the pants diapers according to WO 00/61049 is that said chassis is relatively large and, as this portion is relatively rigid at least in comparison with the elastic side portions of the pants diapers, the pants diapers as a whole are not as adaptable to the body of the wearer but there is a risk that the pants diapers will be displaced from their optimum position in relation to the body when a wearer lies in bed and moves. In particular the rigid rear portion of the pants diapers can be displaced and pull both the crotch portion and the front portion from their optimum positions directly in front of the genitals of the wearer because the front and rear portion are essentially rigidly joined together in one piece with the crotch portion.
This in combination with all the above-mentioned problems associated with absorbent articles of pants-like shape has resulted in a great need to find a pants-like article which functions well in all respects and which, in addition, it is possible to manufacture rationally.
According to one embodiment of the present invention, an absorbent article of pants shape comprises an elastic waist portion, an absorbent element, which has a length and a width and is adapted to at least cover the genitals of a wearer when the article is worn, and a liquid-impermeable outer layer which is adapted to enclose the absorbent element on at least a side thereof which faces away from the wearer when the article is worn, the elastic waist portion is made from an elastic first piece which is elongate in an extended state and is adapted to partly surround the trunk of the wearer when the article is worn and to form a rear portion and side portions of the absorbent article, a second piece forms a front portion and a crotch portion of the absorbent article, said second piece is elongate with two opposite end edges and two opposite longitudinal edges, the width of the second piece is, at least in the crotch portion, smaller than a length of the first piece, the second piece is arranged with its longitudinal direction at right angles in relation to a lateral direction of the first piece and is connected by a first end portion of the second piece to one lateral edge portion of the first piece centrally thereon, one end portion of the first piece is connected to a first longitudinal edge of the second piece, and another end portion of the first piece is connected in a corresponding manner to a second longitudinal edge of the second piece, the absorbent element is in its entirety arranged on the second piece, and elastic members are arranged along the longitudinal edges of the second piece along at least the crotch portion for forming leg elastics that are adapted to lie in sealing contact with legs of the wearer.
According to another embodiment, an absorbent article comprises an elastically stretchable first piece having first and second longitudinal edges and first and second ends, wherein the first and second ends are shorter than the first and second longitudinal edges; a second piece having first and second longitudinal edges and first and second ends, wherein the first and second ends are shorter than the first and second longitudinal edges; the second piece includes an absorbent element; the first end of the second piece is secured to a middle portion of the second longitudinal edge of the first piece so that the first piece extends substantially perpendicular to the second piece; the first end of the first piece is secured to the first longitudinal edge of the second piece and the second end of the first piece is secured to the second longitudinal edge of the second piece; and elastic members are arranged along at least a portion of the first longitudinal edge and along at least a portion of the second longitudinal edge of the second piece adjacent the absorbent element to contract said portions of the second piece.
By virtue of the fact that the entire rear portion of a preferred embodiment is elastic and, together with the elastic side portions, forms a single continuous elastic unity, the pants as a whole are more adaptable to body movements. Local irregularities are taken up and smoothed out by the continuous elastic piece and are not transferred to the more rigid parts of the front portion and crotch portion located directly in front of the genitals of the wearer. Compared with conventional diapers and previously known absorbent articles of pants-like shape, the embodiments of the present invention afford superior fit and comfort. Most of the pants-like garment is completely smooth. The seams required are arranged at the transition between the front portion and the first piece and at the transition between the first and the second piece in the crotch portion. These seams come to lie in places which are not subjected to any significant pressure during use of the article, and there is less risk of chafing and pressure sores caused by seams on the pants-like article. Due to the arranging of leg elastics, the article obtains a good fit and sealing around the legs of the wearer.
The embodiment is designed in only two part pieces, where the absorbent element is in its entirety located on the second part piece, which affords greater freedom of choice with regard to manufacturing method compared with previously known articles of pants-like shape.
According to one embodiment, the length of the second piece is greater than the width of the first piece, and a projecting portion of the second piece formed by the length difference is in its entirety located below that side edge of the first piece which is the lower one during use of the article, and there forms the crotch portion. According to a modified embodiment, the projecting portion has a smaller width than the remainder of the second piece.
According to another embodiment, the absorbent element extends in its longitudinal direction over the entire crotch portion and a little way up over the front portion in the direction of that side edge of the first piece which is the upper one during use of the article.
According to another embodiment, the absorbent element is arranged so as to extend with its lower end portion only a little way over the crotch portion and over less than half the extent of said projecting portion. According to another embodiment, the absorbent element tapers in the direction of the crotch portion.
According to an embodiment in which the absorbent element extends over the crotch portion, the absorbent element forms a concave shape with its side edge portions in the crotch area.
According to one embodiment, the connected side edge portions and end portions of said first and second pieces are, before connection, arranged in an overlapping manner, with the inside of an overlapping portion being arranged against the outside of an overlapped portion.
According to another embodiment, the second piece includes a liquid-permeable inner layer and said liquid-impermeable outer layer, and the absorbent element is arranged between said inner and outer layers, the inner and outer layers extending in the lateral direction and longitudinal direction outside the absorbent element and being interconnected there.
According to one embodiment, the liquid-impermeable layer only covers the absorbent element. According to one embodiment, the rest of the second piece is breathable and vapor-permeable.
According to a modified embodiment, the liquid-impermeable outer layer is breathable and vapor-permeable, and the rest of the article, over its entire area, is breathable and vapor-permeable.
According to a further embodiment, the first piece is rectangular, which simplifies the manufacturing.
According to one embodiment, the second piece has a concave portion between the first piece and up to said side edge portions of the second piece, wherein the concave portion forms cut-outs for the legs of the wearer. According to one embodiment, the elastic members extend at least along the edges of the concave portion.
According to another embodiment, the second piece is, at least along a part of its length, narrowing towards the first piece, wherein the narrowing portion forms cut-outs for the legs of the wearer. According to one embodiment, the elastic members are arranged along the edges of said narrowing portion for the forming of leg elastics.
According to one embodiment, the second piece is essentially inelastic. The term inelastic here denotes that the front section, under normally occurring stresses, does not stretch.
According to one embodiment, the elastic members extend from an area in the rear portion where the elastic first piece and the second piece overlap each other and further along the crotch portion along the edges of the second piece in a direction towards the front portion, whereby the elastic members are effectively connected with the elastic first piece. In such a design, the leg elastic is connected with the waist elastic in the first piece, which gives the pants-like article a good fit.
According to a further embodiment, the absorbent element comprises superabsorbent material and is continuously narrowing in a direction towards the rear portion of the article, and the concentration of superabsorbent material increases in the same direction.
A method of manufacturing an absorbent article according to one embodiment of the invention comprises providing an elastically stretchable first piece having first and second longitudinal edges and first and second ends, wherein the first and second ends are shorter than the first and second longitudinal edges; securing a first end of a second piece of material to a middle portion of the second longitudinal edge of the first piece so that the first piece extends substantially perpendicular to the second piece, wherein the second piece has first and second longitudinal edges that are substantially perpendicular to the first end and the first end is shorter than the first and second longitudinal edges, and wherein the second piece includes an absorbent element; securing the first end of the first piece to the first longitudinal edge of the second piece and securing the second end of the first piece to the second longitudinal edge of the second piece; and providing elastic members along at least a portion of the first longitudinal edge and along at least a portion of the second longitudinal edge of the second piece adjacent the absorbent element to contract said portions of the second piece.
According to one embodiment, the absorbent element is in its entirety arranged on the second piece forming part of the article before said piece is connected to said first piece.
According to another embodiment, a method relates to manufacturing an absorbent article of pants shape, the absorbent article comprising an elastic waist portion, an absorbent element, which has a length and a width and which covers genitals of a wearer when the article is worn, and a liquid-impermeable outer layer which encloses the absorbent element on at least a side thereof which faces away from the wearer of the article. The method comprises forming said elastic waist portion from an elastic first piece which is elongate in an extended state and partly surrounds the trunk of the wearer and forms a rear portion and side portions of the pants article when the article is worn, forming a front portion of the article and a crotch portion from a second piece, said second piece is elongate with two opposite end edges and two opposite longitudinal edges, a width of the second piece is, at least in the crotch portion, smaller than a length of the first piece, the second piece is arranged with its longitudinal direction at right angles in relation to the longitudinal direction of the first piece, connecting a first end portion of the second piece to one longitudinal edge portion of the first piece, centrally thereon, connecting one end portion of the first piece to a first longitudinal edge portion of the second piece, and connecting another end portion of the first piece in a corresponding manner to a second longitudinal edge portion of the second piece, and elastic members are arranged in the crotch portion on each side of the absorbent element.
The invention will be described in greater detail below with reference to illustrative embodiments shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
As can be seen from
The article includes a second piece 2 which, as can be seen from
The outer layer 3 may suitably be liquid-impermeable and breathable. The breathable and liquid-impermeable layer 3 may have a so-called MTVR-value in the order of magnitude of 200-10000 g/m2/24 h. The term MTVR stands for “Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate”, i.e., the amount of vapor which can pass per unit area during a certain period of time. Said breathable portion suitably has an MTVR-value in the order of magnitude of 500-5000 g/m2/24 h, and most preferably in the order of magnitude of 1000-3000 g/m2/24 h.
Measurement of breathability has been performed with the method ASTM E96 and the measurement equipment Lyssy has been used.
A problem with absorbent articles of pants-like shape is namely that conventional articles of this kind tightly enclose the area around the genitals of the wearer, whereby this area, when body fluids are excreted, becomes locally saturated with moisture and vapor, which has an adverse effect on the skin of the wearer. In some cases disturbing skin irritation can occur. Furthermore, also minor chafing of the article against the skin of the wearer, in combination with a moist environment and during lengthy usage of the article, can give rise to sores on older people with flesh that heals poorly.
It is not required that the elastic first piece is liquid-impermeable. The elastic first piece 1 should have good breathability
Breathable and vapor-permeable but liquid-impermeable materials for use in absorbent articles, such as diapers, incontinence products or sanitary towels, are previously known. Breathable materials can consist of perforated plastic films, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,628,737, or of micro-porous plastic films, as described in, for example, EP-A-0238200. Another example of breathable materials are so-called non-woven materials which are air-permeable and vapor-permeable and which, if required, have been treated with means to improve the liquid-impermeability, as is described in EP-A-0196654. In absorbent articles of pants-like shape, with a fit which tightly encloses around the wearer, the need for air-permeability and vapor-permeability is beneficial.
The liquid-impermeable and breathable layer 3 can, for example, consist of a perforated polyethylene film, where the size of the holes has been chosen so that air and vapor may pass, but not liquid drops. If an absorbent article with a more textile-like appearance is desired, a liquid-impermeable film in combination with an outer fiber layer is suitable.
The inner layer 4 can be made from a liquid-permeable non-woven.
The second piece 2 is elongate and is arranged with its longitudinal direction at right angles in relation to the longitudinal direction of the first piece 1. The second piece 2 is connected by one end portion 6 to one longitudinal edge portion 7 of the first piece 1, centrally thereon. The connection can be made by means of, for example, adhesive, thermal bonding or ultrasonic bonding. Elastic members 23, 24 are arranged along the edge portions of the second piece, which elastic members, in the shown embodiment, are made from elastic bands, extending from the first piece 1, over the crotch portion and over the entire extent of the absorbent element 5. During use of the article, the elastic members are intended to serve as leg elastics and to lie in sealing contact with the legs of the wearer along the crotch portion of the wearer, as is shown in
As can be seen most clearly from
In the embodiment shown in
Preferably, the elastic piece 101 and the elastic members have an elastic characteristic which allows an extension of up to the order of magnitude of twice the length with constant extension force. An absorbent article of a certain size can thereby be used on wearers of different sizes without the pressure from the elastic being varied, which in its turn leads to a very limited assortment of different sizes of the absorbent article being required in order to cover the need of sizes for wearers of different sizes.
In the embodiment shown in
In the embodiment shown in
The first piece 301 is formed of an elastic material and is intended during use of the article to achieve an elastic tightening around the waist of the wearer, which tightening keeps the article in place and gives it a good fit. In the embodiment shown in
The absorption unit shown in
When the expression liquid-impermeable and breathable has been used in the above text, it also implies that the material in question also is vapor-permeable, but that it does not allow passage of liquid drops.
The liquid-impermeable outer layer 3 can, within the scope of the invention, be made of an air-impermeable material.
In the above illustrative embodiments, as is evident from
The article according to the invention has turned out to be especially suitable as incontinence shields for men. Other applications, such as menstrual shields or incontinence shields for women, are also conceivable.
In the above described illustrative embodiments, the highest absorption capacity per unit area for the narrowest area has been achieved by means of varying the content of superabsorbent material. Another method of achieving higher absorption capacity in the narrowest area is to form the absorbent element with a higher basis weight in this area. This can, for example, be carried out on an absorbent element formed from a fluff pulp of cellulose. Thus, the absorption capacity for an absorbent element of a fluff pulp may also be controlled by varying the density and/or the thickness in different portions.
The absorbent element can, of course within the scope of the invention, be formed from other materials, for example absorbent foam materials.
The invention is not limited to the illustrative embodiments described above, but a number of modifications are possible within the scope of the patent claims below.
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|1||U.S. Appl. No 10/179,273.|
|2||U.S. Appl. No 10/321,487.|
|3||U.S. Appl. No 10/321,569.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8506544||Jun 21, 2010||Aug 13, 2013||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent pant with efficient design and convenient single-section side stretch panels|
|U.S. Classification||604/396, 604/394, 604/385.27, 604/389, 604/385.31, 604/385.29, 604/392, 604/385.22|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F13/4915, A61F13/496, A61F2013/49077, Y10T29/49826, A61F13/49017, Y10T29/49904|
|European Classification||A61F13/49D2E, A61F13/496, A61F13/491A|
|May 16, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SCA HYGIENE PRODUCTS AB, SWEDEN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HERMANSSON, KENT;REEL/FRAME:014075/0520
Effective date: 20021220
|Sep 10, 2012||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jan 27, 2013||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Mar 19, 2013||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20130127