|Publication number||US7486384 B2|
|Application number||US 10/813,687|
|Publication date||Feb 3, 2009|
|Filing date||Mar 31, 2004|
|Priority date||Mar 31, 2003|
|Also published as||CN1534386A, CN100492174C, US20040246459, US20080297758|
|Publication number||10813687, 813687, US 7486384 B2, US 7486384B2, US-B2-7486384, US7486384 B2, US7486384B2|
|Inventors||Patricius Aloysius Jacobus Tinnemans, Edwin Johan Buis, Sjoerd Nicolaas Lambertus Donders, Jan Van Elp, Jan Frederik Hoogkamp, Aschwin Lodewijk Hendricus Johannes Van Meer, Patrick Johannes Cornelus Hendrik Smulders, Franciscus Andreas Cornelis Johannes Spanjers, Johannes Petrus Martinus Bernardus Vermeulen, Raimond Visser, Henricus Gerardus Tegenbosch, Johannes Charles Adrianus Van Den Berg, Henricus Johannes Adrianus Van De Sande, Thijs Vervoort|
|Original Assignee||Asml Netherlands B.V.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (40), Non-Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (4), Classifications (25), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority from European Patent Application No. 03075929.4, filed Mar. 31, 2003, and European Patent Application No. 03077320.4, filed Jul. 23, 2003, both of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a lithographic apparatus and, in particular, to a lithographic support structure for supporting and moving an object.
2. Description of the Related Art
Lithographic apparatus can be used, for example, in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). In such a case, a patterning device may be used to generate a desired circuit pattern corresponding to an individual layer of the IC, and this pattern can be imaged onto a target portion (e.g. comprising one or more dies) on a substrate (silicon wafer) that has been coated with a layer of radiation-sensitive material (resist).
The term “patterning device” as here employed should be broadly interpreted as referring to means that can be used to endow an incoming radiation beam with a patterned cross-section, corresponding to a pattern that is to be created in a target portion of the substrate; the term “light valve” can also be used in this context. Generally, the said pattern will correspond to a particular functional layer in a device being created in the target portion, such as an integrated circuit or other device (see below). Examples of such patterning device include:
For purposes of simplicity, the rest of this text may, at certain locations, specifically direct itself to examples involving a mask and mask table; however, the general principles discussed in such instances should be seen in the broader context of the patterning device as set forth here above.
In a manufacturing process using a lithographic projection apparatus, a pattern (e.g. in a mask) is imaged onto a substrate that is at least partially covered by a layer of radiation-sensitive material (resist). Prior to this imaging step, the substrate may undergo various procedures, such as priming, resist coating and a soft bake. After exposure, the substrate may be subjected to other procedures, such as a post-exposure bake (PEB), development, a hard bake and measurement/inspection of the imaged features.
This array of procedures is used as a basis to pattern an individual layer of a device, e.g. an IC. Such a patterned layer may then undergo various processes such as etching, ion-implantation (doping), metallization, oxidation, chemical-mechanical polishing, etc., all intended to finish off an individual layer. If several layers are required, then the whole procedure, or a variant thereof, will have to be repeated for each new layer. Eventually, an array of devices will be present on the substrate (wafer). These devices are then separated from one another by a technique such as dicing or sawing, whence the individual devices can be mounted on a carrier, connected to pins, etc. Further information regarding such processes can be obtained, for example, from the book “Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Processing”, Third Edition, by Peter van Zant, McGraw Hill Publishing Co., 1997, ISBN 0-07-067250-4, incorporated herein by reference.
For the sake of simplicity, the projection system may hereinafter be referred to as the “lens”; however, this term should be broadly interpreted as encompassing various types of projection system, including refractive optics, reflective optics, and catadioptric systems, for example. The radiation system may also include components operating according to any of these design types for directing, shaping or controlling the projection beam of radiation, and such components may also be referred to below, collectively or singularly, as a “lens”.
Further, the lithographic apparatus may be of a type having two or more substrate tables (and/or two or more mask tables). In such “multiple stage” devices the additional tables may be used in parallel, or preparatory steps may be carried out on one or more tables while one or more other tables are being used for exposures. Dual stage lithographic apparatus are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,969,441 and WO 98/40791, both incorporated herein by reference.
In a lithographic apparatus, one or more actuators with grippers or clamping units, like robots, pre-aligners or substrate table pins will be used to hold and move objects from one location to another location. Those objects may be substrates, like wafers, but may also be other items.
For instance, substrates are typically introduced into a lithographic apparatus and finally placed on a substrate table. During this movement, the substrate may be handed over from a robot to a stationary position (or, optionally, to another robot). During hand-over, there may be a global tilt (for instance, 3 mrad) relative to a predetermined x-axis or y-axis, defined as Rx and Ry, respectively. This global tilt between these two items involved in a take-over should be minimized to ensure the proper working of a clamping device used by the robot to clamp, e.g., the substrate. Correct functioning of the clamping device is necessary to ensure positive handling, i.e., at every point in time, it should be clear where the substrate is in the lithographic apparatus. This implies that the substrate should be actively clamped at all times.
For these and other reasons, the principles of the present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, provide for a lithographic support system having improved compensation of tilt and/or displacement between an object and a supporting structure, such as a robot arm. In one embodiment, the lithographic support system comprises a supporting structure configured to hold and move an object, the supporting structure comprising a clamping structure, and a compliant part configured to compensate for at least one of a tilt and displacement between the object and the clamping structure.
By the above-referred supporting structure, very accurate take-over is possible while no rotation or displacement of, e.g., a substrate is necessary. Forces created by a collision between, e.g., a substrate and a receiving supporting structure are absorbed by the compliant part. There will be less risk of displacement and of losing substrates in the lithographic apparatus.
The invention also relates to a supporting structure where the supporting structure is a robot arm. Moreover, the invention relates to a robot for use in a lithographic projection apparatus, comprising such a robot arm.
Although specific reference may be made in this text to the use of the apparatus according to the invention in the manufacture of ICs, it should be explicitly understood that such an apparatus has many other possible applications. For example, it may be employed in the manufacture of integrated optical systems, guidance and detection patterns for magnetic domain memories, liquid-crystal display panels, thin-film magnetic heads, etc. The skilled artisan will appreciate that, in the context of such alternative applications, any use of the terms “reticle”, “wafer” or “die” in this text should be considered as being replaced by the more general terms “mask”, “substrate” and “target portion”, respectively.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings in which corresponding reference symbols indicate corresponding parts, and in which:
As here depicted, the apparatus is of a reflective type (i.e. has a reflective mask). However, in general, it may also be of a transmissive type, for example (with a transmissive mask). Alternatively, the apparatus may employ another kind of patterning device, such as a programmable mirror array of a type as referred to above.
The source LA (e.g. a mercury lamp or an excimer laser) produces a beam of radiation. This beam is fed into an illumination system (illuminator) IL, either directly or after having traversed conditioning mechanism, such as a beam expander Ex, for example. The illuminator IL may comprise adjusting mechanism AM for setting the outer and/or inner radial extent (commonly referred to as σ-outer and σ-inner, respectively) of the intensity distribution in the beam. In addition, it will generally comprise various other components, such as an integrator IN and a condenser CO. In this way, the beam PB impinging on the mask MA has a desired uniformity and intensity distribution in its cross-section.
It should be noted with regard to
The beam PB subsequently intercepts the mask MA, which is held on a mask table MT. Having traversed the mask MA, the beam PB passes through the lens PL, which focuses the beam PB onto a target portion C of the substrate W. With the aid of the second positioning means (and interferometric measuring means IF), the substrate table WT can be moved accurately, e.g. so as to position different target portions C in the path of the beam PB. Similarly, the first positioning means can be used to accurately position the mask MA with respect to the path of the beam PB, e.g. after mechanical retrieval of the mask MA from a mask library, or during a scan. In general, movement of the object tables MT, WT will be realized with the aid of a long-stroke module (course positioning) and a short-stroke module (fine positioning), which are not explicitly depicted in
The depicted apparatus can be used in a variety of different modes:
Combinations and/or variations on the above described modes of use or entirely different modes of use may also be employed.
The load lock LL comprises a wall that forms an inner space. The load lock LL is further provided with supporting means (not shown) for supporting one or more objects, such as a substrate (wafer) W, as will be known to a person skilled in the art.
As can be seen in
The gas inlet 3 can be used to vent the load lock in order to raise the pressure in the load lock from Pvac to Patm. Movement of a substrate W from the vacuum to the atmospheric environment via the load lock LL, usually comprises the following steps:
opening the first door 2 facing the vacuum conditions Pvac,
transferring the substrate W from the vacuum conditions Pvac into the load lock LL,
closing the first door 2,
venting the load lock LL to a pressure substantially equal to or more than atmospheric conditions Patm via the gas inlet 3,
opening the second door 4 facing the atmospheric conditions Patm, and
delivering the substrate W to the atmospheric conditions Patm.
These actions as listed above refer to atmospheric conditions outside the first door 2. However, as is known to persons skilled in the art there may be other pressure conditions outside the load lock. The example given above is by no means intended to restrict the use of the load lock LL. Hazardous particles and contaminating molecules, such as oxygen, hydrocarbons and/or H2O that may interfere with processes in the lithographic projection apparatus, are limited from entering the load lock LL by filling the load lock LL with a specially chosen gas that doesn't comprise these particles or molecules. Gasses, such as N2 gas, Ar gas or synthetic air, but of course also other suitable gasses, can be used, as will be understood by a person skilled in the art.
When the load lock LL is brought back from Pvac to Patm by supplying gas through gas inlet 3 to the load lock LL a special gas is typically used instead of normal environmental air.
It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that for supporting and moving a substrate W, and possibly other objects in, towards, and from the lithographic apparatus 1 (like in a track, the load lock, a pre-aligner and the projection chamber), use is made of a supporting structure driven by an actuator to move the substrate W in either one, two or three dimensions, such as a robot 8 with an arm provided with a suitable gripper or clamp. Another example of a supporting structure is a combination of pins to displace, lift or lower a substrate in a direction, which are, optionally, provided with a clamp to hold the substrate In the embodiments described below, reference will be made to substrates, but the invention is equally applicable to other objects.
As shown, the support frame 18 is provided with a clamping structure, indicated by three clamps 20, 22, and 24. The support frame 18 supports a substrate W. The substrate W can be held on the support frame 18 by means of the clamps 20, 22 and 24.
The support frame 18 defines a plane in which the substrate W lies when it is clamped by the clamps 20, 22, and 24. That plane is defined by an x-axis and an y-axis. The x-axis is in the longitudinal direction of the rod 12, whereas the y-axis is perpendicular to the x-axis. A z-axis is defined perpendicular to both the x-axis and the y-axis. The z-axis is not shown in
As shown in
As shown in
Preferably, the compliant portion 14 is designed such that it has rotation poles in a predetermined center coinciding with the center of the coordinate system, as defined by the x-, y- and z-axes. This point of origin is also the location where the center of the substrate W is to be located during gripping/clamping by the robot arm. Thus, any rotation errors in a positive and negative direction of the substrate W about the x- and/or y-axis (generally a tilt) can be adapted best.
By providing the robot arm 10 with at least one of the compliant parts 14, 26, a tilt and/or a displacement in z between the substrate W and another part in the lithographic apparatus can be compensated. This is, for instance, significant during substrate hand-over from a substrate handler robot to the substrate table WT and from a pre-aligner to a substrate handler robot. However, this also holds for other hand-overs in the apparatus. It is especially important for the hand-over to a device provided with clamps to hold, e.g., the substrate W. If the tilt and/or a displacement in z between the substrate W and the part to receive the substrate W is too large, the hand-over cannot take place because the clamps may not function. By providing the compliant parts 14 or 26, small tolerances are introduced enabling, in this case, the substrate W to adapt its tilt and/or a z-displacement to the other receiving part under a small force.
European Patent Application 03075929.4 of the present applicant, from which the priority is claimed and which is incorporated herein in its entirety, discloses that a compliant mechanism is also provided between the gripper and the armset (as described in EP 03075929.4), to decouple the movements of the gripper with respect to the armset. As a result of the mechanical link, the accuracy of the position of the gripper, and thus the substrate, with respect to the receiver is increased. Also, vibrations, and in particular the relative vibrations of the gripper and the receiver are reduced and the mutual accuracy of the substrate and the receiver can be increased. Of course, the mechanical docking solution can also be used for the reverse procedure, i.e. picking up objects, as for instance a substrate, from the receiver.
To compensate then for a tilt and/or displacement between the substrate and the clamp, the clamp 20 may be provided with a compliant portion 28 as shown in
Preferably, the weight of the substrate W is sufficient to align the clamp since the clamp should also work after losing clamp force due to, e.g., cut off of electrical power, after an emergency stop of the apparatus, etc. As may be evident to a person skilled in the art, the compliant portion 28 can also correct for any curvature of the support frame 18.
Of course, other compliant parts than the one shown in
A further embodiment of a flexible supporting structure to be used with, e.g., an electrostatic clamp for clamping, e.g., a wafer or a reticle, is shown in
The supporting structure shown comprises an outer ring 46, an interface ring 48 and a central part 50. The outer ring 46 will be fixed in a gripper (not shown) or a stage (not shown). On top of the central part 50, an electrostatic clamp (not shown) will be attached, e.g., by gluing. In the outer ring 46, the interface ring 48 is fixed with two leaf springs 52 a and 52 b releasing the y, Rx and Rz d.o.f.'s (=degrees of freedom). The central part 50 on its turn is fixed to the interface ring 48 by two leaf springs 54 a, 54 b and two rods 56 a, 56 b. The leaf springs 54 a, 54 b are oriented to block the Rx d.o.f. Thus, together with the rods 56 a, 56 b the arrangement is such that the interface ring with respect to the central part 50 releases only one rotation, i.e., Ry. Two remaining translations are fixed with the flexible supporting structure of
In a Johnson-Raybeck clamp a small electrical current is flowing through the dielectric layer (furthermore in this example a small current flows in between the wafer and the dielectric material), which leads to a relatively small heat load of the combined clamp substrate system. For most applications this is not a problem because of the absence of lithography requirements like overlay and critical dimensions. For a clamp to be used in a lithography tool this can be a problem.
A solution to that problem according to an embodiment of the invention is to provide the upper surface of the clamp 20 a high electrical resistance coating (for example a thin dielectric layer of several (1-20) microns) such as an oxidized layer 30 (for example SiO2), as shown in
For clamping the substrate W to the clamp 20, only the DC source is switched on and the AC source is switched off. To de-clamp the substrate W from the clamp 20, one can simply switch off the DC source. However, due to the trapped charges in the leaky insulator 32, it will take a while before the attracting force between the clamp 20 and the substrate W is small enough to remove the substrate W. This is due to the trapped charges in the leaky insulator 32 only leaking away from the leaky insulator 32 very slowly.
It is known to solve this problem by applying one or more reverse-polarity voltage steps, opposite of the clamping potential provided by the DC source.
However, an alternative solution is for the AC source to be is arranged to provide a decaying AC voltage from the time that de-clamping starts. This is further explained in
The substrate table WT is provided with a clamp 40, e.g., an electrostatic clamp or vacuum clamp. However, other types of clamps may be used as well, as is known to persons skilled in the art.
A processor 44 is provided that is connected to both the clamp 40 and the actuator 42, in order to provide them with suitable control signals.
The robot 8 with its robot arm 10 is shown again, together with its connection to the processor 44, such that the processor 44 can also control the operation of the robot 8.
Sometimes, substrate cycling is part of a substrate table cleaning procedure. After a chemical and/or mechanical cleaning part of this procedure, typically about 8 substrates are cycled successively onto the substrate table to remove remaining contaminants from the substrate support 36 and to reach a substrate rear side contamination specification again.
However, there are at least two problems related to this current cleaning procedure:
In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, the number of substrates needed for substrate cycling is drastically reduced to one single substrate. To that end, the processor 44 is arranged to control the clamp 40, the actuator 42 and the robot 8 in the following way:
In order to be sure that successive other locations of contacts with the substrate are arranged by which contamination will be removed from the substrate support 36, preferably, the actuator 42 is arranged to displace the substrate W from the substrate support 36 after de-clamping, to have the robot 8 rotate or shift the substrate W, to displace the substrate W to the substrate support 36 to clamp the substrate W by the clamp 40 again, etc. This may be repeated, e.g., 8 times.
By programming the processor 44 for this proposed method, the cleaning procedure may be much faster than in the past. Moreover, only one substrate is necessary for such a cleaning procedure. Thus, several portions of the rear surface of the substrate W are used to remove contamination on the substrate support 36; thus, saving the number of substrates necessary to perform the cleaning procedure.
While specific embodiments of the invention have been described above, it will be appreciated that the invention may be practiced otherwise than as described. For instance, it will be understood that the number of robots may be more than the single robot 8 shown in the figures. Moreover, there may be more load locks than the single load lock shown. Moreover, although a single processor 44 is shown (
Thus, the description is not intended to limit the invention and the configuration, operation, and behavior of the present invention has been described with the understanding that modifications and variations of the embodiments are possible, given the level of detail present herein. Accordingly, the preceding detailed description is not meant or intended to, in any way, limit the invention—rather the scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||355/72, 355/75|
|International Classification||G03B27/62, B08B1/00, H01L21/027, H01L21/304, B65G49/07, H01L21/683, H02N13/00, G03F7/20, H01L21/677, B25J13/08, G03B27/58|
|Cooperative Classification||G03F7/70925, G03F7/70741, G03F7/7075, B25J13/089, H01L21/6833, H02N13/00|
|European Classification||G03F7/70N6D, G03F7/70P8D, G03F7/70N6B, H01L21/683C2, B25J13/08V2, H02N13/00|
|Aug 13, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ASML NETHERLANDS B.V., NETHERLANDS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:TINNEMANS, PATRICIUS ALOYSIUS JACOBUS;BUIS, EDWIN JOHAN;DONDERS, SJOERD NICOLAAS LAMBERTUS;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015682/0567;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040629 TO 20040726
|Jul 23, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4