US 7492458 B2
This invention describes a method of use surface plasmon of nanoparticles to enhance CRT, LCD, OLED, Plasma and other display technologies. The plasmon-enhanced nanoparticles interacting with nearby luminophores, liquid crystals or other materials improve in display technologies brightness, contrast, and longevity of luminophores; make faster response time and better direction emission display. The plasmon-enhanced nanoparticles like quantum dots can be also used directly as a luminophores in quantum display technologies.
1. A method of using nanoparticles in a display technology comprising steps of: providing a nanoparticle capable to luminesce of characteristic spectral electromagnetic radiation when the nanoparticle is excited by a surface plasmon resonance source; and exciting the nanoparticle by the surface plasmon resonance source to luminesce characteristic spectral electromagnetic radiation.
2. A method of
3. The method of
4. The method of
5. The method of
6. The method of
7. The method of
8. The method of
9. The method of
10. A method of
11. A method of
12. A method of
13. A method of
This application is related to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/534,136 entitled “Plasmon Enhanced Display Technologies” filed Jan. 5, 2004, which are herein incorporated by reference.
There is NO claim for federal support in research or development of this product.
The invention relates to a method of the use nanotechnology advances in display technologies.
Current CRT and Plasma Display technologies mainly are based on luminophores, e.g. fluorophores and phosphors substances. The luminescence quantum yields of these substances are relatively high, however they photobleach and causing decreasing brightness, contrast and colors over usage time. Therefore exist great need to improve luminophores performance in display technologies.
Another problem with current Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technologies is slow response time, usually milliseconds and longer, at each displayed pixel. This cause that the LCD resolution suffer in fast moving displayed objects. Again, exist great need to make faster response in LCD technologies.
Up to this date there is not described a method of the use surface plasmon of nanoparticles to enhance display technologies.
The following are scientific reports found that may be associated within the herein disclosed invention.
This invention describes a method of use surface plasmon of nanoparticles to enhance CRT, LCD, Plasma and other display technologies. The plasmon-enhanced nanoparticles interacting with nearby luminophores, liquid crystals or other materials improve in display technologies brightness, contrast, and longevity of luminophores; make faster response time and better directional emission display. The plasmon-enhanced nanoparticles like quantum dots can be also used directly as a luminophores in display technologies.
1. Abbreviations and Definitions
Although the following detailed description contains many specifics for the purposes of illustration, anyone of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that many variations and alterations to the following details are within the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the following embodiments of the invention are set forth without any loss of generality to, and without imposing limitations upon, the claimed invention.
The present invention provides a novel methodology and applications that overcome limitations of conventional methods of using luminophores or liquid crystals in display technologies.
The invention relates to scientific findings of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced interaction between metal nanoparticles and nearby molecules, which were published in few scientific reports (M. Kerker, “Optics of colloid silver”, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 105, 298 (1985); Lakowicz et al, “Intrinsic fluorescence from DNA can be enhanced by metallic particles”, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 286, 875 (2001); Gryczynski et al., “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106, 2191 (2002)). In these reports, researchers used the fluorophores (mostly organic laser dyes) to visualize or test the SPR-enhanced interactions. Their studies show that the fluorescence intensity of the fluorophores located nearby metal nanoparticles can be enhanced by a factor as high as ˜104 with one-photon mode of excitation and ˜108 with two-photon mode of excitation, and Raman signal for fluorophores which are in contact with metal nanoparticle can be enhanced by ˜1014 (M. Moskovits: Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985); T. L. Haslett, L. Tay, M. Moskovits: J. Chem. Phys. 113, 1641 (2000), and references therein; K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld: Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997); Gryczynski et al., “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106, 2191 (2002)). The observed SPR-enhanced interaction of metal nanoparticles with fluorophores was also associated with intense decomposition of fluorophores when fluorophores where at a distance of 20 nm or less from metal nanoparticles (Ditlbacher H. et al., Appl. Phys. B 73, 373-377 (2001)). At the larger distances than 20 nm the fluorescence lifetime of fluorophores interacting with plasmon nanoparticles was decreasing and fluorophores longevity was significantly increased (Lakowicz et al, “Intrinsic fluorescence from DNA can be enhanced by metallic particles”, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 286, 875 (2001)). The present invention expands the above scientific findings to new methods and new applications of the SPR-enhanced interactions of nanoparticles embedded into a material with the nearby luminophores and with the material. These new applications relate to the method of the use SPR in display technologies. The luminescence quantum yield and longevity of plasmon-enhanced fluorophores can be significantly improved which is needed in CRT, plasma and other display technologies.
In the invention one of the embodiments uses quantum dots for enhancing display technologies. The quantum dots are made of semiconductor or metal and they are highly fluorescent fluorophores. The emitted color by quantum dot depends on size of a quantum dots cluster. Typically, the size of the quantum dot cluster is in a few nanometers range. There are many advantages of using quantum dots in display technologies, like minimizing photobleaching effect; improving brightness, contrast and spatial resolution; improving polarization and directivity of emitted light; decreasing time response; increasing number of colors use in display and significant saving energy consumption, but not limited to them.
Anyone of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate the use plasmon-enhanced nanoparticles to decrease a response time of each pixel in LCD technologies. In the LCD technology one of major problem is decreased image resolution by slow response time at each pixel. We propose to embed nanoparticles to liquid crystal and use plasmon absorption of these nanoparticle to increase temperature of liquid crystal. The increased temperature of liquid crystal will lead to faster response at each pixel of display. In addition, spectral and physical properties of nanoparticles can be use to improve a spatial resolution and colors of display.
Another embodiment in the present invention is the use SPR of nanoparticles to enhance absorption and emission of phosphors used in Plasma Display technologies. The cross-sections for absorption of phosphors are not as high as metal or semiconductor nanoparticles. Therefore, number of phosphor molecules emitting light after plasma discharge in a plasma display cell is smaller than in a proposed method of mediated absorption by the nanoparticle. In this embodiment, the nanoparticles are placed nearby phosphors in the cell, and plasma discharge light absorbed efficiently by nanoparticles is energy transfer to phosphors, which they next emit light. In that method, brightness of plasma display may increase few orders of magnitude and it is expected significant increase longevity of phosphors. The response time of phosphors will be decreased too. Another embodiment in the present invention is the use SPR for a time-resolved display. An interaction of SPR with luminophores cause not only increasing luminescence intensity of luminophores but also shortening their luminescence lifetimes. Luminescence lifetime of luminophore depends on a distance of luminophore from SPR-enhanced nanoparticle and this lifetime can be within a range of picoseconds to milliseconds. Therefore by controlling the distance the time-resolved display can be created. This invention can lead to display technologies in which multiple images in different time can be displayed on the same display unit, and the images can be retrieved by well-known time gating techniques.