|Publication number||US7508085 B2|
|Application number||US 11/710,053|
|Publication date||Mar 24, 2009|
|Filing date||Feb 24, 2007|
|Priority date||Feb 24, 2007|
|Also published as||US20080203850|
|Publication number||11710053, 710053, US 7508085 B2, US 7508085B2, US-B2-7508085, US7508085 B2, US7508085B2|
|Inventors||Phillip Reed Martineau|
|Original Assignee||Phillip Reed Martineau|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (8), Classifications (6), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of Invention
This invention relates generally to the conversion of tire deflection mechanical energy from tires to electrical energy.
2. Description of Prior Art
Generating electrical energy using electroactive polymer (EAP) generators is disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,049,732, 7,034,432, 6,940,211 and 6,812,624. Thermal energy to electrical energy conversion using EAP generators is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,628,040. Use of EAP transducers for conversion of deflection mechanical energy, in backpacks, to electrical energy is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,982,497. A means for converting biologically generated mechanical energy into electrical energy is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,768,246. In this application, EAP transducers are positioned in the heels of footwear so that deflections are imparted to the transducers. The deflections result from forces imparted the footwear heels from the heels striking the walking surface.
An additional application for EAP generators is for recovery of deflection mechanical energy from wheels used for transportation. A wheel transports a load by rolling over a surface. Typically, wheels used for transportation are comprised of a structural rim and an air inflated tire. The structural rim is affixed to a transport vehicle and provides the load path between the transport vehicle and air inflated tire. The air inflated tire contacts and conforms to the surface. The tire conforms to the surface by deflecting to match the contour of the surface.
EAP generators are uniquely suited for harvesting electrical energy from tire deflection mechanical energy. That is because EAP transducers can accommodate relatively large deflections with a large range in deflection frequencies. For example, EAP materials can sustain strains greater than 200%. This allows for mechanical energy recovery from relatively large deflections. Deflection frequencies can range from greater than zero to hundreds of Hz.
In many applications, a series of numerous EAP generators are assembled to produce usable quantities of electrical energy. EAP generators are relatively inexpensive, lightweight and are comprised of few moving parts. This makes their use cost effective.
There are examples of small strain materials that are been used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. These materials include piezoelectric ceramics such as lead zirconium titanate. The strain levels for these types of materials are limited to approximately 1.5%. Densities of these materials typically are above what is practical for use in mobile applications. A similar material to piezoelectric materials is EAP material “irradiated polyvinyidene” (PVDF). This material is suitable for use up to approximately 4% strain. However, this level of strain is also not suitable for the relatively large tire deflections.
Conventional electromagnetic generators are not suitable for tire deflection application because of their mechanical complexity and are relatively heavy. A typical electromechanical generator includes multiple coils of electrical wire with multiple moving parts. Typically the materials used to manufacture conventional electromechanical generators have high density relative to that of EAP generator materials. The materials and complexity of conventional electromechanical generators make them less cost effective than EAP generators. In addition, the weight of electromechanical generators makes them less suited than EAP generators for mobile electrical energy recovery.
When a loaded wheel contacts a road surface, the tire conforms to the road surface by deflecting. The unloaded portion of the tire remains circular. The loaded portion of the tire typically sustains radial deflections of approximately between 0.5 and 0.75 inches. In typical applications, wheels can transport loads that range from a few hundred pounds to a few thousand pounds. Energy is required to deflect the inflated tires. The magnitude of energy, for each tire, is the force on each tire multiplied by the radial deflection. EAP generators can be assembled in a load transporting wheel in a configuration to recover a portion of this mechanical deflection energy.
Automobiles are required to start, accelerate, operate at steady state, decelerate, and stop. The energy to accelerate and maintain the velocity of the automobile is provided through the chemical combustion in an internal combustion engine. Breaks are used to decelerate an automobile. Deceleration results in a loss of kinetic energy. Breaks dissipate this kinetic energy by friction. Friction converts the kinetic energy into heat energy.
An example of mechanical energy to electrical energy conversion is demonstrated by hybrid automobiles. Deceleration requires the automobile to dissipate kinetic energy. Hybrid automobiles employ technology that reconverts a portion of this dissipated kinetic energy. This is accomplished by converting the breaking force into torque. This torque is then used to generate electricity with conventional electromagnetic generators. The electricity is then stored and used at a later time. The stored electric energy is used to operate electric motors. These motors are used in conjunction with internal combustion engines for propulsion. This reduces the internal combustion engine fuel consumption and increases the overall operational efficiency of the automobile.
Use of hybrid automobiles can result in significant gains in fuel use efficiency for urban operation. A significant portion of automobile operation time, in an urban environment, is devoted to acceleration and deceleration. As a result, a significant portion of vehicle operational energy can be recovered from vehicle deceleration.
For conditions where a large portion of the operational time is steady state operation, the available energy for conversion from deceleration is minimal. As a result, the gains in operational efficiencies provided by hybrid automobiles are reduced significantly.
EAP generators could be used in hybrid automobiles for electrical power generation during acceleration and steady state operation. Electrical energy can then be recovered any time the automobile travels from one point to another. This provides a means for taking advantage of hybrid automobile operational efficiencies in all operational environments.
In addition, EAP generators could also be used in all-electric automobiles. The General Motors EV1 all-electric automobile is a demonstration of current all-electric technology. All-electric automobiles are powered by battery stored electrical energy. Battery storage capability technology limits the mileage range per charge of these types of automobiles. The advantage the EAP generators would provide is to increase the vehicle's range per charge.
EAP generators could also be used in stationary applications. For example, conveyor belts are used to transport loads from one location to another. Typically, conveyor belts are comprised of a flexible belt that is supported by a series of wheels. These wheels could be configured with EAP generators. The rotation of the support wheels could then recover the wheel deflection energy. This recovered energy could then be used to provide a portion of the power to operate the conveyor belt, thereby reducing overall power consumption of the conveyor belt.
Accordingly, several objects and advantages of my invention are:
(a) to provide a means for recovery of tire deflection mechanical energy for conversion to electrical energy.
(b) to use electroactive polymer generators in the conversion of tire deflection mechanical energy to electrical energy.
(c) to provide a cost,effective means for mechanical energy conversion to electrical energy using electroactive polymer generators.
(d) to provide low weight means for mechanical energy conversion to electrical energy using electroactive polymer generators.
(e) to provide a means for converting tire deflection mechanical energy to electrical energy during acceleration and steady state vehicle operation.
(f) to provide a means for converting tire deflection mechanical energy to electrical energy where the tires are affixed to a stationary structure and a load carrying surface moves over the tires.
(g) to provide a means for converting tire deflection mechanical energy to electrical energy in automobiles.
axis of rotation
rim outside diameter surface
loaded section height
loaded section width
loaded tread width
wheel side contact
axle side contact
charge exchange means
step up circuit
step down circuit
load resistance device
Orthogonal direction (1)
orthogonal direction (2)
Orthogonal direction (3)
energy conversion device
deflection mechanical energy
electrical energy output
electrical energy input
type-1 deflection transfer
rigid redial element
rigid transverse element
deflection transfer assembly
type-2 deflection transfer
fluid deflection transfer
fluid filled container
The following detailed description of the present invention is provided with respect to a few preferred embodiments. This description provides a thorough understanding of the present invention through discussion of specific details of these preferred embodiments. To those skilled in the current art, it will be apparent that the present invention can be practiced with variations to the preferred embodiments, with or with out some or all of these specific details. Well known processes, steps, and/or elements have not been described in order to focus on, and not obscure, those elements of the present invention.
Wheels can be used as a means for transporting or supporting loads. For example, four wheels are used as the means for transporting a vehicle, such as an automobile. The wheels carry the weight of the vehicle and cargo carried by the vehicle. The vehicle could also be a trailer that is pulled by an automobile. In addition, affixed to stationary structures, wheels can be used to support transported loads. For example, stationary wheels are used to support conveyor belts. Another example is stationary wheels that are used to support ski lift cables.
Wheels transport loads by rolling along a surface. The surface can be stationary or moving. The portion of the wheel that is in contact with a surface, transfers the load from the vehicle or support to the surface. These wheels comprise a rim structure and a hollow toroidal flexible member attached to the rim. Typically the flexible member is known as a tire. In typical applications air is the fluid used to fill and pressurize the volume within the flexible member and rim.
The portion of the flexible member in contact with the surface conforms to the shape of the surface. As the wheel rolls along the surface, or the surface rolls over the wheel, the portion of the wheel that initially is in contact with the surface rolls away from the surface and the adjacent portion of the flexible member contacts the surface and deforms. Mechanical energy is required to deform the flexible member.
In the present invention, electroactive polymers are used in an energy conversion device to convert the mechanical energy, from deflection of the flexible member, to electrical energy. These devices can be configured so that electrical energy is generated as the wheel rolls along the surface.
An EAP energy conversion device is comprised of a transducer, deflection transfer elements, and charge exchange means. Transducers are the active areas that provide the means for mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion. Transducers are bi-directional in that they can also convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. An energy conversion device of the present invention uses a transducer in a configuration that causes a change in electric field in response to a deflection of the transducer. The change in the electric field along with the change in transducer dimension changes the voltage of the electric field, and as a result, the electrical energy. Deflections from the tire are transferred to the transducer by deflection transfer elements.
Wheels transport loads or support loads.
Wheel Deflection Energy—
Descriptive wheel 20 and flexible member 100 geometry elements are defined in
A definition of mechanical energy is a force multiplied by a distance. For example a pound of mass lifted one foot off the ground requires a foot pound of energy. Energy can be expressed in many different units. For example: joule, watt, and horsepower are all units of energy. A given unit of energy can be expressed in a different unit by an appropriate conversion factor. For example, one foot-pound is approximately equivalent to 1.35 joules.
Transported load 10 deflects flexible member 100 to conform to surface 40. The deflected distance is the difference between section height 230 and loaded section height 240. Mechanical energy 551 is required to deflect the tire and can be calculated as the applied force multiplied by the deflected distance.
Mechanical energy 551 is also required to deflect undeformed sidewall 103 to deformed sidewall 109. The lateral deflection is the difference between section width 250 and loaded section width 260. The total mechanical energy 551 expended in producing sidewall deflection is the deflection force, from the pressure 80 on deformed sidewalls 103, multiplied by the lateral deflection. Energy conversion device 550 of the present invention is configured to convert a portion of flexible member 100 mechanical energy 551 to electrical energy.
Deflection Energy Conversion Device—
Energy conversion device 550 is comprised of one or more transducer assemblies 520 and one more charge exchange mean 350. The one or more transducer assemblies 520 comprise one or more deflection transfer elements 560 and one or more transducers 500. The one or more deflection transfer elements 560 transfers the deflection mechanical energy 551 from flexible member 100 to the one or more transducer 500. The one or more transducers 500 comprise assemblies of electroactive polymer materials. Charge exchange means 350 is configured to time charge and discharge of the single or multiple transducers 500 with the deflection of the loaded portion 110 and unloaded 120 portion of flexible member 100. It is possible to tune energy conversion devices 550 over ranges of frequencies and deflections that encompass those associated with the rotation of wheel 20.
Charge exchange means 350 transfers charge to and from the one or more transducers 500 based on the rotational position of wheel 20. Mechanical energy is transferred from flexible member 100 to transducer 500 through deflection transfer element 560 by stretching transducer 500. Electrical energy input 573 is transferred to transducer 500 through one or more charge elements 402. Flexible member 100 then causes transducer 500 to return to its unstretched state. Charge exchange means 350 then transfers electrical energy output 571 from transducer 500 through recovery element 403
Energy Recovery Cycle—
A representative energy recovery cycle is comprised of four segments. In Segment 1 an electroactive polymer film contains zero or low electric field pressure and mechanical force pulls the film to a stretched configuration. In Segment 2, the electric field pressure on the film is increased to a maximum value. Charge exchange means 350 is required to perform this function. In Segment 3 the film is relaxed, to where the restoring force of the stretched film equals the external force from the electrical field pressure. The electric field pressure remains near its maximum value. As the electroactive polymer film relaxes, the electrical energy on the film increases because the electroactive polymer film restoring force returns the film to its original thickness. The electrical energy increase is manifest in the form of a voltage increase. The increase in the charge's energy is harvested in the form of electric current flow. In Segment 4 the electroactive polymer film fully relaxes as the electric field pressure is reduced to zero and all of the electrical energy is recovered.
Electroactive Polymer Transducers—
Transducer 500 functions as a variable capacitor. A capacitor is defined as two conducting electrodes separated by a dielectric, electrically insulating medium. One of the electrodes corresponds to top electrode 504. The other electrode corresponds to bottom electrode 506. The dielectric, electrically insulating medium corresponds to polymer spacer 502. The capacitance C of a parallel plate capacitor can be described as C=εok A/T. Where εo is the electrical permittivity constant, k is the dielectric constant of nonconducting medium, A is the area of the capacitor and T is the thickness of the nonconducting medium. The capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the electrode surface area divided by the distance between the electrodes. Placement of a dielectric material between the electrodes increases the capacitance. Increasing the electrode surface area and reducing the distance between the electrodes increases the capacitance. Conversely, reducing the electrode surface area and increasing the distance between the electrodes reduces the capacitance.
The resulting electrostatic force is insufficient to balance the elastic restoring forces of the stretch stretched polymer. As the external force is released, transducer 500 contracts to a smaller planar area in directions 508 and 510 and becomes thicker in direction 511 as shown in
The increase in electric energy, U, can be illustrated by U=0.5Q2/C, where Q is the amount of positive charge on the electrodes and C is the capacitance. If Q is fixed and C decreases, the electrical energy U increases
The increase in electrical energy in the form of increased voltage can be recovered and stored or used. Thus, transducer 500 converts mechanical energy to electrical energy when it contracts. Some or all of the charge can be removed when transducer 500 is fully contracted. Alternately, some or all of the charge can be removed during contraction.
If the electric field pressure in the polymer increases and reaches balance with the mechanical elastic restoring force and external load during contraction, the contraction will stop before full contraction, and no further elastic mechanical energy will be converted to electrical energy. Removing some of the charge and stored electrical energy reduces the electrical filed pressure, thereby allowing contraction to continue. Thus removing some of the charge may further convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. The exact electrical behavior of transducer 500 when operating as a generator depends on any electrical and mechanical loading as well as the intrinsic properties of polymer spacer 502 and electrodes 504 and 506.
Many polymers are commercially available for use as transducer materials. The materials used in transducer applications can have linear strain capacities of at least one hundred percent. Further, some of these materials can have linear strain capacities between two hundred and four hundred percent. Linear strain is defined in this application as the deflected distance per unstretched length along the direction of applied load. The deflected distance is the difference between the stretched length and unstretched length. It is also desirable that these materials are reversible over the range of strain. In other words, it is preferred that they return to their unstretched length after the applied load is removed. Some of the materials that are currently available include: silicone elastomers, thermoplastic elastomers, acrylic elastomers, polyurethanes and fluoroelastomers. This list is not intended to cover all possible suitable transducer materials and is provided as examples to show possible materials. There are many other possible transducer materials. Various types of materials suitable for use in transducers with the present invention are described by Pelrine et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,768,246.
Various types of electrode materials suitable for use in the present invention are described by Pelrine et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 6,768,246. Materials suitable use in an electrode for the present invention include; graphite, carbon black, thin metals such as gold and silver, gel and polymers grease suspended metals, graphite, or carbon and conductive grease.
Type-1 deflection transfer element 640 is comprised of ligament 641 and two attach elements 620. An attach element 620 is affixed to each end of ligament 641. One end of a type-1 deflection transfer element 640 is attached to transducer 500 with attach element 620. The opposite end of type-1 deflection transfer element 640 is attached to the inside surface 108 of flexible member 100 or attached to outside surface 66 of rim 60 with attach element 620. Attach element 620 can be affixed to ligament 641, outside diameter surface 66, and inside surface 108 with mechanical fasteners such as screws, bolts, rivets or bonded with an adhesive. Ligament 641 can apply only tensile forces to transducer 500. This means that ligament 641 transfer deflections from flexible member 100 by stretching transducer 500. Ligament 641 can be essentially plainer as shown in
The above type-1 deflection transfer element 640 is one example of many possible configurations. This description is for illustrative purposes only and not meant to cover all possible type-1 deflection transfer element 640 configurations.
An alternate configuration for transducer assembly 520 is shown
Still another configuration for transducer assembly 520 is shown in
Multiple Transducer Assembly—
Top electrodes 504 can be on either inside surface 514 or outside surface 516 of multiple transducer assembly 512. Likewise, bottom electrode 506 can also be on either surface. In addition, any combination of top electrodes 504 and bottom electrodes 506 can be placed on outside surface 516 or inside surface 514.
Unloaded portion 120 of flexible member 100 is at section height 230. In the section height 230 configuration, flexible member 100 pulls the single or multiple type-1 deflection transfer elements 640. The single or multiple type-1 deflection transfer elements 640, in turn, pull multiple transducer assembly 512 away from rigid transverse element 654. This places the single or multiple transducers 500 in stretched configuration 625.
As shown in
As shown in
Fluid filled container 672 can be made of a plastic, a metal such as stainless steel or aluminum, or any other rigid material with sufficient compliance to allow for the required deflection.
In the present invention electrical energy input 573 and deflection mechanical energy 551 is applied to a transducer 500 in a manner that allows electrical energy output 571 to be greater than electrical energy input 573. The mechanical energy 551 to electrical energy conversion generally requires charge exchange to and from transducer 500 to coincide with stretched configuration 625 and relaxed configuration 615.
The position of a transducer 500, in stretched configuration 625 or unstretched configuration 615, depends on the location of the transducer assembly 520 in toroidal shaped hollow flexible member 100 of wheel 20. For example at time t1, in a particular arrangement, transducer assembly 520 is located in the unloaded portion 110 of flexible member 100 of wheel 20. The transducer 500, of transducer assembly 520, is in stretched configuration 625. At a later time t2, wheel 20 has rotated so that flexible member 100 loaded portion 110 becomes unloaded portion 120. This causes transducer 500 to return unstretched configuration 615. The above description of transducer assembly 520 arrangements in flexible member 100 is for illustrative purposes only and is intended to illuminate the relationship between transducer 500 stretching and flexible member 100 deflection. There are many other possible transducer 500 to flexible member 100 arrangements that are not covered by this description.
Charge circuit 354 is formed, at t1 when transducer 500 is in stretched configuration 625. Formation of charge circuit 354 is caused by rotation of wheel 20 to a position that causes transducer 500 to achieve stretched configuration 625 and by making electrical connection between transducer 500 and charge element 402. Formation of charge circuit 354 causes electrical energy input 573 to flow to transducer 500 through charge element 402.
Electrical energy input 573 is added to transducer 500 in stretched configuration 625 in the form of input voltage 401. After input electrical energy 573 is added to transducer 500, charge circuit 354 is broken. Charge circuit 354 is broken because the continued rotation of wheel 20 results in breaking of the transducer 500 to charge element 402 electrical connection. The electrical energy input 573 remains on stretched transducer 500 after the charge circuit 354 is broken.
Continued rotation of wheel 20 causes formation of recovery circuit 358 at a later time t2. The formation of recovery circuit 358 is caused by rotation of wheel 20 to a position that causes transducer 500 to return to unstretched configuration 615 and by making electrical connection between transducer 500 recovery element 403.
Formation of the recovery circuit 358 causes the electrical energy to flow from transducer 500 to recovery element 403 in the form electrical energy output 571. Return of transducer 500 to unstretched configuration 615 increases the electrical energy input 573 to a higher energy level. This higher energy level is the electrical energy output 571.
The circuits, of energy conversion device 550, are not limited to those describe above. Variations on or more complex forms of charge element 402 and recovery elements 403 than those described above can be developed. The variation on or complexity of these circuits depends on the configuration of energy conversion device 550.
To understand the operation of energy conversion device 550, the operational parameters at two times t1 and t2 can be compared. At t1, transducer 500 possesses capacitance C1, and input voltage 401 VB. The input voltage 401 VB can be provided by charge element 402. At a later time t2, capacitance C2 of transducer 500 is lower than capacitance C1. Generally speaking, the higher capacitance C1 occurs when the transducer 500 is in stretched configuration 625, and the lower capacitance C2 occurs when transducer 500 is unstretched configuration 615. The capacitance of a capacitor can be estimated by well known formulas relating the capacitance to the area, thickness, and dielectric constant.
Typically, energy conversion device 550 operates at a particular operational voltage, VO. The output voltage 406, V2 that appears on the transducer at time, t2 may be approximately related to charge Q1 on the transducer 500 at t1 as:
V 2 =Q 1 /C 2 =C 1 V B /C 2, where Q 1 =Q 2
If it is assumed that C1 is the maximum capacitance for the transducer 500, then V2 is about the maximum voltage that could be produced by energy conversion device 550. When charge flows from transducer 500 after t2, voltage is lower than when no charge has flowed. This is because the charge flow takes charge away from transducer 500. As a result, the charge on transducer 500 would be less than Q1. Thus, the voltage on transducer 500 would be reduced.
Charge removed from energy conversion device 550 may be calculated by assuming a constant operational voltage VO which is between VB and the maximum voltage of energy conversion device 550. The recovery device 550 of this invention is not limited to a constant VO and the example is provided for illustrative purposes only. When the operational voltage of the recovery device 550 is assumed to be constant at the average of maximum and VB is:
V O=½(V 2 +V B)=½(C 1 V B /C 2 +V B), where Q 1 =Q 2
The charge, QO is on the transducer 500 is C2VO=½VB(C1+C2). In this example, the charge, QOut that passes through recovery element 403 between t1 and t2 is the difference between the charge at t1, Q1 and the charge after t2, QO. This means that QOut may be computed as follows
Q Out =Q 1 −Q O =V B(C 1 −C 2)/2
When the transducer 500 operates at a substantially constant frequency, f, the current IL delivered to the device load resistance RL 418 by energy conversion device 550 is,
I L =fQ Out =fV B(C 1 −C 2)/2
and the power PL, delivered to the load device load resistance RL 418 is,
P L V O I L =fV O V B(C 1 −C 2)/2
In the example above, the constant frequency, f is discussed for illustrative purposes only. Transducers of the present invention may operate at a constant frequency or a frequency that varies with time. Thus, the current, IL may also vary with time.
Axle side contact 330 is comprised of brush base 332, multiple two or more pairs of brush assemblies 334 and multiple electrical conduits 310. The brush assembly 334 pairs are positioned on brush base 332 so that each brush assembly 334 pair is in contact with a pair of conducting elements 327 of the segmented cylinder 324. Electrical conduits 310 provides the electrical connection between the two or more brush 334 pair and charge element 402 and recovery element 403
Wheel 20 continues to rotate causing the wheel side contact 320 conducting element 327 pair to lose contact with axle side contact 330 brush assembly 334 pair. The electrical energy input 573 remains on transducer 500 after conducting element 327 pair to brush assembly 334 pair contact is broken. Continued wheel 20 rotation causes charge exchange means 350 to form recovery circuit 358.
Wheel 20 continues to rotate causing the wheel side contact 320 conducting element pair 327 to lose contact with axle side contact 330 brush assembly 334 pair. The transducer 500 returns to stretched position with little or no electrical charge. Wheel 20 continues to rotate so that charge means 350 charge circuit 354 is reformed.
Electrical conduits 310 are comprised of electrically conductive materials including conductive polymers, metals, and carbon fiber. These are limited examples of materials that can be used in conduits 310 and should not be construed as a complete listing of all materials that can be used of conduits 310.
The charge transfer means configurations described above are provided for illustrations purposes only. Many other charge transfer means configurations are possible and those described above are not meant to encompass all possible charge transfer means configurations.
Accordingly, the reader will see that the flexible member deflection mechanical energy recovery devices of this invention can be used generate electrical energy from deflection of flexible members of load transport wheels. Thus, this invention can be used as a means to recover a portion of the energy consumed in the operation of vehicles used to transport loads. The recovered energy can then be used to reduce the load transport operational costs and increase operational efficiency.
Furthermore, the flexible member deflection mechanical energy recovery device has additional advantages in that
Although the description above contains many specificities these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention but merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention. For example, single or multiple transducer assemblies can be affixed to an internal bladder that installed into the toroidal shaped cavity of the flexible member. It is also possible to contain single or multiple charge elements, recovery elements, and charge exchange means within the flexible member toroidal shaped cavity. The segmented cylinder of charge exchange means could be a segmented disk with each conducting element of the conducting element pairs affixed opposite faces of the segmented disk. Or the segmented cylinder could be a hollow segmented cylinder with the conducting element pairs positioned on the inside surface of the hollow cylinder.
Thus the scope of the invention should be determined by the append claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by the examples given.
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|U.S. Classification||290/1.00R, 290/1.00A|
|International Classification||H02P7/10, F02B63/04|
|Apr 12, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 4, 2016||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|